Nutrition Exam 1 Study Guide
Material that is shown below is very important pertaining to all 4 CHAPTERS that will be tested on the EXAM. Some items are especially marked if they were seen on the recent quizzes.
∙ Introduction to Nutrition
o Nutrition impacts all areas of wellness.
o These areas include: Emotional, Spiritual, Social, Occupational Health and Physical.
∙ Nutrition and Disease
o These nutrition diseases include and are caused by:
1. Scurvy: Vitamin C Deficiency If you want to learn more check out What are the different perspectives of childhood?
2. Heart Disease: Obesity, Poor Diet, Physical Inactivity
3. Anemia: Increased Iron Needed or Decreased Iron Absorption
4. Cancer: Obesity, Poor Diet, Physical Inactivity
5. Type II Diabetes: Obesity and Physical Inactivity
6. Osteoporosis: Lack of Calcium and Exercise
7. Obesity: Overindulgence in Energy Dense Foods
8. Pellagra: Increased Iron Needed or Decreased Iron
Absorption, caused by nutrient deficiency (WAS SEEN ON
∙ Food as an Energy Source
o Food provides the energy that we need for life.
o Energy from food is measured in Kilocalories. We also discuss several other topics like What is meant by beyond reasonable doubt?
o Kilocalorie: Is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram ( kg ) of water to 1 degree Celsius ( C ).
o The term Kilocalorie and Calorie and Interchangeable! We also discuss several other topics like How does interbreeding happen?
o Here is the breakdown of each of the Macronutrients, what they are composed of and examples of where they can be found.
o Carbohydrates: Composed of hydrated carbon, has the best source of energy, it weighs about 4 kilocalories per gram and is found in fruits and plantbased foods. o Fats: Composed of lipids, is insoluble in water, it weighs about 9 kilocalories per gram, has a good energy source for low intensity exercise and is found in batter, margarine, cooking oils, meat and dairy products.
o Proteins: Composed of amino acids, important in building biological regions (building hormones, building neurotransmitters, building blocks of cells, maintain bone integrity and repair damaged tissue) and are found in meats and dairy products. If you want to learn more check out What is the shortcut for calculating weight?
∙ Vegetarian Diet
o There are many perks to a Vegetarian diet, these include: being very healthy and is lower is saturated fats.
o The one thing that you would have to do on a Vegetarian diet is balancing the amino acid intake because a Vegetarian diet has an incomplete amino acid intake. o Vegetarian diets include foods such as soy, seeds, nuts and legumes. Don't forget about the age old question of Why is amsterdam built with dykes?
o Minerals include and what they help with:
Sodium > Maintain Fluid Balance
Calcium > Bone Health
Iron > Key Ingredient in Hemoglobin
Potassium > Key in Muscle Function, Especially the Heart
Magnesium > Regulates the Body Chemistry
o Vitamins are broken down into two groups: Fat Soluble and Water Soluble. Fat Soluble: Ingests the with food to absorb, can be stored in the body and Toxicity can occur. These vitamins include: A, D, E, and K (ON THE QUIZ).
Water Soluble: Dissolve in water, cannot be stored in the body, excess is excreted in urine and toxicity is unlikely, except if you take to many
purified supplements. These vitamins include: Vitamin C, BThiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, B6, B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and Folate.
∙ Water’s Role
o Water plays an important role with our body and makes up a certain percentage. Listed below are some parts of the body that water is made up of. We also discuss several other topics like How to construct a demand curve?
o Water helps convert food into energy, helps the body absorb nutrients and helps maintain body temperature.
∙ Stress Impacts
o Increased heart rate
∙ Chronic Stress and Diet
o Stress Level ( 1 is the LOWEST and 5 is the HIGHEST )
o Level 1: First Day
o Level 2: After 5 Days
o Level 3: After 2 Weeks
o Level 4: After 2 Months
o Level 5: After 6 Months
∙ Bodily Responses:
o Corticotrophin Releasing Hormone
Triggered from the Amygdala
Amygdala is the homeland security of the brain.
Amygdala releases the CRH when there is a threat or fear of something. CRH triggers alertness.
Levels are lowered by release of CRH.
Regulates mood and sleep.
Causes carb cravings for quick energy.
Levels are increased by release of CRH.
Produces glucose from protein as a fuel source.
Causes things to seem more rewarding.
Therefore people eat a lot, turn to drugs, etc:
∙ Role of Nutrients
Quickly converted to energy (WAS SEEN ON QUIZ).
Its stored in the Liver or it travels in the bloodstream.
Stress sugary desserts, taste good (cupcakes, for example).
o Hedonic Hyperphagia: Eating in excess purely is a pleasure, sugar reduces stress response.
o Technique used by nurses: Dip a pacifier into sugar water or a give a piece of candy to a child, this is a good indication of pleasure and reduces stress for the children patients.
∙ Declining Physical Activity (Physical activity material was seen on the QUIZ) o Physical Activity levels are steadily declining.
o Particularly impacts children: There is a lack of recess and PE.
o Adults are starting to feel the results as well: Long commutes to work and not as active jobs (desk working jobs).
o Familiarity of Choice: Chain restaurants foods always taste the same, you know what you will be getting, and that food becomes familiar and comforting.
∙ Those Hormones Again
o The hormones released into the body under stress help to control our emotions (CRH).
o Emotion is the root to the word MOTIVATE.
o We seek out to friends and family or familiar places when things get tough.