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GSU - BIOL 4535 - Class Notes - Week 5

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School: Georgia Southern University
Department: Engineering
Course: Vertebrate Zoology
Professor: Professor Chandler
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Vertebrates
Name: Vertebrate Zoology Week 5
Description: These notes cover the beginning of material needed for exam 2.
Uploaded: 09/12/2018
3 Pages 36 Views 28 Unlocks
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School: Georgia Southern University
Department: Engineering
Course: Vertebrate Zoology
Professor: Professor Chandler
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Vertebrates
Name: Vertebrate Zoology Week 5
Description: These notes cover the beginning of material needed for exam 2.
Uploaded: 09/12/2018

Unformatted text preview: Ni Life in water Water as a medium Vertebrates evolved in water, but a they evolved larger size and more active lifestyles, there were many challenges. x Water covers 73% of the planet, but it is distinctly diff. medium for air than a water x water contains very little oxygen, about 30-40 times uss than air. This has protound consequences for organisms that are becoming larger and more active. X As temp. rises the oxygen content of water goes down by about 400% from 0-40 C. x Water is dense (heavy) and viscous(sticky). It is about 800 times denser than air and 55 times as vis. Cous. X Water absorbs, scatters, and bends light. Certain wavelengths pass through water very differently than others. Thus, water is a challenging mediun for vision X Sound travels over 4 times faster in water (1484 mis) than in air 1343 m/s) It traveis farther as well X Water readily conducts electricity; air does not . Thus, electricity is a viable sensory Medium x water has dramatically different consequences for the movement of water.leaky bag of dirty water." x An organism is a That Villakiness" varies between air and water and between fresh and salt water) X Finally, the heat capacity of water is about 3500 times that of air, and water conducts heat about 24 times as fast as air x water hads huge amounts of heat and thus warms up' slowly. Abrupt temperature change is rares x High heat conductivity has serious UX consequences for body temp: B. Solutions Vertebrates evolved and diversified in water facing these challenges we have Just listed! 1. Oxygen * Non- vertebrate chordates were small e relatively inac ve. They could afford to diffuse oxygen into the body. X The more active vertebrates evolve specialized structures for the exchange of gas in water. Evolutionary, vertebrates develop qilis in the pharyngeal aire region along_gill arches. X Gilts bring huge surface areas of capillaries into close contract contact wl water. 2 x ram ventilation x buccal pumping I moves a lot of waterXonce you take wo oxygen, you must get it to all the cells in the body (diffusion It sa sufficient). Thus, a closed circulatory system, Note the earu vertebrate heart has 1 Untlow to 1 tutflow 2. buoyancy. X To live in water you must rest on the bottom, swim, or have neutral bullyancy (not viable option in ais). xFancy vertebrates had poor bunyancy. X Vertebrates would evolve a couple of solutions xone solution is to be high in fat or oil content. These molecules are less dense than water. We'll see this option in sharks and rays, A second option is to carry your own in life vest -a swim bladder. We will see this bordo Swim bladder. J y the x Bony fish ach vely regulate gas in the 3. Locomotion x It is hard to move thnugh water Idenses viscous). Vertebrates will evolve a vanety of structures for propulsion and steening. 4. sensory systems. 21 water plays tricks with light: *Light travers at diff: speeds in air and