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UD / Sociology / AD 201010 / Who are the married couple who studied sex and wanted to know what hap

Who are the married couple who studied sex and wanted to know what hap

Who are the married couple who studied sex and wanted to know what hap


School: University of Delaware
Department: Sociology
Course: Introduction to Sociology
Professor: Joel best
Term: Fall 2018
Cost: 50
Name: Sociology 201, Exam 1 study guide
Description: this study guide covers all lecture material and article outlines for the upcoming exam
Uploaded: 09/13/2018
20 Pages 167 Views 14 Unlocks

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Here’s the study guide for the first test! I recommend reading over all of the class notes for the first 5 lectures (sex, suicide, bodies, time, numbers). I’ve included the main points in here, but the details are found in the notes. I’ve also included outlines of each of the articles we had to read. Good luck!

Who is alfred kinsey?


SEX (7 questions on the test will come from this section) 

We tend to think of sex as natural/instinctual

Alfred Kinsey (1894-1956)

● Studied Gall Wasps

● Then started interviewing people of all sexual backgrounds

● Sexual Behavior in the Human Male

○ First book in “The Kinsey Reports” (later he wrote one about females) ○ This was biological → all humans (he made a distinction between male and female) If you want to learn more check out Where is mesopotamia located?

○ It became a sensation → this was coming from a scientist so people were impressed and interested

○ He said that a majority of people have sexual experiences before/outside of marriage

Who is william masters?

If you want to learn more check out Define the celestial sphere model.

■ Masturbating

■ Homosexual experiences not uncommon

William Masters and Virginia Johnson

● Married couple who studied sex and wanted to know what happens while you’re having sex

● So they studied people in their lab

Sex and religion​:

● Intimately connected with religious belief and practice, and violators of religious tenants are punished

○ Adam and Eve

○ Hester Prynne

○ Stoning adulterers in Afghanistan

If sex is natural, why do we need guidebooks? And rules?

Is marriage about love? Religion? Law?

Who is emile durkheim?

● finding/committing to “the one”

● weddings are often religious occasions, ratified by/before God

● taxes, will

○ Makes financial sense to file taxes as a married couple Don't forget about the age old question of What is equilibrium and what is it for?

○ Spouse has a right to property after someone’s death

○ In the 1980s, homosexual partners had none of these rights

There are rules about…

● Incest

● gender of partner

● Homosexual marriage

● Interracial marriage

● Age of consent

● How many people you can marry

… and many of these have been the cause of division in our country over our history. Attitudes change over time (as do rules)

Trouble keeping up with other changes?

● Is sexting a form of distributing child pornography? Should sexters be registered as sex offenders?

***Norm: a rule set up by a group​. All people/groups have norms.

● Norms about sex (coming from many sources, including the church) ● Weinberg: nudists have norms (article) Don't forget about the age old question of What are the problems associated with hyping and hoaxing in media?

● Sex and violence (does sex lead to violence?)

● At what point is sex inappropriate?

○ Rape

● Legitimacy- used to be a big deal in our country, not so much anymore ○ Having rules regarding this encourages stability

○ Inheritance- should an illegitimate child still be an heir? It didn’t used to be the case

● Norms vary from place to place (remember Amsterdam, Japan)

● Current concern- “JK girls” (joshi kosei) engaged in “compensational dating” ● Footbinding had erotic meaning (now banned in China) We also discuss several other topics like What are the characteristics of material culture?

**the norms you know aren’t the same everywhere**

The result of all those rules: sex is patterned. There are norms surrounding sex. 

Sociologists study social effects, look for patterns. The point of this lecture is how sociologists think.

● How do people affect one another?

● Sex is regulated by norms

● People behave in roughly the same way because of norms

SUICIDE (7 questions on the test will come from this section)

We tend to think of suicide as a psychological issue

… but it is a social phenomenon.

Society began with human history’s greatest transformation: industrialization​ (early 19th c.)

There was a big generational transformation (before, each generation’s life was similar to parents’, grandparents’, etc. Now, so much change is coming with each generation.) → this led to the creation of a science to study the process by which society changes


Statistics​ ​→ originally measures of social health

Good to keep birth record, death records to know if you’re country was strong/weak Don't forget about the age old question of What is the non-invasive treatment for aphasia?

Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)

● His books set the intellectual foundation for sociology

● Suicide: A Study in Sociology

○ He compared the number of suicides in France and Denmark in 1869

○ France had a lot more- surprising because we tend to think of the French as happy and Denmark as gloomy

○ BUT- France is bigger. So he found the rate per million people and discovered that Denmark had a significantly higher rate

○ He went to a number of Prussian provinces and looked at the link between religion and suicide

■ The greater the percentage of Protestants, the higher the suicide rate

Since World War 2, the suicide rate has pretty much stayed the same

Old people have the highest rate of suicide (more than teens/young adults) Males significantly higher than females

White males are the highest, black females are the lowest

Social Solidarity​ ​(Social integration)

● When there is low social solidarity, or high social solidarity, there is a high suicide rate Protestant Reformation→ printing press→ people now have the Bible in their own language, easily accessible→ powerful sense of individualism​ (which means low social solidarity→ high suicide rate)

2 types of suicide result from either low or high sense of social solidarity: Anomic Suicide (due to low social solidarity)

Men: traditionally, men define their self-image/identity in their work

- When they retire, they lose their sense of self-worth

Women: traditionally, women have found their fulfillment/self-image/identity in the home, family, and friendships

- Losing the work context is not as impactful for them

This demonstrates that men have lower social solidarity​ ​than women, and thus have a higher suicide rate

Altruistic suicide (due to high social solidarity)

Military- high social solidarity

- Mission-focused

- Sacrifice self for the group

Suicide bombers

Deductive reasoning​: reasoning that travels along a ration path from theory→ hypothesis→ observation→ confirmation

Inductive reasoning​: using evidence to come up with a theory (observation→ theory)

● Suicide verdicts are a product of social activity (coroner’s inquest)

○ Jury, coroner

● Self-inflicted deaths can be accidental (autoerotic asphyxiation)

● Suicide by black teens- increase over time, researchers wondered why ○ Looking at the charts, we can see that the number of undetermined deaths goes down as suicide goes up→ this indicates that there’s not actually an increase in black suicides, but coroners are doing their jobs better now. Deaths that were previously classified as “undetermined” are now classified as suicide.

So rather than seeing this as psychological distress, see how death certificates are made more professionally now.

The whole point:

The point is how sociologists think.

● Deductive reasoning

● Inductive reasoning (​most of our readings)​

They make arguments, and then test them against reality

Even when we’re looking at things that may not seem to be social (for this lecture, suicide), we can see the effects of social connections.

BODIES (7 question on the test will come from this section) 

We tend to think of bodies as biological

… but it took centuries to get to this point.

Bodies differ- and we evaluate them positively and negatively (what should bodies be?)

**Ethnocentrism​:​ ​the idea that your group’s standards are the right ones, the “normal” ones, etc.

→ different groups have different standards… including ones about bodies.

Body standards vary across time and space

● Many cultures have equated more weight with greater beauty (because it indicates prosperity)

● Gibson girls and John Held’s flappers→ thinner, and this was new

● Betty Garble, Marilyn Monroe→ both fuller figures

● Hollywood’s shifting ideal: thinner, taller

● But it’s still possible to find contemporary examples of fat being valued ○ “Miss Fat South Africa” beauty pageant

○ Chubby Chaser→ men who are attracted to heavy women can go to these places ● Over history, fat has been valued when it symbolizes wealth and leisure ● Why are Jane Austen’s women so concerned with bonnets and parasols?

○ Back then, being attractive meant having pale skin because it showed high status ○ This is why most artists painted pale nudes

○ In the modern workplace, people work under fluorescent lights→ so the meaning of being tan has changed and is now desirable (it means you have leisure)

**our “perfectly normal” standards are changing over time, and are dependent on our time and place**

Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929)

→ The Theory of The Leisure Class- important concept of conspicuous consumption (explained below)

● Old Money:

○ North: people who were rich were rich because of shipping

○ South: rich from agriculture

● Suddenly, non-established people are making money because of new technology (steam engines, railroads)

○ DuPont

○ Rockefeller

● “Old Money” vs. “New Money”

● People are now trying to prove that they “made it” … and that’s where Veblen’s “conspicuous consumption” comes in

○ Enormous houses

○ Ridiculous dogs that look like mops

○ Hairstyles that clearly took a lot of time (and servants)

○ Walking stick (if you’re hands were free, it meant that you didn’t have to work)

Bodies express society’s values

● Early America’s respect for age/wisdom- powdered wigs and high waistlines to look older and more serious

● Today, old people dress like younger people

One’s body can be changed, and advertisements appeal to desires for different types Bodies as achievements

Adornment makes bodies more appealing: TATTOOS

● Once suggested lower status

○ Marlboro ads with tattoos attempting to portray tattoos as masculine

● Sometimes criminality

● Today: respectable, artistic

● Article: reconciling tattoos with respectability

● Their popularity is growing

● But not all want to hang onto permanent reminders of temporary feelings (23% of people with tattoos say they regret it)

Bodies can become social problems

● standards shift: in 1998, the government changed the BMI range for “normal weight” ● some people who’d gone to bed with a normal weight woke up overweight

People argue about what’s a problem

● Pro-ana sites: support for those with eating disorders

● Feeder sites

Erving Goffman (1922-1982)

● The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life: life as a performance

● aspects of performance:

○ Appearance

○ Demeanor

○ Speech

● Make judgments (and social assumptions) about people based on these ● Just as a theater has front and backstage regions, so do homes and work spaces (and sometimes it’s a team effort to present spaces in certain ways- ex. couple agrees that all the junk will go in the laundry room, only take guests into the tidy living room) ● Embarrassment results from failure to manage one’s appearance → inconsistency in performance

**Bodies as part of every social performance**

And the meaning we give bodies--and everything else--are social judgments

The way you look at the world (your norms) is shaped by other people. Meanings are social.

TIME (7 questions on the test will come from this section) 

Time seems physical, part of nature’s rhythm

… but people measure time and they agree to follow certain ways (like clocks and calendars)

Understanding time’s passage was an early form of knowledge

→ astronomers

→ predicting time was associated with priests…

- They would offer advice about when to plant crops, etc.

→ … and governments

- Julius Caesar made the calendar

Reforming calendars by religious figures:

● Constantine the Great

○ Convened Council of Nicea

○ Separated Easter from Jewish Passover

● Pope Gregory XIII

○ Corrected number of leap years from 100 to 97 in 400 years

Different cultures had different calendars

● Mayan calendar

○ Predicted end of the world in 2012

○ Based on 13-baktun cycle

○ Had been relatively accurate- but that’s because it wasn’t as sophisticated as many thought

But this diversity has been replaced by global agreement

Royal Mail Coach

● Came to each town at a certain time

● People were able to tell approximately what time it was based on when the coach got there

● This worked because England is pretty small

Trains changed everything

● Suddenly being on the same time mattered to avoid train crashes

Standard time zones- 1883 in the US

● The sun wasn’t at the same place in the sky in all cities, so they couldn’t use the sun to tell time

● They divided the country into 4 time zones

There were rival prime meridians

● International Meridian Conference (D.C., 1884)

● Established 24 basic time zones and the international date line

French Revolution linked to the Enlightenment

● Outrage over the government system and abuse of church

● Science became increasingly admired/important

● This led to the metric system

○ Based on factors of 10

○ Jefferson liked this

○ According to the constitution, Congress decides which system we use ○ US, Liberia, and Burma (Myanmar) are the only countries that don’t use the metric system

○ 1976- Canada switched- but we backed out

● Less successful was the French’s effort to rationalize time

○ Calendar with twelve 30-day months

○ Clocks with ten 100-minute hours

**Inertia: ​we build social arrangements into our lives, and it’s hard to change them → this is demonstrated in the tremendous resistance the changing the calendar

Some organizations have their own calendar

● Sports schedule

● Religious festivals/holidays

● Academic calendars

Work and time (St. Monday)

● 6 day work week

● People would show up on Monday hungover

● Wouldn’t get much done

Industrialization​ changed this

● factory whistle would mark the start/end of shifts

● Individual workers’ time was now measured/supervised

● Intricate schedules make time something to manage- and that can become a problem ○ Can also be an ethnic issue (books written speculating why some ethnic groups have different sense of time)

○ Can become a problem at work

○ People generally share similar schedules

■ Eat, sleep, etc.

● Night is becoming a temporal frontier

○ American frontier: thinly populated, mostly young males, disorderly… just like the night

○ Nighttime is becoming more populated

Social Construction→​ people make the world meaningful

● Everything we know about the world we learned from over people ● We use the meanings that other’s give us- it’s easier to operate with shared understandings

● “Time is money” → can be saved, spent, wasted, etc.

● **how we organize time** is socially constructed

○ How we think about and measure time is a product of our social arrangements, just like everything else

NUMBERS (7 questions from the test will come from this section) 

“Every year since 1950, the number of american children gunned down has doubled.” ● This is clearly a bad social statistic (doesn’t make sense if you do the math) ● Skewed from original stat.

○ the number only doubled once

○ … but so did the population

**you can prove pretty much anything you want with numbers**

How should we think about numbers in an era of “fake news” and “alternative facts”?

People associate numbers with facts

● Facts are like rocks?

● More helpful to think of facts as jewels

○ People’s work creates jewels

○ Similarly, people produce statistics (they are socially constructed!)

How to create a social problem:

1. A terrible example

2. A name

a. Not “terrible incidence” → you need an instance of a terrible problem 3. A number- how big is the problem?

Important questions to ask yourself:

● Who counted?

● What did they count?

● How did they count?

● Where did they count?

● When did they count?

● Why did they count?

… all stats are shaped by the answers to these questions

If you’re shocked by how bad things seem based on a statistic, ask yourself- what’s being counted?

*It’s important to understand who’s producing a number and why**

Sometimes people make dumb mistake, sometimes they can be misleading… sometimes the mistakes don’t seem so accidental (people will intentionally present figures in a certain way to try to convince people of something that isn’t fully true)

Numbers can take on a life of their own

Numbers deserve careful, critical attention

**Evidence- not necessarily wrong, but ~squishy~ (people socially construct numbers, ​just like everything else)​

Articles​ (3 questions from each article will appear on the exam)

“Sexual Modesty, Social Meanings, and the Nudist Camp” by M.S. Weinberg

I. Intro

A. Sexual modesty is a form of sexual reserve- non-availability for sexual interaction 1. It’s a form of social control (that’s its function)

B. Forms of immodesty

1. Verbal communications

2. Non-verbal communications

a) Display of body

b) Other forms of erotic overture

C. Commission-omission

1. See table, bottom of pg. 313

II. The study: the nudist camp

A. Hypothesis

1. If nudists change the definition of the “nude situation,” and maintain the other forms of modesty (found in the table), social control over sexual

desires (and thus modesty) will be maintained

2. When the other forms of modesty aren’t maintained, the changed

definition is called into question

B. Ideology of the Nudist camp

1. Nudism and sexuality are unrelated

2. There is nothing shameful and exposing the human body

C. Organizational precautions (to weed out guests whose acceptance is questionable) 1. no/few singles

2. Certification of owner

3. Limit on trial visits

D. Norms regarding interpersonal behavior

1. No staring

2. No sex talk

3. Body contact is taboo

4. No alcohol

5. Limited photography

6. Accentuation of the body is suspect

7. Unnatural attempts to cover the body are ridiculed

8. Communal toilets

III. Conclusion

A. Convering the body with clothes isn’t necessary for modesty or social control

B. All other forms of modesty are maintained- enough to achieve the function of modesty

C. When only 1 type of modesty is “broken,” and the definition of the situation is changed, the typically expected consequence (i.e. rampant sexual interest, promiscuity, embarrassment, jealousy, shame) doesn’t occur

“The Influence of Suggestion on Suicide” by David Phillips

I. Background

A. Goethe

1. Sorrows of Young Werther

2. Suggested suicide was influenced by suggestion

B. Later sociologists disagreed

C. Logic (pg. 341)

1. “Anomic individuals are usually suggestible”

2. “Anomic individuals are prone to suicide”

3. “Therefore, individuals prone to suicide should also be suggestible”

II. Study

A. Daniel Burros

1. Suicide November 1, 1965

2. Researches compared suicide rates in the month after this event with rates of surrounding Novembers

3. Found that the number of suicides was greater that year than immediately preceding/following Novembers

B. Suicides increase in the month following a publicized suicide

1. The more publicity, the larger the rise in suicides after the appearance a) More days on the front page

b) Multiple news sources

2. Rise is greater in immediate area

a) NYC vs. Britain

“Legitimating the First Tattoo” by Katherine Irwin

I. Background

A. Changing meanings of tattoos

B. Struggle to reconcile desires for tattoos with fears of being associated with low status groups

C. “Moral passage results from changes in the way individuals act toward and interpret behavior” (50)

D. Social change through “informal, everyday practices”

1. Face-to-face interaction

II. Deviant attractions

A. Freedom from constraints

B. Deviant associations

III. Deviant aversions

A. Conservative reactions

B. Status anxiety

IV. Legitimation techniques

A. Using mainstream motives

1. Use tattoos to mark conventional aspects of themselves

B. Committing to conventional behavior

1. Tattoos as part of their conventionality

C. Offering verbal neutralizations

D. Conforming to conventional aesthetics

V. Conclusions

A. “In the end, their tattoos did more to announce their connection to rather than their independence from conventionality”

B. “Tattooees ended up confirming many of the norms and values they were trying initially to escape”

“The Social Meaning of Time for University Students”

I. Intro

A. Social meaning of time for students at a modern university

B. Focus on students

C. Different types of time

1. Scheduled time

a) Sense of time in face of externally imposed structure

(1) Deadlines, etc.

b) Formal

c) Informal

2. Timeless time

a) Loss of significance of physical time when immersed in task

(1) Growth, enjoyment

b) In a liminal state

c) Individual

d) Group-based

3. Endless time

a) Physical time loses significance due to external requirement

4. Compressed time

a) Nearing a deadline, or for a goal, time becomes urgent

5. Wasted time

a) Time waiting to be served

b) Relates to lack of power

c) Can lead to boredom

6. Time as goal

a) Desire to control time

b) Ex. competitive sports

II. More about time

A. Physical time categories

1. Scheduled (planned)

2. Wasted (unplanned)

B. Subjective time

1. Loss of significance of physical time

a) Timeless (internal)

b) Endless (external)

2. Compressed time (external constraints)

3. Time as goal (internal desire)

C. One category can be embedded in another

D. 2 meanings can exist simultaneously

1. One’s structural role defines social meaning of time

III. Conclusions

A. Scheduled time as imprisoning, confining

B. Ones’ structural position determines how one structures one’s time throughout the day

“Hidden Choices and Missing Numbers: Selecting Drug Numbers for Media Attention” by Jerome L. Himmelstein

I. Introduction

A. Numbers in the media

1. Seen as fact, symbol of objectivity

2. Big numbers trump small numbers

3. Numbers and drugs- social construction 

a) What choices do the media make in constructing drug problems?

4. What numbers do they report? And which do they hide?

B. MTF (monitoring the future) study

1. Their finding either reflect routine practices (how they always report things)

2. Or they’ll reflect the specific political moment 

II. The Studies

A. Background: The Crack Scare (‘85-’86)

1. Many saw this as the most important problem facing America

2. The facts didn’t align with public opinion

B. Study during the Crack Scare

1. High school/college-aged individuals

2. Asked about drug use

3. Reported 2 things

a) Decline in drug use has stopped

b) Cocaine use has increased

C. November ‘85 press release

1. Huge focus on cocaine

D. July ‘86 press release

1. Again, cocaine

2. Not very much attention to cigarettes, alcohol

III. Analysis

A. They chose to emphasize cocaine use (emphasis on illegal over legal drugs) B. They didn’t distinguish between marijuana and other illicit drugs (even though many students drew a line at marijuana)

C. Cautious to report good news- and almost always mixed good news with bad news

D. They chose not to emphasize big numbers

E. They did not emphasize demographic differences (rather just “high school students in general”)

1. Response to political environment- the Crack Scare was associated with blacks

F. They didn’t report their “standard theory of drug use”

1. It’s the demand for drugs, and not the supply for drugs, that causes high rates of drug use/abuse

2. Young people will use illicit drugs because they don’t see them as

dangerous or because of peer acceptance, and not because of easy


IV. Conclusion

A. In some ways, it seems that the MTF reported in line with the political context The Crack Scare

B. On the other hand, their reporting seems to be in line with how they generally report things

C. This could either reflect an unchanging political context (meaning they always reported like this because the political context was always this way)

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