Test One: 9/13/18
Book Notes and Lecture Notes
On Chapter 1, 2, 3, and 4
Chapter One: Biology & the Tree of Life
● Vocab to know!
○ Cells- the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism
○ Replication- the process of producing two identical replicas
○ Evolution- the change in genetic composition of a population over successive generations
● Cell Theory
○ In short, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells
○ Like most theories, many scientists discovered small parts in order to prove the accuracy of the overall theory
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of marketing cost analysis?
■ Robert Hooke in 1665 used a cork under magnification and it allowed him to see pore-like compartments
■ Anton Van Leeuwenhoek developed more powerful microscopes shortly after Hooke’s discoveries and revealed that cells are highly organized
compartments separated from their environment with a membrane
■ Rudolph Virchow proposed, in 1858, that cells come from cells that
○ The cell theory challenged the old way of thinking, which was that organisms could arise spontaneously under certain conditions
● The Experiment to Answer the Question of Theory
○ Louis Pasteur wanted to determine whether organisms could arise spontaneously in a nutrient broth. He tested this by having two different flasks with the broth. One made it easy for external particles to enter the flask and the other trapped them in a long ‘swan-necked’ top to the flask.
Don't forget about the age old question of Archaeology is the study of what?
● Cell Division
○ New cells arise when preexisting ones split
■ Example: Cell division was confirmed when a woman gets pregnant. What starts off as a couple bundles of cells grows and blossoms into a human that is full of trillions of cells.
○ Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace discovered that all diverse species are connected by ancestry
○ Evolution is defined as the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth.
○ Darwin and Wallace had two important claims:
■ Species are related by common ancestry
■ The characteristics of species can be modified from generation to We also discuss several other topics like What are the resonance structures for some ions and molecules?
● This is where natural selection comes in!
○ Natural selection is defined as the process where organisms
better adapt to their environment to survive and produce
○ An example would be a bird with an odd shaped beak. If
the beak helped the bird eat and live then that beak would
be preferred and thrive better than a bird with a beak that
doesn’t allow them to eat well.
● The Tree of Life
If you want to learn more check out How human physiology works?
○ The Tree of Life is best explained in a diagram. Here you can see the three categories: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryotes. This brings us through the evolutionary history. This type of diagram is called a phylogenetic tree!
Chapter Two: Water & Carbon
● Composition of air is a considered to be a mixture
○ Matter has mass and occupies space We also discuss several other topics like What is”snipped” during vasectomy?
○ All matter is composed of atoms
○ Most of the atom is empty
● Stays the same
● No weight
● Vital Information!
○ Chemical Symbols are all individual and unique
○ Ions are atoms that are charged particles
○ Cation- number of protons are greater than number of electrons (net positive) ○ Anion- number of protons is less than the number of electrons (net negative) ○ Atomic weight is #prontons+#neutrons
○ Atomic number is #protons
○ Isotopes occur when the number of protons does not equal the number of neutrons (change in neutrons)
○ There are stable and unstable isotopesDon't forget about the age old question of What do you eat on a vegetarian diet?
■ Why do unstable isotopes happen?
● “Usually, what makes an isotope unstable is the large nucleus. If a
nucleus becomes larger enough from the number of neutrons it will
be unstable and will try to 'shed' its neutrons and/or protons in
order to achieve stability. This gives it the ability to be highly
● Energy levels
○ Energy levels work as limits to each ring of possible electrons
○ On the visual below you see the numbers on top, those represent how many electrons can go onto that particular level
Chapter Three: Protein Structure and Function
● Amino Acids and Their Polymerization
○ Amino Acids have a certain carbon bonded to an amino group, a hydrogen atom, a carboxyl group, and an R-group
○ The structure of the R-group affects the chemical reactivity and solubility of the amino acid
○ In proteins, amino acids are joined by a peptide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
● So what do proteins look like?
○ In many cases a complete protein consists of several different polypeptides, bonded together. The combination of polypeptides represents the protein’s quaternary structure.
○ Tertiary structure results from interactions between R-groups that stabilize a complete polypeptide into an overall 3D shape
○ Interactions that take place between C=O and N-H groups in the same peptide-bonded backbone create secondary structures, which are stabilized by hydrogen bonding
○ A protein’s primary structure is responsible for most of its chemical properties ● Folding and Function
○ A protein’s folding is a spontaneous process and the shape it folds into determines its function
○ Many proteins must first bind to other molecules or ions before they can adopt their own way of bending and folding
○ Folding improperly can be detrimental to life and certain improper folds can cause deadly infections and diseases
● Protein Functions are diverse just like their structures
○ In organisms, proteins function in catalysis, defense, movement, signaling, structural support, and transport of material.
■ Catalysis- the acceleration of a chemical reaction by a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change
■ Defense- proteins called antibodies attack and destroy viruses and bacteria that cause disease
■ Movement- motor proteins and contractile proteins are responsible for moving the cell itself or for moving large cargo moving through the cell
■ Signaling- proteins are involved in carrying and receiving signals from cell to cell inside the body
■ Structural Support- structure proteins make up body components like hair and fingernails, they also keep red blood cells flexible
■ Transport- proteins allow particular molecules to enter and exit cells or carry them throughout the body
○ Proteins can have diverse functions in cells because they have such diverse structures and chemical properties
○ Catalysis takes place at the enzyme’s active site, which has unique chemical properties and a distinctive size and shape that is specific to its substrates ■ Catalysis- the acceleration of a chemical reaction by a substance that
increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any
permanent chemical change
■ Substrates- the substance on which an enzyme acts
Chapter Four: Nucleic Acids
● First model of DNA structure was handmade and was seen through crystalized DNA
A. DNA Double Helix
B. Complementary Base Pairing
C. Ladder Structure
● The number of purines = the number of pyrimidines
○ Purines are a substituted derivative of this, especially the bases adenine and guanine present in DNA and RNA
○ Pyrimidines are a substituted derivative of this, especially the bases thymine and cytosine present in DNA
● Purines and Pyrimidines have to be equal because they are binding to each other ● Build
○ There are strands and a backbone, these are held together by hydrogen bonds ■ Strands run anti-parallel
● Anti-parallel means running in different directions
■ Backbone is parallel
○ There are two types:
● Genetic Material
● Information Storage
● Protein Synthesis
● Transfer of Genetic Material
● Monomer of Nucleic Acids
○ Nucleotide Monomers are linked together by phosphodiester bonds
■ Phosphate group is bonded to 5’ carbon of sugar
■ A nitrogenous base that is bonded to 1’ carbon of sugar
○ Each Nucleotide Monomer
■ Sugar = 5’ carbon sugar
■ Phosphate group
■ Nitrogenous base
● Purines: Adenine and Guanine
○ 6 member fused to 5 member rings
● Pyrimidines: Thymine, Cytosine, and Uracil
○ 6 member rings
● What are the differences between DNA and RNA?
● Single Stranded
● NO Helix
*Nucleic Acids have a sugar-phosphate backbone*
○ Only Purine-Pyrimidine pairs fit
■ Two purines ARE NOT parallel
■ Two pyrimidines ARE NOT parallel
○ Pairs are G-C and A-T
■ 3 bonds between G-C
■ 2 bonds between A-T
● Strand Separation
○ Break hydrogen bonds
○ Complementary base pairs are broken
○ ATP is the energy carrying molecule of all living organisms
○ Incredibly important and no cellular work could be done without this! ● RNA is special!
○ RNA is not restricted to a helix
○ It also contains “U” instead of “T”