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UIC / Biological Sciences / BIOS 220 / What is the unit of inheritance?

What is the unit of inheritance?

What is the unit of inheritance?

Description

School: University of Illinois at Chicago
Department: Biological Sciences
Course: Genetics
Professor: Morrison
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Week 3-Notes
Description: Terminology, Sex-linkage, Recessive and Dominate Traits
Uploaded: 09/12/2018
2 Pages 77 Views 1 Unlocks
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Week 3 notes (Sex-linkage)Don't forget about the age old question of What is the spanish of to the right?

Gene: unit of inheritance

Trait: unit of phenotype

Multiple forms of genes are called alleles.

A zygote has one allele from each parent.We also discuss several other topics like Who turned odysseus’s crew to pigs?

Genes determine phenotype

In humans, fruit flies, and many plants and animals, sex determination invaves an unusual, heteromorphic, chromosome pair.We also discuss several other topics like What is teleological fallacy?
We also discuss several other topics like What makes an argument strong and worthy of consideration?

Sex determination during the development may depend on the presence of a y or the x copy number.Don't forget about the age old question of What is the recommended amount of calories per day for humans?

Fruit flies                                                                 HumansIf you want to learn more check out What amino acids do not have an ionizable side chain?

Constitution

Sex

(Fertility)

Sex

(Fertility)

XX

F

+

F

+

XY

M

+

M

+

XO

M

-

F

-

XXY

F

+

M

-

Terminology

Autosomes: Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

Sex chromosomes: A chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds.

Heterogametic: refers to the sex of a species in which the sex chromosomes are not the same.

For example: In humans, males, with an X and a Y sex chromosome, would be referred to as the heterogametic sex, and females having two X sex chromosomes would be reffered to as the

Homogametic sex: Denoting the sex that possesses two similar sex chromosomes.

Hemizygous: having only a single copy of a gene instead of the customary two copies. All the genes on the single X chromosome in the male are hemizygous.

Wild-type phenotype: phenotypes most frequent in the population

In humans - the female somatic cell has 46 chromosomes.

  • The male somatic cell has 46 chromosomes

sex chromosomes pair during meiosis and segegate

Mendelian inheritance in eight rules and definitions for sex linkage

  1. Gene is necessary to produce trait (phenotype)
  2. Two copies of each gene per cell or only one in hemizygous offspring
  3. Multiple forms of genes : alleles  
  4. Genes determine phenotype new rule for hemizygous state
  5. Genes are transmitted intact
  6. Segregation of gene pairs into gametes or 1:0
  7. Zygote : one allele from each parent or from only one parent
  8. independent assortment of genes but correlated with sex.

X- linked recessive disorders

  • more males are affected
  • all children of affected males are normal, but females are carriers
  • ½ of the sons of corner females are affected
  • X - linked disorders : red - green color blinders, hemophilia, duchenne muscular dystrophy

x - linked dominant traits

  • usually both males and females are affected
  • Does not skip generations
  • Affected sons must have an affected mother
  • Affected daughter must have either an affected mother or father
  • Affected fathers will pass the trait to all his daughters  
  • Heterozygous affected mothers will pass the trait to ½ her sons and ½ her daughters

Autosomal Recessive Traits

  • Usually appears in both sexes with equal frequencies
  • Tends to skip generations
  • Affected offspring are usually born to unaffected parents
  • When both parents are heterozygous, approximately ¼ of their offspring will be affected
  • Appears more frequently among the children of consanguineous marriages.
  • Examples are: Phenylketonuria - PKU, cystic fibrosis (CFTR gene), sickle cell anemia (B-globin gene)

Autosomal Dominant Traits

  • Usually appears in both sexes with equal frequency
  • Both mothers and fathers pass the trait to their offspring
  • The trait does not skip generations
  • Affected offspring must have an affected parent (only exception would be a new mutation)
  • Unaffected parents do not pass the trait
  • When one parent is heterozygous and the other parent is unaffected, approximately ½ of the offspring will be affected
  • Examples: Huntington’s disease, familial hypercholesterolemia, polycystic kidney disease.

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