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UA / ACBS / ACBS 102R-001 / What is”snipped” during vasectomy?

What is”snipped” during vasectomy?

What is”snipped” during vasectomy?


Animal care program 

What is”snipped” during vasectomy?

● Humans and animals are treated the same

● Society for the prevention of cruelty to animals created in 1824 and original started off for horses

● Back then vets started of with horses

● England was the first country to pass the cruelty to animals act (horses) ● 1866- American Society for the prevention of cruelty

● surgical advances

○ Cardiac pacemaker

○ Eye surgery

○ Gastrointestinal Surgery

○ Organ Transplant

● 1954 human society of the United States

● 1970 begins of the animal right movement

What are the 3 main structures of the uterus?

● July 21, 1980 PETA Incorporated

● April 2, 1982 ALF burned buildings, breaks into animal facilities and steals 1,200 animals/ cages (U of A)

○ University animal care administration offices

○ Pharmacy/ Microbiology animal and diagnostic facilities

● Responses

○ Lobbying and advertising campaigns by animal right

○ Implementing of animal care standards by congress

○ Formation of independent peer review

○ Improved veterinary training If you want to learn more check out What is the introduction of nutrition?

● Important Names

○ AWA: animal Welfare act

○ USDA :US Department of Agriculture

What are the 4 stages of the estrous cycle?

○ IACUC: Institutional animal care and uses committee

○ UAC: University animal care

○ AAALAC: Associations for Assessment and Accreditation laboratory animal care ● Gov Response Don't forget about the age old question of What are the different perspectives of childhood?

○ 1966- welfare act - August 24,1966

○ 1985- Improved standards for LAA

○ 1990- protection of pets

○ 2007- Animal fighting prohibition enforcement act

○ 2013- (link is external)

● 1966 Laboratory Animal Welfare Act

○ Preventing theft of dogs and cats

○ Registration limited facilities with cats/dogs

○ holding areas

Only records of acquisitions required

○ Developed 8 areas of minimum standards

-Housing -Feeding -watering -sanitation -shelter -separated of species -ventilation -Adequate vet care

● AWA- applies to any live of dead warm-blooded animal which is being used , or is intended for used for research, teaching, testing,experiments, or exhibitions purposes, or as a pet

● Definition of Animals

○ Wilds mammals used in fields research and laboratory research

○ Farm animals used in biomedical research If you want to learn more check out What does it mean when you plead nolo contendere?

● Excludes

○ Production farm animals

○ Laboratory rats and mice

○ Birds

Farm & Ranch Veterinary Service 

● White lining disease- hoof diseases

● Large group facing the same way cause of death is most likely lighting ● Getting into vet school

○ Spend time with different veterinarians

○ Get experience

■ Work at the UA teaching farm

■ Work as a research assistant

○ Do well in coursework

○ Networking

■ Get different perspectives

■ May find career opportunities

■ Need recommendations

○ Explore alternative career paths

○ Research different schools

○ Look into financial aspect

● Budget, work, Scholarships

Growth and Development 

● Definition We also discuss several other topics like How does presentism view historical events?

○ Growth: increases in the body weight until mature size is attained; Increase cell size and number

○ Development: directed correlation of changes in cell and tissue functions leading to maturity

● Key Concept

○ Development patterns are constant

○ Prenatal

○ Cell diversification

○ Organ and tissue formation Don't forget about the age old question of How did galileo become popular in terms of velocity theory?

○ Postnatal

○ Mostly growth in organ and tissue size

● Prenatal (livestock)

○ 3 phases

■ Fertilized ovum

■ Embryo 3 primary germ layer

● Endoderm We also discuss several other topics like Who is ebeneezer havard?

● Mesoderm

● Ectoderm

■ Fetus- when all organs have formed

○ Change in gene action direct the development to make whole body. ● First ⅔ gestation

○ Increase in tissue size due to hyperplasia

● Last ⅓

Reproduction in Domestic Animals 

● Female Reproductive Anatomy

○ Major Organs

■ Ovaries

■ Oviducts

■ Uterus

■ Cervix

■ Vagina

■ External Genitalia

● Ovaries

○ Functions

■ Release oocytes,

■ hormones

○ Functional Unit = Follicle

■ Theca & Granulosa cells- Make estrogen

■ Granulosa cells control oocyte maturation

○ After Ovulation

■ Follicle becomes a corpus luteum (cl)

■ CL secretes Progesterone

● Necessary to maintain pregnancy in all mammalian species

○ Oviducts

■ Site of fertilization

■ “Catches” ovulated oocyte

■ Channel to transport oocyte/ embryo from ovary to uterus

○ Uterus

■ Site of fetal development

■ Other key functions

● Sperm transport

● Controls initiation of new estrous cycle

○ Types of uteri

■ Litter-bearing species

● Long, well-developed uterine horns

■ Species that bear 1 or a few offspring

● Shorter uterine horns, or no uterine horns

○ Cervix

■ Functions as a barrier

● Restricts passage of materials between vagina and uterus

○ Vagina & External Genitalia

■ Vagina is the copulatory organ

■ External genitalia

● Vulva

○ Two labia - major/Minor

■ Form a closure

■ Perineum

● Area surprising the anus/vulva

■ Clitoris

● Sensory organ, homologous of males penis

○ Male Reproductive Anatomy

■ Major organs

● Testes :

○ Produces sperm/ testosterone

○ Spermatogenesis

■ Requires cooler temp

● Network of blood vessels allows heat


○ Scrotum

● Houses sweat glands do evaporative


● Has muscle to control scrotum

surface area/ distance of testes from


○ Cryptorchidism

■ Affected testers are sterile

■ Still make testosterone

● Accessory sex glands

○ Produce liquid portion of semen

○ Transport medium

■ Not needed for fertility

■ Provides energy sources from sperm to

remain alive

○ Four Glands

■ Ampulla

■ Prostate

■ Vesicular

■ Bulbourethral Glands

● penis

○ Fibroelastic penis (bulls,boars,ram)

■ Sigmoid Flexure

● S-shaped

● Maintained by a pair of muscles

● During sexual arousal muscles relax

which allows protruruison of peins

from the sheet

○ Stallions

■ Penis is primarily composed of spongy

tissue that fills with blood during erection

○ Pathway of sperm Transport

■ Produced is seminiferous tubules

■ Empty into efferent duct

■ Epididymis

● Efferent ducts converge at epididymis

● Where final sperm maturation occurs

● Tail of Epididymis serves as sperm reservoir

■ Ductus Deferens

● Sperm enters DD in preparation for ejaculation

● What is”snipped” during vasectomy

■ Urethra

● Puberty

○ Effects nutrition

■ Physiologic functions receive nutrients first

○ Female must reach a minimum body size before puberty begins ● Other factors

○ Seasons

■ Sheep/Mares are seasonal breeders

○ Social cues

■ Housing females with males or large group accelerates puberty in some species

● Estrous Cycle

○ Types of Cycles

■ Polyestrous (regularly throughout our true year

■ Seasonal polyestrous ( sheeps,Goats,Mares)

■ Monestrus (dogs)

● 1 per year

● Stage of the Estrous Cycle

○ Follicles grow and mature

○ Follicles produce more estrogen as they grow

■ Estrogen is necessary to cause:

● Cause ovulation

● Induces female sexual receptivity

○ Literal phase

■ Remnants of the follicle transformation into corpus luteum (CL) ■ The CL produces progesterone

● Progesterone is necessary to:

○ Maintain pregnancy if fertilization occurs

○ Suppress ovulation

● Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

○ Hypothalamus releases GnRH

■ Travels to Anterior pituitary

● GnRH causes Anterior Pituitary to

○ release LH & FSH

■ LH & FSH travel to the ovary

○ LH & FSH are necessary for:

■ Follicular growth

■ Estrogen production

○ Estrogen from follicle(s) causes more

○ GnRH, LH & FSH release

■ Positive Feedback Loop

● Hormone Changes During Estrous Cycle

○ Growing follicle = more estrogen

○ Estrogen causes LH/FSH release from the anterior pituitary

■ LH & FSH stimulate follicle to make more estrogen

○ A threshold is reached where estrogen causes a “surge” of LH

■ The “preovulatory LH surge” causes ovulation

○ The follicle transforms into a corpus luteum (CL)

■ The CL makes Progesterone

■ Maintains pregnancy if it occurs

■ Suppresses ovulation by inhibiting HPG axi

● Luteal Phase

○ No fertilization

■ CL must stop making progesterone

● Female can’t ovulate when progesterone levels are high

○ Uterus produces prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)

■ PGF2α causes CL to die “luteolysis”

● Successful fertilization

○ Luteolysis must be prevented so CL will continue to make progesterone ■ “Maternal recognition of pregnancy”

○ The fetus notifies the mother of its presence

■ Signal that the fetus sends is different between species

■ Regardless of species, it prevents PGF2α from causing luteolysis ● Mating and Capacitation

○ Estrogen from preovulatory follicle causes sexual receptivity in female ■ Estrus or “heat”

● Capacitation

○ Ejaculated sperm are not immediately able to fertilize oocyte

■ Semen “coats” sperm head with proteins that prevent binding to oocyte ○ Female reproductive tract removes proteins from sperm head

● Fertilization

○ Sperm binds to Zona Pellucida (ZP)

■ Initiates acrosome reaction

● Acrosome reaction

○ Causes release of enzymes that digest a hole in ZP

○ Sperm enters through hole

● Sperm fuses with oocyte and is engulfed

○ Cortical Reaction occurs

■ Prevents additional sperm from fertilizing oocyte

● Early Embryogenesis

○ Blastomere stage

■ Fertilized oocyte (zygote) begins dividing

■ Totipotency: 2, 4, and 8 cell stages

● Each cell can develop into a separate offspring “Embryonic stem cells”

○ Morula stage

■ Cells become compacted, form 2 layers

● Inner cell layer: will become body of fetus

● Outer cell layer: will form extraembryonic membranes

■ Blastocyst stage

● Fluid-filled cavity appears

○ Hatching

■ Blastocyst breaks open the Zona Pellucida

● Extraembryonic Membranes 

○ Four Membranes 

■ Yolk sac 

■ Amnion 

● Creates a fluid-filled cavity around fetus 

■ Chorion 

■ Allantois 

● Placentation 

○ Placenta is the organ of metabolic exchange between fetus & dam

○ Produces hormones 

○ Made of maternal & fetal tissues 

■ Maternal = uterine lining 

■ Fetal = chorion 

○ Types of placenta 

■ Diffuse (pig, mare): placenta forms evenly around chorion 

■ Cotyledonary (sheep, cattle): placenta forms between chorion and uterine caruncles (placentomes) 

■ Zonary (dogs, cats): Placenta forms band around middle of fetus 

■ Discoid (primates): Placenta forms as a single discs4 

● Parturition 

○ Fetus Controls Initiation of Parturition 

■ Fetus becomes stressed & releases cortisol 

● Stress Hormone 

● Effects of cortisol 

○ Causes Progesterone levels to fall 

● Once Progesterone falls, contractions begin 

○ Forces fetus against cervix 

○ Pressure causes oxytocin release from brain 

○ Oxytocin increases intensity of contractions 

■ Cervix dilates until fetus can pass through 

● Lactation 

○ Hormones Control Mammary gland development 

■ Estrogen, progesterone, prolactin, growth hormone 

○ Alveoli 

■ Functional unit that makes milk 

■ Surrounded by myoepithelial cells 

○ Milk letdown 

■ Nursing causes oxytocin release from brain 

■ Oxytocin causes contraction of 

○ myoepithelial cells 

○ “Squishes” milk out 

Reproductive Technologies 

● Estrous Synchronization

○ Importance

■ Reduce Labor: Shorten breeding & calving seasons

■ Often used in conjunction with other technologies (AI, embryo transfer, etc.

○ Majority of estrus synchronization protocols use one or both of these hormones: ■ PGF2α: Causes luteolysis of any CL that may be present

● e.g., lutalyse, estrumate

○ Progesterone: Suppresses ovulation

■ Ovulation occurs in predictable amount of time after progesterone concentrations fall

■ e.g., CIDR

■ All hormonal contraceptives utilize progesterone-like hormones

○ Requirements for successful synchronization

■ Must ensure that no CL is present

■ Must control when progesterone concentrations fall

● Artificial Insemination

○ Major Step

■ Collection of semen

■ Preservation and extension of sperm

● Extension refers to extending life of sperm and diluting sperm to maximize the number of inseminations that can be performed

■ Insemination of the female

● Collecting Semen

○ Artificial Vaginas most frequently used

● Preserving and Extending Sperm

○ Extender Prepared

■ Provides a protective Environment for the sperm

■ Prepared Daily

● Consists of egg yolk, sodium Citrate, Glycerol sterile water, and


■ Primary Function

● Protect sperm cells during cooling, freezing and thawing

● Preserving and Extending Sperm

○ Sperm viability and concentration are determined

■ Sperm are diluted with extender

■ Sperm are packaged into straws

■ Straws are frozen in liquid nitrogen

● Sperm can be stored indefinitely

● Insemination of the Female

○ Straws are rapidly thawed and loaded into insemination gun

○ Technician grabs the cervix through the rectum

■ Guides insemination gun through cervix and into uterus

■ Semen is deposited in uters

● Embryo Transfer

● Importance

○ Increase number of offspring produced by genetically superior females ○ Enhance reproduction in endangered species

○ Transport genetic material over long distances

○ Infertility treatment in humans

● Steps

○ Synchronize cycles of donors and recipients

○ Superovulation of donors

○ Artificial insemination of donor

○ Recovery of embryos from donor

○ Grow embryos in vitro(short term) or freeze for long-term storage ○ •Transfer embryos to recipient

● Superovulation of Donor

○ •Allows donor to ovulate more than normal

■ Maximize use of donor

● Achieved by giving hormone injections

○ Combination of FSH and LH, or other hormones with FSH and LH- like actions

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