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UA / ACBS / ACBS 102R-001 / What is”snipped” during vasectomy?

What is”snipped” during vasectomy?

What is”snipped” during vasectomy?


Animal care program 

What is”snipped” during vasectomy?

● Humans and animals are treated the same

● Society for the prevention of cruelty to animals created in 1824 and original started off for horses

● Back then vets started of with horses

● England was the first country to pass the cruelty to animals act (horses) ● 1866- American Society for the prevention of cruelty

● surgical advances

○ Cardiac pacemaker

○ Eye surgery

○ Gastrointestinal Surgery

○ Organ Transplant

● 1954 human society of the United States

● 1970 begins of the animal right movement

What are the 3 main structures of the uterus?

● July 21, 1980 PETA Incorporated

● April 2, 1982 ALF burned buildings, breaks into animal facilities and steals 1,200 animals/ cages (U of A)

○ University animal care administration offices

○ Pharmacy/ Microbiology animal and diagnostic facilities

● Responses

○ Lobbying and advertising campaigns by animal right

○ Implementing of animal care standards by congress

○ Formation of independent peer review

○ Improved veterinary training

● Important Names We also discuss several other topics like Does stress affect your diet?

○ AWA: animal Welfare act

○ USDA :US Department of Agriculture

What are the 4 stages of the estrous cycle?

○ IACUC: Institutional animal care and uses committee

○ UAC: University animal care

○ AAALAC: Associations for Assessment and Accreditation laboratory animal care ● Gov Response

○ 1966- welfare act - August 24,1966

○ 1985- Improved standards for LAA

○ 1990- protection of pets

○ 2007- Animal fighting prohibition enforcement act

○ 2013- (link is external)

● 1966 Laboratory Animal Welfare Act

○ Preventing theft of dogs and cats

○ Registration limited facilities with cats/dogs

○ holding areas

Only records of acquisitions required

○ Developed 8 areas of minimum standards

-Housing -Feeding -watering -sanitation -shelter -separated of species -ventilation -Adequate vet care Don't forget about the age old question of What is stability vs plasticity?

● AWA- applies to any live of dead warm-blooded animal which is being used , or is intended for used for research, teaching, testing,experiments, or exhibitions purposes, or as a pet

● Definition of Animals

○ Wilds mammals used in fields research and laboratory research

○ Farm animals used in biomedical research

● Excludes

○ Production farm animals

○ Laboratory rats and mice

○ Birds

Farm & Ranch Veterinary Service 

● White lining disease- hoof diseases

● Large group facing the same way cause of death is most likely lighting ● Getting into vet school

○ Spend time with different veterinarians

○ Get experience

■ Work at the UA teaching farm

■ Work as a research assistant

○ Do well in coursework We also discuss several other topics like What does it mean when you plead nolo contendere?

○ Networking Don't forget about the age old question of Why does geology require longer lifespan of earth?

■ Get different perspectives

■ May find career opportunities

■ Need recommendations

○ Explore alternative career paths

○ Research different schools

○ Look into financial aspect

● Budget, work, Scholarships

Growth and Development 

● Definition

○ Growth: increases in the body weight until mature size is attained; Increase cell size and number

○ Development: directed correlation of changes in cell and tissue functions leading to maturity

● Key Concept

○ Development patterns are constant

○ Prenatal

○ Cell diversification

○ Organ and tissue formation

○ Postnatal

○ Mostly growth in organ and tissue size

● Prenatal (livestock)

○ 3 phases

■ Fertilized ovum

■ Embryo 3 primary germ layer

● Endoderm

● Mesoderm

● Ectoderm

■ Fetus- when all organs have formed If you want to learn more check out What is the shortcut for calculating weight?
Don't forget about the age old question of Why is amsterdam built with dykes?

○ Change in gene action direct the development to make whole body. ● First ⅔ gestation

○ Increase in tissue size due to hyperplasia

● Last ⅓

Reproduction in Domestic Animals 

● Female Reproductive Anatomy

○ Major Organs

■ Ovaries

■ Oviducts

■ Uterus

■ Cervix

■ Vagina

■ External Genitalia

● Ovaries

○ Functions

■ Release oocytes,

■ hormones

○ Functional Unit = Follicle

■ Theca & Granulosa cells- Make estrogen

■ Granulosa cells control oocyte maturation

○ After Ovulation

■ Follicle becomes a corpus luteum (cl)

■ CL secretes Progesterone

● Necessary to maintain pregnancy in all mammalian species

○ Oviducts

■ Site of fertilization

■ “Catches” ovulated oocyte

■ Channel to transport oocyte/ embryo from ovary to uterus

○ Uterus

■ Site of fetal development

■ Other key functions

● Sperm transport

● Controls initiation of new estrous cycle

○ Types of uteri

■ Litter-bearing species

● Long, well-developed uterine horns

■ Species that bear 1 or a few offspring

● Shorter uterine horns, or no uterine horns

○ Cervix

■ Functions as a barrier

● Restricts passage of materials between vagina and uterus

○ Vagina & External Genitalia

■ Vagina is the copulatory organ

■ External genitalia

● Vulva

○ Two labia - major/Minor

■ Form a closure

■ Perineum

● Area surprising the anus/vulva

■ Clitoris

● Sensory organ, homologous of males penis

○ Male Reproductive Anatomy

■ Major organs

● Testes :

○ Produces sperm/ testosterone

○ Spermatogenesis

■ Requires cooler temp

● Network of blood vessels allows heat


○ Scrotum

● Houses sweat glands do evaporative


● Has muscle to control scrotum

surface area/ distance of testes from


○ Cryptorchidism

■ Affected testers are sterile

■ Still make testosterone

● Accessory sex glands

○ Produce liquid portion of semen

○ Transport medium

■ Not needed for fertility

■ Provides energy sources from sperm to

remain alive

○ Four Glands

■ Ampulla

■ Prostate

■ Vesicular

■ Bulbourethral Glands

● penis

○ Fibroelastic penis (bulls,boars,ram)

■ Sigmoid Flexure

● S-shaped

● Maintained by a pair of muscles

● During sexual arousal muscles relax

which allows protruruison of peins

from the sheet

○ Stallions

■ Penis is primarily composed of spongy

tissue that fills with blood during erection

○ Pathway of sperm Transport

■ Produced is seminiferous tubules

■ Empty into efferent duct

■ Epididymis

● Efferent ducts converge at epididymis

● Where final sperm maturation occurs

● Tail of Epididymis serves as sperm reservoir

■ Ductus Deferens

● Sperm enters DD in preparation for ejaculation

● What is”snipped” during vasectomy

■ Urethra

● Puberty

○ Effects nutrition

■ Physiologic functions receive nutrients first

○ Female must reach a minimum body size before puberty begins ● Other factors

○ Seasons

■ Sheep/Mares are seasonal breeders

○ Social cues

■ Housing females with males or large group accelerates puberty in some species

● Estrous Cycle

○ Types of Cycles

■ Polyestrous (regularly throughout our true year

■ Seasonal polyestrous ( sheeps,Goats,Mares)

■ Monestrus (dogs)

● 1 per year

● Stage of the Estrous Cycle

○ Follicles grow and mature

○ Follicles produce more estrogen as they grow

■ Estrogen is necessary to cause:

● Cause ovulation

● Induces female sexual receptivity

○ Literal phase

■ Remnants of the follicle transformation into corpus luteum (CL) ■ The CL produces progesterone

● Progesterone is necessary to:

○ Maintain pregnancy if fertilization occurs

○ Suppress ovulation

● Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

○ Hypothalamus releases GnRH

■ Travels to Anterior pituitary

● GnRH causes Anterior Pituitary to

○ release LH & FSH

■ LH & FSH travel to the ovary

○ LH & FSH are necessary for:

■ Follicular growth

■ Estrogen production

○ Estrogen from follicle(s) causes more

○ GnRH, LH & FSH release

■ Positive Feedback Loop

● Hormone Changes During Estrous Cycle

○ Growing follicle = more estrogen

○ Estrogen causes LH/FSH release from the anterior pituitary

■ LH & FSH stimulate follicle to make more estrogen

○ A threshold is reached where estrogen causes a “surge” of LH

■ The “preovulatory LH surge” causes ovulation

○ The follicle transforms into a corpus luteum (CL)

■ The CL makes Progesterone

■ Maintains pregnancy if it occurs

■ Suppresses ovulation by inhibiting HPG axi

● Luteal Phase

○ No fertilization

■ CL must stop making progesterone

● Female can’t ovulate when progesterone levels are high

○ Uterus produces prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)

■ PGF2α causes CL to die “luteolysis”

● Successful fertilization

○ Luteolysis must be prevented so CL will continue to make progesterone ■ “Maternal recognition of pregnancy”

○ The fetus notifies the mother of its presence

■ Signal that the fetus sends is different between species

■ Regardless of species, it prevents PGF2α from causing luteolysis ● Mating and Capacitation

○ Estrogen from preovulatory follicle causes sexual receptivity in female ■ Estrus or “heat”

● Capacitation

○ Ejaculated sperm are not immediately able to fertilize oocyte

■ Semen “coats” sperm head with proteins that prevent binding to oocyte ○ Female reproductive tract removes proteins from sperm head

● Fertilization

○ Sperm binds to Zona Pellucida (ZP)

■ Initiates acrosome reaction

● Acrosome reaction

○ Causes release of enzymes that digest a hole in ZP

○ Sperm enters through hole

● Sperm fuses with oocyte and is engulfed

○ Cortical Reaction occurs

■ Prevents additional sperm from fertilizing oocyte

● Early Embryogenesis

○ Blastomere stage

■ Fertilized oocyte (zygote) begins dividing

■ Totipotency: 2, 4, and 8 cell stages

● Each cell can develop into a separate offspring “Embryonic stem cells”

○ Morula stage

■ Cells become compacted, form 2 layers

● Inner cell layer: will become body of fetus

● Outer cell layer: will form extraembryonic membranes

■ Blastocyst stage

● Fluid-filled cavity appears

○ Hatching

■ Blastocyst breaks open the Zona Pellucida

● Extraembryonic Membranes 

○ Four Membranes 

■ Yolk sac 

■ Amnion 

● Creates a fluid-filled cavity around fetus 

■ Chorion 

■ Allantois 

● Placentation 

○ Placenta is the organ of metabolic exchange between fetus & dam

○ Produces hormones 

○ Made of maternal & fetal tissues 

■ Maternal = uterine lining 

■ Fetal = chorion 

○ Types of placenta 

■ Diffuse (pig, mare): placenta forms evenly around chorion 

■ Cotyledonary (sheep, cattle): placenta forms between chorion and uterine caruncles (placentomes) 

■ Zonary (dogs, cats): Placenta forms band around middle of fetus 

■ Discoid (primates): Placenta forms as a single discs4 

● Parturition 

○ Fetus Controls Initiation of Parturition 

■ Fetus becomes stressed & releases cortisol 

● Stress Hormone 

● Effects of cortisol 

○ Causes Progesterone levels to fall 

● Once Progesterone falls, contractions begin 

○ Forces fetus against cervix 

○ Pressure causes oxytocin release from brain 

○ Oxytocin increases intensity of contractions 

■ Cervix dilates until fetus can pass through 

● Lactation 

○ Hormones Control Mammary gland development 

■ Estrogen, progesterone, prolactin, growth hormone 

○ Alveoli 

■ Functional unit that makes milk 

■ Surrounded by myoepithelial cells 

○ Milk letdown 

■ Nursing causes oxytocin release from brain 

■ Oxytocin causes contraction of 

○ myoepithelial cells 

○ “Squishes” milk out 

Reproductive Technologies 

● Estrous Synchronization

○ Importance

■ Reduce Labor: Shorten breeding & calving seasons

■ Often used in conjunction with other technologies (AI, embryo transfer, etc.

○ Majority of estrus synchronization protocols use one or both of these hormones: ■ PGF2α: Causes luteolysis of any CL that may be present

● e.g., lutalyse, estrumate

○ Progesterone: Suppresses ovulation

■ Ovulation occurs in predictable amount of time after progesterone concentrations fall

■ e.g., CIDR

■ All hormonal contraceptives utilize progesterone-like hormones

○ Requirements for successful synchronization

■ Must ensure that no CL is present

■ Must control when progesterone concentrations fall

● Artificial Insemination

○ Major Step

■ Collection of semen

■ Preservation and extension of sperm

● Extension refers to extending life of sperm and diluting sperm to maximize the number of inseminations that can be performed

■ Insemination of the female

● Collecting Semen

○ Artificial Vaginas most frequently used

● Preserving and Extending Sperm

○ Extender Prepared

■ Provides a protective Environment for the sperm

■ Prepared Daily

● Consists of egg yolk, sodium Citrate, Glycerol sterile water, and


■ Primary Function

● Protect sperm cells during cooling, freezing and thawing

● Preserving and Extending Sperm

○ Sperm viability and concentration are determined

■ Sperm are diluted with extender

■ Sperm are packaged into straws

■ Straws are frozen in liquid nitrogen

● Sperm can be stored indefinitely

● Insemination of the Female

○ Straws are rapidly thawed and loaded into insemination gun

○ Technician grabs the cervix through the rectum

■ Guides insemination gun through cervix and into uterus

■ Semen is deposited in uters

● Embryo Transfer

● Importance

○ Increase number of offspring produced by genetically superior females ○ Enhance reproduction in endangered species

○ Transport genetic material over long distances

○ Infertility treatment in humans

● Steps

○ Synchronize cycles of donors and recipients

○ Superovulation of donors

○ Artificial insemination of donor

○ Recovery of embryos from donor

○ Grow embryos in vitro(short term) or freeze for long-term storage ○ •Transfer embryos to recipient

● Superovulation of Donor

○ •Allows donor to ovulate more than normal

■ Maximize use of donor

● Achieved by giving hormone injections

○ Combination of FSH and LH, or other hormones with FSH and LH- like actions

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