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SDSU / Engineering / ANTHRO 101 / Who is nicolaus copernicus?

Who is nicolaus copernicus?

Who is nicolaus copernicus?


School: San Diego State University
Department: Engineering
Course: ANTHRO101
Professor: Jeffrey peterson
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Anthropology, DNA replication. Heredity., and anthr
Cost: 50
Name: Anthropology 101 Test 1
Description: These notes are for the first exam and cover the lectures and the book including people, terms, and concepts that are needed to know.
Uploaded: 09/12/2018
7 Pages 177 Views 10 Unlocks

Study Guide Chapter 1

Who is nicolaus copernicus?


★ Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1542)

○ Started the Heliocentric theory that the solar system was revolving around the sun (NOT the earth)

■ This theory had more mathematical support

■ This theory argued the Christians belief so Copernicus was denounced by the church

★ Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

○ Used the new invention, the Telescope

○ Supported Copernicus’s hypothesis (and was also denounced by church) ○ Large influence on natural sciences

■ He had focused on observation, sensory evidence, measurement, and mathematical proof

★ Francis Bacon (1561-1626) “Father of Empiricism”

○ Used Inductive reasoning to explain the facts he observed

Who is alfred russel wallace?

○ Was skeptical and methodical in his approach

○ Encouraged and influenced future scientists to observe and experiment the natural world instead of believing in unproven theories

★ Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1726) If you want to learn more check out Who are the married couple who studied sex and wanted to know what happens while you’re having sex?

○ Used Baconian method to develop the Laws of Mechanics and Theory of Universal Gravity

○ Further supported the Heliocentric theory and mathematically formalized laws of planetary motion

■ Showed that gravity is the force keeping planets in orbit

★ Carl Linnaeus

○ Developed system of classifying plants and animals that is still used today ★ William Paley

○ Watchmaker argument (intelligence syllogism)

■ Complex forms or adaptations are created by an intelligent designer

What is stratigraphy?

■ Watches are complex → they are made by intelligent designer →

complex natural forms were also made by intelligent designer If you want to learn more check out Where is mesopotamia located?

○ This was NOT scientific, could not be tested

★ Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) If you want to learn more check out When the earth revolves, it takes about how long to complete one solar day?

○ Charles Darwin’s grandfather

○ Early evolutionist We also discuss several other topics like What is equilibrium and what is it for?

★ Jean-Baptist Lamark

○ Argued that evolution occurred in accordance with natural laws

○ Capacity to change

○ Inheritance of acquired traits

○ Law of use and disuse

○ Correctly recognized the dynamic relationship between an organism and its environment

★ Charles Darwin

○ Natural Selection (species slowly change over time)

★ Nicolas Steno (1638-1686)

○ Founded Stratigraphy: the study of the layering of earth’s sediments (Strata: layers of earth)

○ Proposed that the earth’s strata represent a chronological order of earth’s history ★ Sir Charles Lyell

○ Uniformitarianism: doctrine that geological processes operating in present have operated in the same way in the past and will continue to do so

○ Geological time, or “deep time” If you want to learn more check out What can the media, especially the news media, do to improve their credibility?

★ Thomas Malthus

○ “The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth ot produce subsistence for man”

○ Made population growth charts and where the cut off for resources met capacity with people

★ Alfred Russel Wallace

○ Also discovered theory of Natural Selection

○ Him and Darwin’s work were both presented together

○ He was the reason Darwin finally release his discoveries to the public ★ Gregor Mendel

○ Discovered laws of inheritance

○ Worked with pea plants that have several traits but only 2 forms

○ “Bred True” experiment

○ Green smooth + green smooth = green smooth

○ Yellow wrinkled + yellow wrinkled = yellow wrinkled

-Mendel’s experiments showed that inheritance is particulate, not blending ★ Hardy- Weinberg

○ if no other forces change gene frequencies they reach equilibrium after just one generation

○ a null hypothesis

Evolution = Changes in gene frequencies in a population

q^2 + 2pg + p^2

Next generation: q= (freq (aa) + .5 (freq Aa)) / surviving population

❏ Selection can’t operate unless there is variation in the population

❏ Selection does NOT operate directly on genotypes, but on phenotypes ❏ Strength and direction of selection depends on environment If you want to learn more check out What are the characteristics of material culture?


Science: Method of investigating the natural world

-Can be observed and measured uses

Critical Thinking: analyzing and evaluating information

Fact: Verifiable, observable truth,

Hypothesis: Testable explanation for observed facts

Theory: well supported hypothesis, a model of the world

Falsifiable: tests must be able to result in refutation

Tentative: subject to change

Parsimony: extreme economy/frugality; assume least complex explanation is most likely Essentialism: the notion that ideal types, that each organism has an ideal form an all living representations are slight deviations (sometimes seen as a failure)

Catastrophism: A belief that natural catastrophe happened regularly to wipe out some of the life on earth

Paradigm: predominant way of thinking about ideas

Adaptive Radiation: expansion by a single group of organisms into a diverse array of forms Niche: habitat or ecological role filled by an organism, they find a way to “make a living” Plate Tectonics: process by which the earth’s crustal plates move independently of one another resulting in continental drift

Continental Drift: theory that the present configuration of continents results from the movement of the earth’s crust

Anthropology: holistic study of mankind, study of all aspects of the human experience Socio-Culture: study of human culture in all of its complexity

Linguistics: study of language use,meaning, patterns, structure, and evolution and how language is affected, affects the human experience

Archaeology: Study of the patterns of behavior and the material record of humans who lived in the past

Biological Anthropology: Scientifc investigation of biological, behavioral, bicultural aspects of human beings, non-human primates, and extinct hominin ancestors, Has many sub-fields: Paleoanthropology: study of fossil evidence for human evolution

Primatology: study of non-human primate behavior, morphology, and genetics Ecology: interrelationship between living organisms and their environments: Integrative Approaches: practice drawing on all subdisciplines of anthropology and other disciplines to attempt to answer questions about humans

Comparative Approach: the practice of comparing features across entities/ cultures/ organisms to elucidate similarities and difference

Natural Selection: process by which the better fit variants in a population become over-represented over time

Fit: having the set of heritable traits that are best suited to existing and reproducing in a given environment

Heritable: capable of being passed to offspring biologically

Natural Selection:

1. Struggle for existence

2. Variation in traits = variation in fitness

3. Inheritance

Stratigraphy: the study of the layering of earth’s sediments

Strata: layers of earth

Uniformitarianism: doctrine that geological processes operating in the present have also operated in the same way in the past and will continue to do so in the future Taxonomy: naming and classification of organisms based on morphological similarities and differences. Binomial nomenclature

Reproductive Success: a measure of the number of surviving offspring an organism has Biological Heredity : the passing of biological information from generation to generation Genetics : basic structure and processes of the DNA and its related machinery Genomics : study of complex interactions that characterize the function and behavior of DNA and all of its associated molecules and chemical patterns and evolutionary patterns Epigenetic system : systems of changes that affect the expression of many traits and bodily processes connected to genetic system (does not change DNA sequence itself) Human Genome : name for the myriad DNA sequences

The Law of Segregation: when allele pairs separate/ segregate into daughter cells The Law of Independent Assortment: each trait does not affect the other traits, ex: pea color does not affect pea texture

Gene (preliminary definition) : the particle or more properly, segment of DNA that codes for a trait

Gene : segment of DNA that contains the sequence for the trait

Allele (preliminary definition): a variant or form of a gene (the letter used in punnett square) Homozygous : the state of having the same allele at both loci for the same gene Heterozygous : the state of having different alleles at both loci for the same gene Genotype : the genetic representation; the alleles in an organism’s DNA

Phenotype : an organism’s observable measurable traits

Dominant : allele that is phenotypically expressed in heterozygotes

Recessive : Allele or trait that is only expressed when 2 copies of the gene are present Chromosome : complex structures that house the supercoiled DNA in the nucleus DNA : deoxyribonucleic acid; the chemical compound found in most living organisms that contains basic information for the structure of life

Diploid: chromosomes come in homologous pairs

Haploid: cells with half the genetic complement or only one copy of each chromosome, found in gametes

Nucleotide Bases: the four chemical bases that make up the core portion of DNA (adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine)

DNA replication: the process by which DNA copies itself. The helix splits (unzips) and the nucleotides attract free flowing ones

Mitosis: process of cell division and replication, when cells keep growing and enlarge then eventually divide. The cells clone themselves going from Diploid → Diploid

Meiosis: sexual reproduction and biological inheritance, making Gametes. - a haploid germ cell (sex cell) that is able to unite with another of opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote. Production of Gametes

Gametes. - a haploid germ cell (sex cell) that is able to unite with another of opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.

Zygote: a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gamete 

Locus (loci)- place on a chromosome where a specific gene occurs

Recombination: when maternal and paternal chromosomes move around during meiosis Crossing Over: homologous, or sister, chromosomes exchange segments

Proteins: building blocks of organic life, composed of amino acids

Protein Synthesis: process by which the nucleotide “message” is taken from a gene, transcribed, and translated into a protein

Transcription: copying DNA message to RNA

Translation converting mRNA sequence into protein

Triplet: 3 nucleotide sequence in which the DNA’s code is written (DNA letters are A,T,C,G) Codon: 3 nucleotide sequence in which the DNA’s triplet code is written onto the mRNA Amino Acids: building blocks of proteins

Polypeptide: a string of amino acids that folds in on itself and becomes a protein Ribonucleic acid (RNA): similar to DNA that is responsible for taking the message from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosome in the cytoplasm

mRNA (messenger RNA): form of RNA that takes the transcribed DNA message to a special organelle called a ribosome

Ribosome: site of protein synthesis

Transfer RNA (tRNA): form of RNA that brings amino acids to the ribosome Anticodon: 3-nucleotide sequence on a tRNA molecule that helps match the appropriate amino acid with a specifc mRNA codon

Polygenic: the situation wherein many genes combine to have one effect on a trait Pleiotropic: the situation wherein one gene has many effects on different traits Evolvability: the notion that much DNA may act as a reserve variation for future selective pressures Population Genetics: study of the distribution of the genetic variation within and between populations Antimicrobial resistance (AMR): caused by overuse and misuse.Nearly all major microbial infectious diseases are becoming resistant. Overuse and misuse of antibiotics is the #1 reason for emergence of AMR

Modern Synthesis:

Hardy-Weinberg Equation: q^2 + 2pq + p^2 = 1

● q2 = freq(aa)

● 2pq = freq(Aa)

● P2 = freq(AA)

Evolution = changes in gene frequencies in a population

Population: cluster of individuals of the same species who share a common geographical area and find their mates more often in their own cluster than in others

Gene Pool: all the alleles within a population

Mutation: Changes in nucleotide sequence in DNA

Gene Flow: Movement of alleles within and between populations

Migration: movement of alleles in and out of populations

Nonrandom mating: pattern of mating in which individuals mate preferentially with certain others Inbreeding: mating among close genetic relatives

Assortative mating: mate selection based on similarity (positive assortative) or differences (negative assortative) in traits

Genetic Drift: Random changes in allele frequencies across generations

Founder effect: evolutionary process in which a small group of individuals account for all of the genetic variation in a large population

Bottleneck: dramatic reduction in the size of a population such that the genetic diversity in the population is substantially curtailed

Adaption: change in response to environmental challenges (process), characteristic designed by natural selection to serve a particular function (trait)

Exaptation: trait that is currently serving a function other than that for which it originally arose Evolutionary byproduct (Spandrels): by products of structural change

Extended Evolutionary Synthesis: Includes • Epigenetic system • Behavioral Inheritance System • Symbolic Inheritance System • Developmental Systems Theory • Niche Construction Theory Microevolution: Evolution within a species; Field and lab studies

Macroevolution: Evolution of species; Takes a LONG time and Difficult to observe Speciation: process by which new species arise

Reproductive Isolation can keep two species distinct from one another (removes gene flow) Allopatric speciation: mode of speciation that involves a separation and isolation of populations of the parent species


● Great Chain of Being: Biased way of thinking how the world works, with God’s and Angels at the top then male figures, underneath that were females, other animals, then usually ending at worms.

● Earth is around 4.5 billion years old. The history of the planet can be divided into: Eras → Periods → Epochs

● Darwin’s Finches: Beak size, how the drought resulted in bigger beaks to crack tougher seeds. Drought ended, beaks returned to normal because they had higher mortality rates and took more energy to grow.

● Phenotypic and Genotypic Ratios: The genotype helps base the chance of certain phenotypes (Punnett Squares)

● Biological vs Ecological Species Concept:

○ Biological- interbreeding organisms that is reproductively isolated from other organisms. Interbreeding results in gene flow, transfer of genes between interbreeding populations

○ Ecological: boundaries between species are maintained by natural selection


How do competition, variation, and heritability lead to evolution by means of natural selection? Can you provide an example of how this works?

How does natural selection sometimes cause species to become better adapted to their environments?

How can natural selection both cause species to change and cause species to stay the same over time?

How did Mendel’s experiments reveal the logic of inheritance?

Can you relate the machinery of cell replication to Mendel’s laws of inheritance? How are the properties of DNA consistent with the role of genes in inheritance?

What is relation between genes and proteins? What role do proteins have in an organism?

Can you determine the series of amino acids in a polypeptide chain given a DNA template?

What is gene regulation? How might it influence phenotypic variation?

Can you use gene frequencies and/or genotypic frequencies to describe the genetic composition of populations?

How does natural selection change gene frequencies in populations? Can natural selection account for behavior?

How are species defined?

Explain how new species arise through process of evolution

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