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PENN STATE / Biobehavioral Health / BBH 146 / What are the four components of sexual intelligence?

What are the four components of sexual intelligence?

What are the four components of sexual intelligence?


BBH 146 Exam 1 Review Sheet

What are the four components of sexual intelligence?

Perspectives on Sexuality 

∙ Four components of sexual intelligence

o Understand self

o Interpersonal sexual skills and integrity (good communication)

o Have accurate scientific knowledge

o Remember cultural context

∙ How sexual intelligence helps us

o It helps us make responsible decisions about sexual behavior

o We do this by biopsychosocial orientation  

∙ What is the biopsychosocial approach to sex, and what are the 3 factors that contribute to  it

o 3 factors If you want to learn more check out What is the study of the absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion of drugs?

 Biological  

∙ Sexual maturity

∙ Sex hormones

How does sexual intelligence help us?

∙ Sexual orientation

 Psychological  

∙ Exposure to stimulating conditions Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of a culture shock?

∙ Sexual fantasies  

 Social-cultural

∙ Family/social values

∙ Religious/personal values

∙ These are always changing

o All 3 factors contribute to our sexual motivation Don't forget about the age old question of What is the classical school of criminology?

∙ What contributes to the sexual attitudes and behaviors in the US

o So many factors contribute to the diverse sexual attitudes and behaviors in the US  such as:

 Many ethnic/religious groups

 Wide range of values

 Media

∙ Sexuality and Islam

What is the biopsychosocial approach to sex?

o Belief that sex should be enjoyed by both sexes

o Women are sexual beings

o Much of what we consider oppression of women and sex-related punishments in  Islamic countries is not from Islam itself, but patriarchal conditions and extremist  sects

∙ Who produced the earliest known sex manuals

o China  

∙ Trends of sexuality in China throughout history

o Sexual activity was promoted for spiritual growth and harmony  

o Sexual connection

o Communist China- sexual conservatism Communist rule 1949

 Lack of basic info about sex

 Sex outside of marriage and frequent sex within marriage was discouraged  Almost no STDs  

o Current trends

 Slightly more open to homosexuality  

 Increasing premarital sex, abortion, and HIV infections If you want to learn more check out What are the seven properties of life?

∙ How procreation plays a role in forming gender roles

o Rigid gender roles

o Sex for procreation  

 Anything other than penis in vagina = sex

o Male and female roles

 Rigid gender roles conditioning can limit each person’s potential and can  harm their sexuality

∙ How religion plays a role in western sexuality

o Judaic and Christianity traditions

 Ancient Hebrews

∙ Gender roles highly specialized

∙ Procreation was essential  If you want to learn more check out What is the role of democracy as the foundation of america?

 Christianity  

∙ Spirituality through celibacy  

∙ Sex outside of marriage = sinful  

∙ Eve vs. Mary

o Contradictory images of women emerged Don't forget about the age old question of What is the latin word for east?

 Virgin Mary- compassionate, pure, unattainable

 Eve- evil temptress

∙ Sigmund Freud and his beliefs regarding female orgasm

o Said women could only get pleasure from vaginal orgasm

∙ Influence of the Victorian era

o Women’s role polarized between images of Madonna and Eve  

o Distance between husband and wife  

 Intensely passionate friendships sometimes developed between women  o Prostitution flourished

∙ Aspects of 20th century sexuality – different decades

o 20th century beginning

 19th amendment gave women the right to vote  

 Roaring 20’s

 Great Depression led to more restrained behavior

o After WWII

 Post-war went back to traditional gender roles  

∙ Men returned to workplace

∙ Women devoted themselves to homes, kids, and husbands

o 1950’s

 Kinsey report

 More about male pleasure

o 1960’s  

 Feminism, Playgirl, sex more open, free love

o 1960’s-1970’s

 Sex revolution confronted norms (contraception)

 Attitudes change toward homosexuality (gays and lesbians come out) o 1980’s

 See effects of free love (diseases)

 Madonna


 Say not to have sex now  

o 1990’s-now

 Open, but still closed

 Treating badly

 Trans, but laws

 We’re confused

 No sex education  

∙ How the media influences and uses sexuality

o Media

 TV/movies

 Ads  

 Magazines

o Internet

 Porn

 Social media

o Politics

 Impact of social media

 Increased freedoms and responsibilities  

 Controversies regarding policies, laws, ethics

∙ Grey’s Anatomy study

o Asked viewers about HIV transmission

o “If a woman who is HIV positive becomes pregnant and receives the proper  treatment, what is the change that she will give birth to a healthy baby- that is, a  baby who is NOT infected with HIV?”

o Percentage of viewers who gave a correct answer

 15% before episode

 61% one week after episode

 45% six weeks after episode

∙ Key broken sex taboos on TV and Movies

o Many shows have broken norms with various characters

∙ How the internet has changed sexuality

o Porn and social media affect sexuality  

Sex Research 

∙ The 3 goals of studying sexuality

o Understand sexual behavior

o Predict sexual behavior

o Control/influence sexual behavior

 Ethical considerations when controlling behavior

∙ The scientific method

o Method of procedure in science  

∙ ALL the Research methods used in sexuality research and their advantages and  disadvantages

o 1. Case study

 Each individual studied in depth

 Hard to generalize results  

 Often based on retrospective self-report

 Not suitable for many research questions

o 2. Survey

 Asking people questions  

 Small-large samples

 Gather data using face to face interviews and questionnaires

 Quick and cheap

o 3. Direct observation

 Observe and record responses of subjects

 Elimination of bias

o 4. Experimental method  

 Conducted in a controlled lab

∙ The research on penis size

o Penis size doesn’t affect pleasure

∙ Research on alcohol consumption/erections

o More alcohol, less erection

∙ Representative and Random Samples

o A certain sample vs a completely random sample

∙ Slut shaming and answering survey questions truthfully, what else influences how people  might answer questions

o Memory, may not want to disclose things

∙ Kinsey and his research

o Researched sexual behaviors in order to help people become more informed ∙ Sex Research Technologies

o Devices for measuring sexual arousal

 Penile strain gauge- flexible loop that looks like a rubber band with a wire  attached to measure changes in penis size

 Penile plethysmograph and metal-band gauge- measure male sexual arousal  Vaginal photoplethysmogrpah- designed to measure increased vaginal blood  volume when a women is sexually aroused

 Clitoral photoplethysmograph- assesses clitoral blood volume

 Vaginal myograph and rectal myograph- measure sexual response

Sex Research - Ethics 

∙ Tuskegee Study and why it was unethical

o Men were not treated respectfully

 Lied to, withheld info, no consent, never told they had syphilis

o Men were harmed

 Painful/dangerous tests

 No treatment  

o Researchers targeted a disadvantaged social group

 Illiterate, poor sharecroppers  

∙ San Quentin Medical Experiments and Dr. Leo Stanley – why are prison populations  vulnerable subjects?

o Put goat testicles in old men, then put young men’s in inmates

o They don’t really know what people are doing to them and they won’t question  much

∙ John/John case (David Reimer and Dr. Money)

o Twins were born and got circumcisions. Bruce gets severely burned and his penis  can’t function. The parents choose to take Bruce to get gender reassignment  surgery to become a girl named Brenda. They over exaggerate female gender  norms to make her girly. Brenda starts to feel abnormal, and they finally tell her.  Brenda becomes David, gets married, and lives without a functioning penis. Both  twins commit suicide after telling their story about how the doctor sexually abused  them.  

∙ Nuremberg Code and principles of the Belmont Report

o Voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential (all info needed) o 1. Respect for persons

 Informed consent

 Certain people have protections

o 2. Beneficence

 Protect against harm

o 3. Justice  

 Fair balance between who participate in research and who can benefit ∙ Purpose of Institutional Review Boards

o Committee ensures principles and ethics

Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology 

∙ External Genital Structures (Know what it is, where it is, what it does)

o Vulva

 All external genitalia

o Mons Veneris

 Triangular mound over pubic bone  

o Labia Majora

 Outer lips

o Labia Minora

 Inner lips

o Clitoris

 Only function is sexual pleasure

o Vestibule

 Inside the outer lips

o Urethra

 Where urine comes out of the body from the bladder

o Introitus

 Opening to vagina

o Hymen

 Tissue that partially covers the vaginal opening

o Perineum

 Between the vagina and anus

o Bartholin’s Glands

 Secrete a few drops of fluid during arousal  

∙ Internal Genital Structures (Know what it is, where it is, what it does) o Vagina

 Stretchable canal that opens at vulva

o Grafenberg spot

 Small erogenous zone in vagina that stimulates pleasure  

 Can lead to vaginal orgasm

o Cervix

 Small end of uterus at back of vagina

o Os

 Two parts of the cervix

o Uterus

 Pear shaped organ inside pelvis where fetus develops

o Endometrium

 Membrane lining uterus

o Fallopian Tubes

 2 tubes out from sides of uterus where egg and sperm travel

o Ovaries

 Female gonads

∙ Issues Involving Female Genitalia

o Genital Alteration/Piercing/Grooming

 Depends on what you and your partner want

o Kegel Exercises

 Good

o Douching

 Not good

∙ Menstruation

o Societal/cultural views on menstruation

 Very negative  

o Menarche

 Initial onset of periods

 11-15 years old

 Depends on hereditary, health, attitude

o PMS and PMDD

 PMS: Premenstrual syndrome- physical discomfort and irritability prior to  period

 PMDD: not being able to function normally

o Amenorrhea

 No menses

o Menopause

 Climacteric physiological changes during transition from period of fertility to  infertility

 Cessation of menstruation

o Perimenopause

 Time before menopause

∙ Gynecological Health Concerns

o Urinary Tract Infections

 Bacteria  

o Vaginal Infections

 Vaginitis

o Pap Smear

 Screens for cervical cancer

o Hysterectomy

 Surgical removal of uterus

o Oopherectomy

 Surgical removal of ovaries

∙ The Breasts

o Secondary Sex Characteristics

 Physical characteristics other than genitals that distinguish males from  females

o Mammary Glands, nipples, areola

 Produce milk

 Center of areola and openings for milk

 Darker area

o Importance of self-exam

 To see what normal breasts feel like and to find any abnormalities  

Male Sexual Anatomy and Physiology 

∙ Sexual Anatomy (Know what it is, where it is, what it does)

o Penis

 External male organ

o Shaft

 Length of penis between glans and the body

o Glans

 Covered by foreskin

o Cavernous bodies

 Structures in the shaft that engorge with blood during sexual arousal

o Spongy body

 Cylinder that forms a bulb at the base of the penis, extends up in to the  penile shaft, and forms the penile glans

o Foreskin

 Loose layer of skin

o Corona

 Ridge of tissue around glans

 Rim of the glans

o Frenulum

 Strip of skin that attaches the glans to the shaft on the underside of penis o Scrotum

 Pouch of skin of external male genitals that encloses the testes

o Testis (Testes)

 Male gonads that produce sperm and sex hormones

o Spermatic cord

 Cord attached to the testis that contains the vas deferens, blood vessels,  nerves, and cremasteric muscle fibers

o Epididymis

 Structure along the back of each testis in which sperm maturation occurs o Vas deferens

 Sperm carrying tube that begins at the testis and ends at the urethra  o Urethra

 Tube through which urine passes from the bladder to the outside of the body o Seminal Vesicles

 Small glands adjacent to terminals of vas deferens  

 Secrete an alkaline fluid that constitutes biggest portion of seminal fluid in  ejaculation- 70%

o Prostate Gland

 Gland located at base of bladder

 Secrete an alkaline fluid that constitutes portion of seminal fluid in  ejaculation- 30%

o Cowper’s Gland

 Pea sized glands located on urethra base

o Semen or seminal fluid

 Volume = 1 teaspoon

 100-500 million sperm

 From there, Cowper’s gland and prostate gland

∙ Issues Involving Male Genitalia

o Circumcision

 Removal of foreskin

 Some people get it, others don’t

 Less risky in infants

o Kegel Exercises

 Good to do

o Cryptorchidism

 Undescended testes

o Vasectomy

 Male sterilization procedure

 Involves removing a section from each vas deferens

∙ Sexual Functions

o Erection

 Coordinated by automatic nervous system

 Doesn’t need physical attraction  

 Doesn’t mean he wants to have sex

 Arteries leading to 3 erective cylinders in penis expand

 Blood out flow can’t keep up with in flow

 Capacity is present at birth- common in infant boys

 Psychogenic and physio genic erections  

o Ejaculation

 Spinal reflex triggers 2 phases

∙ Emission- fluid gathered in urethral bulb

∙ Expulsion- semen is expelled

o Retrograde ejaculation

 Semen expelled into bladder

o Nocturnal emission

 Involuntary ejaculation during sleep

∙ Concerns about Sexual Functioning

o Penis Size

 Implication that bigger = better

 Matter of preference  

o Genital retraction syndrome (Koro)

 Culture-bound phenomenon  

 Male believes his penis is shrinking and retracting into his body ∙ Male Genital Health Concerns

o Smegma

 Secretion in the folds of the skin

o Testicular Cancer

 More common in young men (20-35)

 Risk factors: smoking, family history, white race, cryptorchidism   Survival is > 90% if detected early

o Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

 Increased prostate gland size

o Prostate Cancer and detection

 2nd leading cause of cancer death  

 Treatment options- benefits must outweigh risks

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