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UCMERCED / Physics / PH 001 / What is a case control study in research?

What is a case control study in research?

What is a case control study in research?

Description

School: University of California - Merced
Department: Physics
Course: Intro to Public Health
Professor: Kristin hocevar
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Statistics, data, and Epidmiology
Cost: 25
Name: Public Health 001- Week 4
Description: Covers: - limits of epidemiology - The uncertainty of Statistics - Role of Data in Public Health
Uploaded: 09/11/2018
4 Pages 73 Views 1 Unlocks
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li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_q5hun9ltm305-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_46aij2sxg0qx-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_q5hun9ltm305-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_s6xas0kv4beq-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_46aij2sxg0qx-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_s6xas0kv4beq-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_46aij2sxg0qx-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_moc4u2fnk41n-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_moc4u2fnk41n-8}ul.lst-kix_46aij2sxg0qx-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_46aij2sxg0qx-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_46aij2sxg0qx-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_46aij2sxg0qx-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_46aij2sxg0qx-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vbcui4f6e50h-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hk67i0sdnrwm-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_46aij2sxg0qx-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_lfhif3x1exu-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_46aij2sxg0qx-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_46aij2sxg0qx-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vbcui4f6e50h-1 > 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Chapter 6: Problems and Limits of EpidemiologyIf you want to learn more check out What is an example of a direct observation?

Problems with studying  Humans If you want to learn more check out What type of anatomy focuses on body structures that can be observed without magnification?

  • Intervention study problem:
  • Subject may not follow prescribed behavior

  • Cohort Study Problem:
  • Sometimes it is hard to isolate which of many factors are responsible for health differences.

  • Case control study problems:
  • Control group may not be truly comparable
  • Errors may exists in reporting or recalls
  • For all studies, differential drop-outs are worrisome

We also discuss several other topics like What are some examples of algorithms?

Example: Problems with studying humans

Randomized controlled trial

  • Recruit adult subjects eating average american diet
  • - looking for relationship between diet and heart disease
  • Hypothesis: low fat diet lowers heart disease
  • Cohort Study
  • Recruit healthy adults who do not have disease
  • Collect data on eating habits
  • Compare health of low-fat diet and average american diet

  • Case-Control Study
  • choose a group who have have heart disease
  • Hospital,clinic
  • Find a comparable group, who do not have heart disease
  • Question patients about their past diets

If you want to learn more check out How can you evaluate the evidence in media reports of scientific studies?

Sources of Error

  • Random variation
  • Confounding variables
  • Bias

If you want to learn more check out How many are the known elements in the universe?
We also discuss several other topics like What is lynn margulis known for?

  • Random Variation
  • Results due to chance and not to a relationship between the variable of interest
  • Possible there is an association just by chance
  • larger numbers of subjects help draw valid conclusions
  • Weaker the relationship between exposure and dz, larger the number that is needed

  • Confounding Variables
  • A possible source of error in epidemiol studies; a factor associated with an exposure that may i independently affect the risk of developing the disease
  • Age,sex,socioenomic status, weight are examples of possible confounding variables

Bias

  • Recalls bias-also known as reporting bias; an error that occurs when there is a differential level of accuracy in the information provided by compared groups
  • Cohort study it occurs when exposed subjects are more or less likely than unexpected subjects to recall and report subsequence disease
  • Case-control studies, it occurs when cases are more or less likely than controls to recall and report prior exposures
  • Selection bias - an error due to systematic differences in characteristics between those who are selected for a study and those who are not

Factors that lend to validity to results

  • Strong association
  • Dose-response relationship
  • Known biological explanation

        Strong Association

  • Stranger association between exposure and dz, more likely that there is a true cause and effect

Dose-Response Relationship

  • Relationship between and risk of disease is evidence supporting that exposure is a cause the disease
  • Example: X-ray exposure and health outcomes
  • Radiologists (high exposure) : lowest lifespan
  • Opthamologist (low exposure); highest lifespan

Hormone Replacement Theory

  • Women reach menopause around age 50
  • Decrease in estrogen production, causing hot flashes, vaginal dryness
  • Estrogen treatment became popular in 1960s
  • Evidence in the 1970s demonstrated women taking estrogen had an increased risk of uterine cancer
  • Led to addition of progesterone, to the prescription
  • Conflicting results exist between 2 major studies

Ethical Issues: Tuskegee Syphilis study in  1932, U.S public health services from tuskegee institute began study on 400 black men (Macin Country, Alabama)

  • Men were told they had “bad blood” but no other information was provided
  • Told they would receive free treatment and meals
  • 1940s, penicillin was discovered and standard treatment for syphilis
  • Men in the study were not provided this treatment
  • Story broke in 1972 regarding the study
  • Raised questions about ethics

-men were deceived

-not told that syphilis was or that they were part of a study

- led to believe that they were receiving treatment

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