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UA / Engineering / CJ 100 / How crime rates are reported stays constant?

How crime rates are reported stays constant?

How crime rates are reported stays constant?


CJ 100-320

How crime rates are reported stays constant?

Chapter 2; How Crime is Measured, & Who it Affects

Part 1; Measuring Crime 

3 Main Ways

- Official Reports

- Victim Surveys

- Self-Reports


* how crime rates are reported stays constant

- Often seen in terms of rates per 100,000

- Arrested rate, Clearance rate, Crime rate

Dark Figure of Crime ( not super important but mentioned ) - Reasons for not reporting

o A crime not perceived as a crime

o Victim either knows or fears the offender

o Victim is the offender

What are the official crime statistics?

o Victim is embarrassed  

Official Crime Statistics

- Started keeping good crime stats in early 19th century 

- Quetelet & Guerry

o Data people who ‘founded’ the database  

- Generated at different levels of government and/or different stages - Discretion plays a large role

Uniform Crime Report (UCR)

- Most popular body of official crime stats

- Began around 1930 + updates annually 

o Consistent/uniform

- Law enforcement agencies voluntarily submit stats

o 18,000+ agencies

What is victim precipitation?

- Focuses on index crimes (pt.1)

- Uses Hierarchy Rule;

o Only the most important crime gets reported

 Person can commit a string of crimes, but only the ‘worst’  one is recorded We also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of management?
We also discuss several other topics like What is fertilization?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 4 kingdoms in eukarya?

 Skews stats

Pt. 1 Offenses (Index Crimes)

CJ 100-320

- Criminal Homicide - Burglary

- Forcible Rape - Larceny-Theft

- Robbery - Motor Vehicle Theft

- Aggravated Assault - Arson

- Human Trafficking* (recently added) We also discuss several other topics like What is anomic suicide?

National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) - Developed in 1985 to ‘fix’ issues with UCR

- More intense, better info, individual incidents, etc 

o Place

o Victim & Offender details & description

- Collects all offenses, even if all committed at once

- 46 offenses, including white collar crime

 - Annually published 

- Police may not use this form of collecting because it means more work for them

Victim Surveys

- Ask participants to report crimes that have been committed against  them in specified time frames If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between normal and abnormal behavior?

- Focuses on if a crime was reported

National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)

- UCR + NIBRS rely on crimes reported by police + then from police to  the FBI

- NCVS cuts out the middle man 

o Targets unreported crime

o Primary source of victimization data

o Doesn’t ask all crime, only non-fatal violent, and property crime

NCVS Methodology Don't forget about the age old question of Who is constantine the great?

- Samples 90,000 household yearly

- In-person/telephone interview

- 12+ yrs old

- 6 mnth intervals for 3yrs

- 7 total interviews

*2016, 78% household / 84% Individual 

Self-Report Studies

- Crimes individual committed 

- Began 1950’s “hidden delinquency”

- Confidentiality + anonymity are important 

- Increases honesty among participants  

- Can be combined with other measurements

o Ex, Drug Tests

CJ 100-320

Monitoring The Future

- Developed in 1965, run by UA Michigan  

o Behavior, Attitude, Values 

- 50,000 surveys to 8th, 10th,& 12th grades

- Sometimes includes a follow up later down the line

Part 2; Crime Victims 

Victims of Crime

- A person that has suffered direct physical, emotional, or financial  harm as a result of the commission of a crime.

- “Ideal” Victim: often portrayed as completely innocent o Characteristics associated:

 Blameless, weak or frail, women, was minding their  business before being attacked, high role in society,  


- Victim Precipitation: When a crime victim played some kind of  role in their victimization.

Mendelsohn’s Typology

Innocent- Wrong place wrong time

Victim w/ minor guilt- isn’t actively involved

Guilty Vic. / Guilty Offender- victim may have engaged in crime Guilty Vic. / Guiltier Offender- Victim could have attacked, but the  offender was more successful.  

Guilty Vic.- Victim instigated the crime

Imaginary- Victim is pretending/ lying that a crime occurred.

Victims of Violent Crime

- Victims of any crime type can suffer harm, but becoming a victim  of violent crime is mostly feared.

o In 2016, 1.3% of the total population was a victim of violent  crime

- Direct + Vicarious victimization can occur

- Can suffer from social, psychological, and/or physical harm o Media + CJS often inflict secondary victimization.

CJ 100-320

Victims of Property Crime

- Effects of property crimes include

o Financial loss

o Losing property that may not be returned

o Altered lifestyles

Victims of Hate Crime  

- Hate Crime: Traditional offense like murder, arson, vandalization  with added elements of biase

- FBI has gathered & published stats

- 3 Elements 

o Hate language was used when committed

o Hate symbols  

o Police confirmed by other means: date, location, tattoos, etc - Hate Crime Stats Act 1990 

o Originally onl included race, religion, sexual orientation, and ethnicity

- Symbolic to a larger group

- Added element of victimization  

o Part of their life they cant change ( always in fear )

Victims of Financial Crime

- Identity theft

- Fraud

- Embezzlement  

- Victims are often unaware it happened

- Facts:

o 1 in 10 identity theft victims experience severe emotional  distress

o 1 in 3 with violent crime

o 2014-2015 7% increase in computer crime reports

- Estimated Costs:

o $40-$50 billion in fraud

o $24.7 billion in identity theft

o $800.5 million internet based

CJ 100-320

Special Victims

- Elderly  

o 2/3 of abusers are family

o 1 in 24 incidents are reported

o High-rates of abuse

- Children

o More likely to become an offender

o Boy and girls have similar rates

o 90% of victims know the abuser

Rights and Assistance

- Victim Rights and Restitution Act 1990 

o Federal law made the victim a key part of the CJS - Victims ‘Bill of Rights’  

o Be informed, be heard, seek restitution, be protected.

Victim Impact Statement

- Account given expressing effects of the event during trial - Often provides closure for a victim

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