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CSU - PSY 210 - PSY 210 Week 3 Notes - Class Notes

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CSU - PSY 210 - PSY 210 Week 3 Notes - Class Notes

School: Colorado State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Psychology of the Individual
Professor: Elise Bascomb
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Gender, depression, and Psychology
Name: PSY 210 Week 3 Notes
Description: these notes go over the gender and depression article and in class discussion
Uploaded: 09/10/2018
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background image Possible Biological Explanations Hormonal changes associated with Puberty Claim: Activation of gonadal hormone systems in puberty plays a role in increase of 
depression rates among girls
Evidence that this has a direct role in emergence of gender differences is 
inconsistent
In analyses of hormonal data from girls in the Costello & Worthman study, 
testosterone and estradiol levels accounted better for increases than did 
puberty stage or age
Other studies have found no relationship between pubertal stage or hormone 
levels and moods in boys and girls in puberty
There is no reliable correlation between pubertal hormones and depressive 
symptoms, as multiple studies have had extremely varied, un replicable 
results
Several studies instead cite timing of puberty in relation to peers as being 
associated with risk for several types of psychopathology.
Some studies suggest that the perceptual difference in puberty between boys 
and girls may also lead to an increase in depressive symptoms, as girls are 
less likely to be happy with pubertal changes than boys, and in turn may be 
caused by this lack of positive body image
Premenstrual Hormonal Changes The current consensus for cause of PMDD is that in particular, serotonin 
dysregulation in venerable women may lead to changes in mood
Postpartum Hormonal Changes Approximately 10­15% of women experience a depressive episode severe 
enough for diagnosis of major depression in the first few weeks after giving 
birth
o Can be debilitating and if not treated can linger for months
o Coincides with large changes in levels of estrogen, progesterone, 
and several other hormones
background image Postpartum blues symptoms include Dysphoria, mood liability, crying, 
anxiety, insomnia, poor appetite, and irritability.
o Although annoying, are not debilitating and will often subside 2­3  weeks postpartum Menopausal Hormonal Changes During menopause estrogen levels decline gradually, though menopause was 
previously considered a time of increased vulnerability to depression for 
women, studies of general population do not support the assumption
Summary: In conclusion data suggests that normal hormonal changes during the periods 
considered about do not induce significant depressive symptoms or disorders 
in women in the general population, however these changes may trigger 
symptoms in women with a genetic vulnerability.
Genetic Factors Family history studies how that depression can run in families, particularly 
among female members
Genetics have been found to potentially play a heavier role in women than 
men as found through twin studies
Biological Stress Reactivity Women are more likely than men to have dysregulated responses to stress, 
which makes them more likely to develop depression in response to stressors.
o The Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis plays a major role in regulating stress Women may be more likely to have a dysregulated HPA response because 
they are more likely to have suffered a traumatic event, which are known to 
contribute to deregulation
Summary: For years the major biological explanation for women’s greater vulnerability 
to depression compared to men has been that normal fluctuations in ovarian 
hormones cause many women to become depressed. The bulk of evidence 
2

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Psychology of the Individual
Professor: Elise Bascomb
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Gender, depression, and Psychology
Name: PSY 210 Week 3 Notes
Description: these notes go over the gender and depression article and in class discussion
Uploaded: 09/10/2018
4 Pages 29 Views 23 Unlocks
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