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CSU / Life Science / LIFE 102 / What is alpha helices?

What is alpha helices?

What is alpha helices?

Description

School: Colorado State University
Department: Life Science
Course: Attributes of Living Systems
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Biology
Cost: 50
Name: Life 102
Description: This is to help you on the exam
Uploaded: 09/13/2018
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What is alpha helices?



Exam 1 Study Guide life 102 Study online at quizlet.com/_57h9jl

1. +1 A hydrogen ion, formed during the dissociation of

water, has what charge?

2. 1.007 How many daltons does a proton weigh?

3. 1.009 How many daltons does a

14. 10-100 micrometers How big are eukaryotic cells?

15. 12 out of all 90 occurring elements on earth, how many

are needed in order to make

life?

4. 1. Always start on low power for the biggest field of Don't forget about the age old question of What is hawkes ladder of inference?
We also discuss several other topics like Why is the smoking rate high in the south and east part of the us?

vision.

2. Always look from the side

neutron weigh?

List the three rules of microscopy: (using a microscope)


What is alpha helix?



16. 40x 100x

400x

What are the three levels of magnification that the compound microscope we used in class was capable of producing? If you want to learn more check out It is all about delivering value and satisfying everyone involved in the marketing process.

when changing your lenses to avoid scratching or shattering anything.

3. Use only the fine focus adjustment when using the

17. 100, 1000 If the radius of the cell increases by 10 times, then

the surface area will increase

by ____ times and the volume

will increase by ______ times

400x lens because the course one can shatter the lens

18. The ability to distinguish two closely spaced specimens If you want to learn more check out What is the goal of social psychologists?

What is resolution?

5. 1. A nucleotide or nucleus where genetic material is located


What is an amino acid chain?



2. A cytoplasm

3. ribosomes to synthesize proteins

4. a plasma membrane

6. 1. Cells are self contained by a Plasma membrane

2. Inside the membrane is the cytoplasm

What are the four features that all cells have in

common?

What are the two basic characteristics that all cells have in common?

19. The ability to do work What is the formal definition of energy? If you want to learn more check out What is phagocytosis?

20. Acid Any substance that dissociates in water to

increase the [H+] (and lower

the pH) is called a(n) ________

21. Actin During the contraction of muscle cells, which fiber is

used?

22. actin What are microfilaments composed of?

7. 1 micrometer How big are most cells?

8. 2 How many cell layers do elodea leaves have?

9. 4 How many carbon rings are needed to make a steroid?

23. Acts as a protective outside for the cell

24. Acts as a semifluid,

protective inside for the cell 25. adjusts the stage back and

Why do cells have plasma membranes?

What is the function of cytosol in the cell?

What is the purpose for the

10. 4x

10x

40x

11. A 5-Carbon sugar

an organic nitrogenous base a phosphate group

12. 5 to 10 nanometers thick (with proteins embedded in it)

What are the magnifications on the three objective lenses used in class?

What are the three

components of the structure of a nucleotide? We also discuss several other topics like Refers to the level of civilization.

How big is the plasma membrane?

forth and side to side

26. Advantages: Strength, work as a group, strong structure Disadvantages: more

complicated, needing a mate

27. All organisms are composed of one or more cells and the life process of the

mechanical stage controls?

What are some advantages and disadvantages of an individual cell of being apart of a multicellular organism?

What is the first principle of the cell theory?

13. 8 For atoms important to producing life, the outermost

energy level can contain no

more than how many

electrons?

metabolism and heredity occur within these cells

28. All organisms are made of cells

29. allows access to and from the nucleus

What is the simplified cell theory?

What is the role of the nuclear envelope?

30. alpha helices What type of secondary structure is usually cylindrical?

31. alpha helix This type of helix is A form of secondary structure in proteins

where the polypeptide chain is

wound into a spiral due to

interactions between amino and

carboxyl groups in the peptide

41. atomic number Different atoms are defined by the number of protons, a

quantity called the...

42. Atoms Known as the building blocks of matter, what is the smallest

unit of an element that contains

all of the characteristics of that

element?

backbone

32. amino acid chain Water's tendency to hydrophobically exclude

nonpolar molecules literally

shoves the nonpolar portions of

the _______________ into the protein's

interior

33. amino acids Organisms use sequences of nucleotides in their DNA to

specify the sequences of

_____________________ in their proteins

34. amino acids What are the building blocks of proteins?

43. An atom that has less protons than electrons and therefore has a more negative net charge

44. An atom that has more protons than electrons and therefore has a more positive net charge

45. A backbone of carbon atoms

What is an anion?

What is a cation?

The defining feature of organic compounds is the presence of which of the following? A backbone of oxygen atoms and carbon side chains

35. Anchorage of cell Providing structural

stability

Providing mechanical strength

36. Animal cells do not have chloroplasts, have only a plasma membrane, and have a small to no

central vacuole

Plant cells however, do have chloroplasts and a cell wall WITH plasma membranes and a large central vacuole that

takes up a lot of space

What are some functions of intermediate filaments?

How can you tell the difference between an animal cell and a plant cell?

A backbone of nitrogen atoms

A backbone of carbon atoms

Only carbon atoms

46. Bacteria, archaea What are some examples of prokaryotic cells?

47. Base A substance that combines with H+ when dissolved in

water, and thus lowers the [H+],

is called a(n) ________. Therefore,

basic (or alkaline) solutions

have pH values above 7.

48. B (beta) sheet A form of secondary structure in proteins where the

polypeptide folds back on

itself one or more times to

form a planar structure

37. antiparallel One strand of DNA runs ____________ to another

stabalized by hydrogen bonding between amino and

38. Anything that is not bacteria or archaea

39. The area of a

prokaryotic cell, usually near the center, that contains the genome in the form of DNA

compacted with protein

What are some examples of eukaryotic cells?

What is the nucleoid in a cell?

49. Because carbon 14 has such a long half life, (5730 years), scientists are able to take elements from biological samples and rocks and accurate

determine when those

carboxyl groups in the peptide backbone

Describe carbon dating

40. atomic mass The _____________ of an atom is equal to the sum of the masses of its

protons and neutrons

materials were found.

50. Because carbon-hydrogen covalent bonds store

considerable energy

Why do hydrocarbons make good fuels?

51. Because it has two lens systems

(ocular and

Why is the compound microscope called a compound microscope?

60. Carbohydrate matrix that is cross-linked by short polypeptide units

What is peptidoglycan?

objective)

52. because of the high

concentrations of

Why is the cytoplasm a jello-like structure?

61. Carbohydrates What type of loosely defined group of molecules contain

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in

the molecular ratio 1:2:1?

proteins and other

macromolecules it

holds

53. Beta sheets What type of secondary structure is usually planar?

54. Bohr Who proposed the idea that every atom possesses an orbiting cloud of

tiny subatomic particles called

62. Carbohydrates

Lipids

Acids (nucleic)

Protiens

63. A carbohydrate that have two simple sugars that have bonded

together covalently

Biological macromolecules are traditionally grouped into what 4 categories? (CLAP)

What is disaccaride?

55. Both are light microscopes that use photon beams to show a picture to the retina of

electrons whizzing around a core, like the planets of a miniature solar system. At the center of each atom is a small, very dense nucleus formed of two other kinds of subatomic particles: protons and neutrons

What do dissecting microscopes and compound microscopes have in common?

64. Carbon What type of atoms form the framework of biological

molecules?

65. carbon Carbohydrates have an empirical formula is (CH2O)n where n

stands for the number of __________

atoms

66. Carbon-hydrogen Lipids have a very high portion on nonpolar ___________-__________

bonds

your eye

56. The bounding structure of the

eukaryotic nucleas. Composed of two phospholipid

bilayers with the outer one

connected to the endoplasmic

What is the nuclear envelope?

67. Carry information to the ribosomes

68. A catalyst speeds up chemical reactions

69. A cell lacking a

membrane bounded nucleas or

membrane bounded organelles

What is the function of mRNA? What is a catalyst?

What are prokaryotes?

reticulum

57. Buffer A _________ is a substance that resists changes in pH. They act by releasing

70. Cells All living (or once living) organisms are composed of

______________

hydrogen ions when a base is added

and absorbing hydrogen ions when

acid is added, with the overall effect of

keeping [H+] relatively constant.

58. C G =

71. Cells are the smallest of living things, the basic units of organization of all organisms

72. Cells arise only by

What is the second principle of the cell theory?

What is the third principle of the

59. Calcium and iron are stored in the body by binding as ions to storage

proteins.

7. Storage

division of a previously existing cell

cell theory?

73. Cellulose This is the chief constituent of the cell wall in all green plants, some algae,

and a few other organisms, an

insoluble complex carbohydrate

formed of microfibrils of glucose

84. Compound light microscope What type of microscope was

used in Lab 1: Cell

structure and

organization?

molecules

74. cell walls Plant cells are surrounded by rigid _______________ which help keep plants

erect. Animal cells do not need this.

75. central vacuole Most plant cells contain a large ________________ where various metabolic

85. A compound microscope uses a 2D high magnification while a dissecting microscope uses low 3D

magnification

What is the

difference between a compound

microscope and a dissecting

microscope?

products are stored.

76. chemical Valence electrons and their interactions determine the ___________

properties of an element

77. chemical bonds Atoms in a molecule are joined together by ____________

78. Chitin _________________ is a the structural material found in arthropods and

many fungi, is a polymer of N

acetylglucosamine, a substituted

version of glucose. When cross

linked by proteins, it forms a tough,

resistant surface material that serves

as the hard exoskeleton of insects

and crustaceans

86. copying RNA is produced by ___________ DNA

87. covalent Water consists of one oxygen atom

joined to two

hydrogen atoms by

two single, polar

___________ bonds

88. covalent Because carbon atoms can form up

to four

___________bonds,

molecules

containing carbon

can form straight

chains, branches,

79. Chromosomes are the genetic material that make up the cell

What is the function of chromosomes in the cell?

rings, balls, tubes

and coils

89. Covalent bonds Water consists of one atom joined to

80. closer to nucleas When an electron releases energy, it moves in what direction?

two hydrogen

atoms by what type

81. Cluster together and expose their polar groups to the

surrounding water while confining their nonpolar parts of

the molecules

together within the cluster

What happens when a lipid is placed in water?

90. A covalent bond that involves equal sharing of electrons between two of the same atoms (O2, H2,)

91. A covalent bond where electrons are shared unequally due to differences in electronegativity of the atoms involved. One atom with have a partial negative net charge and the

of bonds?

What is a non polar bond?

What is a polar Covalent bond?

82. compartmentalized Do Eukaryota cells have DNA organized or compartmentalized?

other will have a partial positive net charge but the bond make the two

83. A compartment that holds DNA in

multiple linear

chromosomes and is separated from the rest of the

cytoplasm

What is a nucleas?

net neutral

92. crawling Actin is involved in cellular....

93. cytoplasm The ____________________ contains all of the sugars, amino acids, and proteins the cell uses to

carry out its everyday activities.

94. cytoplasm The area of the cell that is surrounded by the

105. DNA and RNA What are the two varieties of nucleac acids?

106. DNA and RNA What are two examples of nucleic acids?

plasma membrane is called the.......

95. cytoplasm The ___________________ is a semifluid matrix that fills the interior of the cell (including any

organelles if present)

107. DNA is either organized in within the cytoplasm or DNA is

An organism is placed into one of two broad categories dealing with its DNA within the cytoplasm. What

distinguishes those two broad

96. Cytoplasmic Streaming

_________________________ is the amount of cytoplasm between cells, distributes materials within

compartmentalized in the cytoplasm

categories?

the cells more quickly

97. cytosol The part of the cytoplasm that contains organic molecules and ions in solution is

called the _____________

108. DNA, RNA In living organisms, molecules of _________ are used to store and transmit

the genetic information from one

generation to the next, while

molecules of _________ use the genetic

98. cytosol

The fluid

portion of

the

cytoplasm; it contains

dissolved

organic

What is the cytosol?

109. Domain Archaea Domain Bacteria

110. Domain Archaea Domain Bacteria Domain Eukarya

information to actually assemble proteins

Which two domains are comprised of single celled, prokaryotic organisms?

What are the three types of domains?

molecules

and ions.

99. daltons The mass of atoms and subatomic particles is measured in units called _____________

111. Domain Eukarya Which domain is classified of Eukaryotes?

112. double helix A ______________ is the structure of DNA, in which two compleatley

100. degradation of organic

molecules

101. Dehydration reaction

What is the role of lysosomes?

To form a covalent bond between two monomers, an —OH group is removed from one monomer, and a hydrogen atom (H) is removed from the other. This reaction is the same for joining nucleotides when synthesizing DNA or joining glucose units together to make starch. This reaction is also used to link fatty acids to glycerol in lipids. This chemical reaction is called

condensation, or a __________________________, because the removal of —OH and —H is the

polyneucleotide strands coil around a

common helical axis

113. electronegativities Carbon and hydrogen both have very similar _____________. This results in no

significant differences in charge over

the molecular surface.

114. element an ____________ is any substance that cannot be broken down to any other

substance by ordinary chemical

means.

115. energy levels The letters K, L, M and so on are used to designate what?

116. energy storage Fats are excellent ____________ molecules

same as the removal of a molecule of water

(H2O).

102. Deoxyribose In DNA, the sugar that makes up its

117. Energy that an object has due to its positron

What is potential energy?

backbone is called.....

103. diffusion Most cells are relatively small for reasons related to the ______________ of substances into

and out of cells

104. Disaccharides ___________________ serve as effective reservoirs of glucose because the enzymes that normally

use glucose in the organism cannot break

the bond linking the two monosaccharide

subunits.

118. Enzymes In living systems, what catalyzes almost every chemical reaction

necessary for life?

119. Enzymes are biological catalysts that facilitate specific chemical reactions. Because of this property, the appearance of enzymes was one of the most

important events in the evolution of life. Enzymes are three-dimensional globular proteins that fit snugly around the molecules they act on. This fit facilitates chemical reactions by stressing

Enzyme Catalysts

127. fatty acids and glycerol

128. finger-like

projections of the cytoplasm in the cell structure and organization of an Amoeba

What are the two main kinds of molecules that make up lipids?

What are Pseudopodia?

particular chemical bonds.

120. Enzymes are proteins that act as a catalyst, speeding up chemical reactions

What are enzymes?

129. fold Proteins ______ upon themselves in order to form a 3D shape

130. fold up Because lipids have a long chain of

121. eukaryotes Were the organisms you

viewed in class

eukaryotes or

prokaryotes?

carbon-hydrogen bonds, lipids cannot

___________ like a protein to confine their

nonpolar portions away from the

surrounding aqueous environment

131. function The shape of a protein determines

122. Eukaryotes are typically multicellular, have a nucleas, as well as membrane bound organelles.

Prokaryotes however, are always unicellular, do not have a nucleas, and dont have membrane bound organelles

What is the

difference

between a

Eukaryote and a prokaryote? (3 things for each)

its.....

132. function Shape =

133. Functional Group Definition: A molecular group attached to a hydrocarbon that

confirmed chemical properties or

reactivities

123. Eukaryotes have many specialized compartments for each specific part, while prokaryotic cells are just one large

How can you tell the

difference

134. Genetic

information (DNA produces this)

What are genes?

room

between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic

135. Glycerol _______________ is one of the two main kinds of molecules that make up lipids

and it is a 3-carbon polyalcohol

cells?

124. farther away from the nucleus When an electron

136. Glycerol, Fatty acids, and A

phosphate group

Phospholipids includes three kinds of subunits. What are they?

125. A fat molecule having at least two double bonds between adjacent carbons in one or more of the fatty acid chains

absorbs energy, it moves in

what direction?

What is a

polyunsaturated fat?

137. glycogen The comparable molecule to starch in animals is ................ it is an insoluable

polysaccharide containing branched

amylose chains

138. Glycoproteins The extracellular membrane is made primarily of.....

126. Fatty Acids _____________ are one of the two

kinds of

molecules that

139. A group of atoms held together by energy in a stable association

What is a molecule?

make up lipids and they are

140. guanine During proper base pairing in DNA, cytosine pairs with,

long-chain hydrocarbons with a

141. Heat, change in pH, chemical conditions

What causes the dedaturization of a protein?

carboxylic acid (COOH) at one end.

142. highly Elements possessing 7/8 electrons in their outermost shell are _________

reactive

143. Hydrocarbons Molecules consisting only of carbon and hydrogen are called..........

144. Hydrogen Water molecules always tent to form the maximum number of what type of

bonds?

145. hydrogen All atoms have a nucleus consisting of protons and neutrons, except ______________,

the smallest atom, which usually has

only one proton and no neutrons in its

nucleus

158. It means that if you know the sequence of one DNA strand, you will know the sequence of the other one too without looking at it

AAGCTGGCTAA

you will know that the pair is TTCGACCGATT

What does is mean when DNA strands are complimentary to another?

146. Hydrogen bonds What types of bonds hold DNA strands together?

159. Its energy level When electron absorbs or releases energy, what

level is it changing

147. Hydrogen Oxygen

Nitrogen

Carbon

Which 4 of the 12 elements necessary to produce life make up 96.3% of the weight of the body?

about itself?

160. Label Radioactive isotopes are often used to do what to

specific molecules and

148. Hydrolysis In this reaction, called _____________, a hydrogen atom is attached to one

subunit and a hydroxyl group to the

other, breaking the covalent bond

joining the subunits.

then follow their

progress either in a

chemical reaction or in

living cells and tissues?

161. lactose When glucose is linked

149. An individual fat molecule,

composed of a glycerol and

three fatty acids

What is a triglyceride?

to the stereoisomer

galactose, the resulting

disaccharide is ___________,

or milk sugar

162. less than 1 micrometer How big are prokaryotic

150. individual ions In living systems, ionic compounds generally exist as......

151. In ribosomes Where does protein synthesis occur?

152. in the nucleas The DNA of eucaryotic cells are located where?

153. Ionic The atoms in NaCl are held together by what type of bonds?

154. ions Atoms in which the number of electrons does not equal the number of protons

are known as __________

155. Isomers _______________ have the same molecular formula but different structures

163. A light microscope uses light and beams of photons to create a picture, whereas an electron microscope use focused beams of electrons to view images which is helpful to view very tiny specimens.

164. A lipid is a molecule that is insoluble in water (polar) but dissolves readily in nonpolar organic solvents; includes fats, oils, waxes, and steroids

cells?

How is a light

microscope different from an electron microscope?

What is a lipid?

156. isotopes Atoms of a single element that possess different numbers of neutrons are called

____________of that element.

165. lipid synthesis What is the role of the smooth endoplasmic

reticulum?

157. It is an electron that exists in the outermost energy level of an atom

How is a valence electron different from other electrons?

166. look for chloroplasts, cell walls/plasma membranes, and how large the central vacuole is

167. The loss of an electron by an atom or a molecule

168. The loss of a protein

conformation (which then in turn means the loss of the protein function)

What are the three necessary criteria to determine if a tissue sample has come from an animal or a plant?

What is oxidation? What is denaturization?

169. Magnification is how blown up a picture is, resolution distinguishes clarity, or sets apart two close things

170. Magnification is the ability to enlarge the image of an object

What is the

difference between magnification and resolution?

What is

magnification?

180. The movement of

cytoplasm between cells

181. Muscles contract through the sliding motion of two kinds of protein filaments:

What function does

cytoplasmic streaming serve within a cell?

5. Motion

171. Mass A dalton is a unit that measures

which?

Mass

Weight

172. Mass ____________ refers to the amount of a

substance, but

actin and myosin.

Contractile proteins also play key roles in the cell's cytoskeleton and in moving materials within cells.

182. near the center of the cell in an area called the

nucleoid

Where are prokaryotes found in a cell?

173. The material within the cell, excluding the nucleas,

weight refers to the force gravity exerts on a substance.

What is a

cytoplasm?

183. neutral Typically, an atom has one electron for each proton and

is thus electrically........

184. neutrons Isotopes differ in the number of __________ they contain

The protoplasm

174. matter Any substance in

185. Nitrogenous bases, pentose sugar, phosphate group

What three things are needed to make a nucleotide?

175. The membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of the cell, consists of a single phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins

176. mitochondria, plastids, endoplasmic reticulum

the universe that has has and

occupies space is defined as.......

What is the plasma membrane?

Can you list some compartmentalized organelles?

186. No Do prokaryotic cells have organelles?

187. no Do Prokaryotic cells have a nucleas?

188. no Is the nucleoid in a prokaryotic cell separated

from the rest of the cell?

189. no Are polar molecules attracted to non polar

molecules?

177. Monosaccharides The simplest of the carbohydrates are

_______________ and they

cannot be broken

down into smaller

sugar molecules

178. More potential energy Electrons that are farther away from

the nucleus always

190. no additional cells are originating spontaneously at present

Although life likely evolved spontaneously in the

environment of early Earth, biologists have concluded that ............................................ Rather, life on Earth

represents a continuous line of descent from those early cells.

179. the most important molecules of the cell because they form the core of all biological membranes. An individual phospholipid can be thought of as a substituted triglyceride—that is, a triglyceride with a phosphate

replacing one of the fatty acids.

have what type of energy?

What are

phospholipids?

191. Noble gasses Elements possessing all 8 electrons in their outermost

shell are nonreactive and are

know as.....

192. nonpolar Because carbon and hydrogen bonds have no

significant differences in

charge over the molecular

surface, hydrocarbons are

_____________

193. Nucleac acid _____________________ carry information inside cells, just as disks contain

the information in a computer or

road maps display information

206. One long molecule built by linking together a large number of small similar chemical sub units (monomers)

What is a polymer?

194. nucleac acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids

needed by travelers.

The four main groups of biological macromolecules are.....

207. one mile If the nucleus of an atom were the size of

a golf ball, the first

electron orbital would

195. nuclear envelope The nucleas is surrounded by a double membrane structure

called the ______________

196. nucleic Unique among macromolecules,

208. One of a group of molecules identical in atomic composition, but differing in structure/shape

be ______________ away What is an isomer?

_________ acids are able to serve as

templates to produce precise

copies of themselves

197. Nucleic Acid A ______________ is a nucleotide polymer, chief types are DNA,

which is double-stranded, and

RNA, which is typically single

stranded

198. nucleolus Ribosomal subunits are produced in a region of the

nucleus called the ............

199. Nucleotides Organisms use sequences of _______________ in their DNA to

specify the sequences of amino

acids in their proteins

200. nucleotides organisms use sequences of ___________________ in the DNA to

specify the sequences of amino

acids in their proteins

209. opposite 5' and 3' strands of DNA run in ____________

ways

210. Opposite electrical charges Ionic bonds involve an attraction between

atoms with what types

of electrical charges?

211. orbitals Electrons that are the same distance away

from the nucleus will

have the same energy

level, even if they

occupy different

_____________.

212. organelle We call any discrete macromolecular

structure in the

cytoplasm specialized

for a particular

function an _______________

201. The nucleus of the atom will break up into

elements with lower

atomic numbers

What happens to isotopes that become too unstable?

213. organized Are Prokaryotic cells organized or

compartmentalized?

202. Observing/dissecting specimens at low

magnifications (up to

What is a dissecting microscope used for?

214. organized into one circular chromosome

How is the DNA in a prokaryotic cell organized?

40x) in three

dimensions.

203. Observing objects at high magnifications on thin specimens mounted

What is a compound microscope used for?

215. other carbon atoms The framework of biological molecules

consists predominantly

of carbon atoms

bonded to.....

to glass slides (usually in two dimensions)

204. Ocular magnification x Objective magnification

205. One is water hating and the other is water loving

How do you mathematically find the total magnification?

Whats the difference between hydrophobic and hydrophilic?

216. Other globular proteins use their shapes to "recognize" foreign microbes and cancer cells. These cell-surface receptors form the core of the body's endocrine and immune systems.

2. Defense

217. oxidation carbon-hydrogen bonds (C---H) release energy when ______________ occurs

218. Peptide The covalent bond that links two amino acids is called a ____________ bond

232. polyunsaturated Fats containing ________________ fatty acids have low melting points because their

fatty acid chains bend at the double

bonds, preventing the fat molecules

from aligning closely with one another.

219. peptidoglycan Most bacterial cells are encased by a strong cell wall composed of _______________

which is a carbohydrate matrix crossed

linked by polypeptides

220. phosphate The 5' end of a nucleotide chain is composed of a ___________ group

221. phosphodiester In nucleic acids, adjacent nucleotides are

233. Posativley

charged sodium ions are

attracted to

negatively

charged chloride ions

How is the crystal structure of salt formed?

covalently linked by ___________ bonds

222. phylogenetic Organisms are grouped together based

234. primary structure The specific amino acid sequence of a protein is called....

on their ________________ relationships with each other

235. produces proteins

What is the function of ribosomes for cells?

223. Pill The presence of a ______ would definitely identify a cell as prokaryotic

236. prokaryotes Every cell contains DNA, the hereditary molecule. In ____________ the simplest

224. Pill and nucleoid

What structures are only found in prokaryotic cells?

organisms, most of the genetic material lies in a single cellular molecule of

225. Plastids Plant cells contain several features that animal cells don't have. In addition to

organelles common to all eukaryotes,

plant cells contain organelles called

__________ that carry out specialized

functions such as the storage of starch

and photosynthesis

DNA

237. Prokaryotic __________________ cells contain their genetic material in a nucleoid region

238. Prokaryotic cells in addition to lacking a nucleus, ______________________ do not have an internal

membrane system or numerous

membrane-bounded organelles.

226. polar covalent bond

227. Polymere of alpha glucose - glucose stored in plant energy

228. Polymer of B glucose

structure of

plants

What type of covalent bond is formed by an unequal sharing of one or more electron pairs?

What is starch?

What is celluose?

239. Prostaglandins _______________ are a group of about 20 lipids that are modified fatty acids, with

two nonpolar "tails" attached to a 5-

carbon ring.

240. protein Amino Acids put end to end to end to end to end make a____________

241. protein Ribosomes are responsible for ______ synthesis in the cell

229. Polypeptide A protein is composed of one or more long unbranched chains. Each chain is

called a ______________ and is composed of

amino acids linked by peptide bonds

230. polypeptides A long, unbranched chain of amino acids is called

231. Polysaccharides ____________________________ are carbohydrates composed of many monosaccharide

sugar subunits linked together in a long

chain

242. Protein fibers play structural roles. These fibers include

keratin in hair, fibrin in blood clots, and collagen. The last one, collagen, forms the matrix of skin, ligaments, tendons, and bones and is the most abundant protein in a vertebrate body.

4. Support

255. RNA is similar to DNA, but with two major chemical differences. First, RNA molecules contain ribose sugars, in which the C-2 is bonded to a hydroxyl group. (In DNA, a hydrogen atom replaces this hydroxyl group.) Second, RNA molecules use uracil in place of thymine. Uracil has a similar structure to thymine, except that one of its

Name the two

differences between DNA and RNA

243. protein secretion and storage What is the role of the Golgi apparatus?

244. protein tetramers What are intermediate filaments composed of?

245. Protiens _________ Are polymers of amino acids

246. Protons, neutrons and electrons What are the three

carbons lacks a methyl (—CH3) group.

256. A saturated fat is composed of fatty acids which all have internal carbon atoms containing the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms. AN unsaturated fat does not have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms

What is the difference between an unsaturated fat and a a saturated fat?

subatomic particles?

247. purines and pyrimidines The two types of nitrogen bases present

in nucleotides are

____________ and _______________

257. Secondary Structure In a protein,

hydrogen

bonding

interactions

248. (Rare) When a protein who lost its conformation reverses back to have its conformation again

What is renaturization?

between CO and NH groups of the

249. Receptor proteins _________________ induce changes within the cell

when they come in

contact with specific

molecules in the

environment, such as

hormones, or with

molecules on the

surface of neighboring

cells.

250. reduction The process of gaining electrons in a reaction is

called

258. Sets the boundary of the cell and controls the passage of materials into and out of the cell

259. A single unit of nucleic acid, composed of a phosphate, a 5-carbon sugar and a purine or a pyrimidine

260. The smaller the cell, the larger the surface area to volume ratio will be

primary

structure

What is the role of the plasma

membrane?

What is a nucleotide?

What is the relationship between

251. A region around the nuclear of an atom that has a high

probability of containing an electron.

What is an orbital?

area and

volume in a

cell?

261. The smallest chemical sub unit of a polymer What are

252. Ribose In RNA, the sugar that makes up its backbone

is called.....

253. Ribsomes ______________ are the cellular structures that

all cells need to

synthesize proteins

254. RNA directs protein synthesis What is the function of RNA?

262. Small proteins called hormones serve as intercellular messengers in animals. Proteins also play many regulatory roles within the cell—turning on and shutting off genes during development, for example. In addition, proteins receive information, acting as cell-surface receptors.

monemers?

6.

Regulation

263. solute, solvent When 1 g of sugar is dissolved in 500mL of water, the sugar is

called the _____________ and the

water is called the ___________

276. This eukaryotic

organism contains

both "animal like" and "plant like"

What makes the cell structure and organization of Protists different than other types of organisms?

264. Specialized plastids that contain chlorophyll, a green pigment which functions in

photosynthesis

What is a chloroplast?

characteristics.

277. Through x rays What is the easiest way to study the shape of a protein?

278. thymine During proper base pairing in DNA, adenine pairs with ___________

265. Starch this is An insoluble polymer of glucose the chief food storage

substance of plants

266. Subatomic Particles Atoms are composed of which

279. Tight junctions These types of junctions between neighboring cells of the lining of

the human digestive tract are very

secure and prevent leakage

267. A substance that increases the overall reaction.

of the following? Ions

Macromolecules Molecules

Subatomic Particles What is a catalyst?

280. The time it takes for one half of the atom sample to decay

281. Tiny organs

Different local

environments where different reactions occur

Describe half life What are organelles?

268. sucrose When glucose forms a disaccharide with the structural

isomer fructose, the resulting

disaccharide is _______________, or

table sugar

282. To adjust the picture and make it more

clear

283. To carry genetic

What is the purpose of the course focus adjustment knob?

What is the function of DNA?

269. Surface area to volume ratio, or the diffusion of substances in and out of the cell

What is the most important factor that limits the size of cells?

information (gene) They are the blueprint of the cell

DNA directs RNA synthesis

270. surface to volume A large __________ -to- ___________ ratio is needed to allow for optimal

exchange of nutrients and

gasses into and out of the cell

271. T A =

284. To carry individual amino acids to

ribosomes

285. To control the amount of light that is being

What is the function of tRNA?

What is the purpose of the light control disc on a microscope?

272. A term used to describe the contents of the cell

273. There is no possible way we can ever pinpoint where an electron

actually is

274. They all have low atomic masses

What is a cytoplasm?

What is one key problem with the Bohr diagram?

Of the 12 naturally occurring elements necessary for life,

shed through your retina

286. To control the light/ turning it on and off so the bulb does not burn out

287. to hold and rotate objective lenses

What is the purpose of the light switch on the microscope?

What is the purpose of the nose piece on a microscope?

what do their atomic masses have in common?

288. To hold up the lenses What is the purpose of the arm on a microscope?

275. They are in both Are plasma membranes in both animal and plant cells or just

one or the other?

289. To increase

magnification and rotate to see more clearly

What is the purpose for the objective lenses?

290. To observe the specimen with our retina

291. To serve as a spot to observe the specimen

292. To study biology: the understanding of cells and tissues

293. To support the

microscope

What is the purpose of the ocular lens on a microscope?

What is the purpose of the stage on a microscope?

For what purpose do we use abilities like resolution and magnification?

What is the purpose of the base on a microscope?

305. U RNA is similar to the structure of

DNA but the

main difference

is that instead of

A = T,

it is

A = _____

306. unicellular Are prokaryotic cells

294. total volume Surface area increases while ____________ remains constant

multicellular or unicellular?

295. To use with the 400x magnified lens so that

when adjusting the

picture, you do not

shatter the lens

296. To view your slide/ to create a picture that may be observed by the retina of the eye

What is the purpose of the fine focus adjustment knob?

What is the purpose of the light source on a microscope?

307. Usually it is covered by a dense forest of chloroplasts

308. A variety of globular proteins transport small molecules and ions. The transport protein hemoglobin, for example, transports oxygen in the blood.

Membrane transport proteins help move ions and molecules across the

Why is the

nucleas difficult to observe?

3. Transport

297. Transfer Which type of RNA carries amino acids?

298. transfer Ionic bonds involve a ___________ of electrons from one atom to

another

membrane.

309. the varying sequences of the four types of nucleotides that make up each strand

Information is stored in a

molecule of DNA by ............

299. Transport proteins ______________________ help molecules and ions move across the

plasma membrane, either from

the environment to the interior

of the cell or vice versa.

310. Waste and storage What is that big empty space in

plant cells used

for?

311. Water tearing What does

300. Trick question: electrons weigh little to nothing. They in theory weigh 1/1840 daltons, but they

How many daltons does an electron weigh?

312. A weak polar covalent bond formed with a hydrogen atom

hydrolysis

mean?

What is a

hydrogen bond?

weigh approximately 0

301. Trick question, they can be both

Are eukaryotic cells

multicellular or unicellular?

313. weight Mass refers to the amount of a

substance, but

302. tubulin What are microtubules composed of?

________________ refers to the force gravity

303. Two forms of glucose that differ in the placement of the hydroxyl group

attached to carbon

number 1

304. Two single covalent bonds

What is alpha glucose and beta glucose?

What bonds make up H2O?

314. When an isotope breaks apart into elements with lower atomic numbers and releases energy in the process

315. When atoms with opposite charges are attracted to each other

316. When two atoms are across from one another, not right next to one another, they are opposite, not the same

exerts on a

substance.

What makes an isotope

radioactive?

What are ionic bonds?

What is a cis configuration?

317. When two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons

What are covalent bonds?

318. Yes Can functional groups participate in hydrogen bonding? 319. yes Do electrons in the same orbital have the same potential energy?

320. yes do Nonpolar molecules have a uniform distribution of electrical charge?

Exam 1 Study Guide life 102 Study online at quizlet.com/_57h9jl

1. +1 A hydrogen ion, formed during the dissociation of

water, has what charge?

2. 1.007 How many daltons does a proton weigh?

3. 1.009 How many daltons does a

14. 10-100 micrometers How big are eukaryotic cells?

15. 12 out of all 90 occurring elements on earth, how many

are needed in order to make

life?

4. 1. Always start on low power for the biggest field of

vision.

2. Always look from the side

neutron weigh?

List the three rules of microscopy: (using a microscope)

16. 40x 100x

400x

What are the three levels of magnification that the compound microscope we used in class was capable of producing?

when changing your lenses to avoid scratching or shattering anything.

3. Use only the fine focus adjustment when using the

17. 100, 1000 If the radius of the cell increases by 10 times, then

the surface area will increase

by ____ times and the volume

will increase by ______ times

400x lens because the course one can shatter the lens

18. The ability to distinguish two closely spaced specimens

What is resolution?

5. 1. A nucleotide or nucleus where genetic material is located

2. A cytoplasm

3. ribosomes to synthesize proteins

4. a plasma membrane

6. 1. Cells are self contained by a Plasma membrane

2. Inside the membrane is the cytoplasm

What are the four features that all cells have in

common?

What are the two basic characteristics that all cells have in common?

19. The ability to do work What is the formal definition of energy?

20. Acid Any substance that dissociates in water to

increase the [H+] (and lower

the pH) is called a(n) ________

21. Actin During the contraction of muscle cells, which fiber is

used?

22. actin What are microfilaments composed of?

7. 1 micrometer How big are most cells?

8. 2 How many cell layers do elodea leaves have?

9. 4 How many carbon rings are needed to make a steroid?

23. Acts as a protective outside for the cell

24. Acts as a semifluid,

protective inside for the cell 25. adjusts the stage back and

Why do cells have plasma membranes?

What is the function of cytosol in the cell?

What is the purpose for the

10. 4x

10x

40x

11. A 5-Carbon sugar

an organic nitrogenous base a phosphate group

12. 5 to 10 nanometers thick (with proteins embedded in it)

What are the magnifications on the three objective lenses used in class?

What are the three

components of the structure of a nucleotide?

How big is the plasma membrane?

forth and side to side

26. Advantages: Strength, work as a group, strong structure Disadvantages: more

complicated, needing a mate

27. All organisms are composed of one or more cells and the life process of the

mechanical stage controls?

What are some advantages and disadvantages of an individual cell of being apart of a multicellular organism?

What is the first principle of the cell theory?

13. 8 For atoms important to producing life, the outermost

energy level can contain no

more than how many

electrons?

metabolism and heredity occur within these cells

28. All organisms are made of cells

29. allows access to and from the nucleus

What is the simplified cell theory?

What is the role of the nuclear envelope?

30. alpha helices What type of secondary structure is usually cylindrical?

31. alpha helix This type of helix is A form of secondary structure in proteins

where the polypeptide chain is

wound into a spiral due to

interactions between amino and

carboxyl groups in the peptide

41. atomic number Different atoms are defined by the number of protons, a

quantity called the...

42. Atoms Known as the building blocks of matter, what is the smallest

unit of an element that contains

all of the characteristics of that

element?

backbone

32. amino acid chain Water's tendency to hydrophobically exclude

nonpolar molecules literally

shoves the nonpolar portions of

the _______________ into the protein's

interior

33. amino acids Organisms use sequences of nucleotides in their DNA to

specify the sequences of

_____________________ in their proteins

34. amino acids What are the building blocks of proteins?

43. An atom that has less protons than electrons and therefore has a more negative net charge

44. An atom that has more protons than electrons and therefore has a more positive net charge

45. A backbone of carbon atoms

What is an anion?

What is a cation?

The defining feature of organic compounds is the presence of which of the following? A backbone of oxygen atoms and carbon side chains

35. Anchorage of cell Providing structural

stability

Providing mechanical strength

36. Animal cells do not have chloroplasts, have only a plasma membrane, and have a small to no

central vacuole

Plant cells however, do have chloroplasts and a cell wall WITH plasma membranes and a large central vacuole that

takes up a lot of space

What are some functions of intermediate filaments?

How can you tell the difference between an animal cell and a plant cell?

A backbone of nitrogen atoms

A backbone of carbon atoms

Only carbon atoms

46. Bacteria, archaea What are some examples of prokaryotic cells?

47. Base A substance that combines with H+ when dissolved in

water, and thus lowers the [H+],

is called a(n) ________. Therefore,

basic (or alkaline) solutions

have pH values above 7.

48. B (beta) sheet A form of secondary structure in proteins where the

polypeptide folds back on

itself one or more times to

form a planar structure

37. antiparallel One strand of DNA runs ____________ to another

stabalized by hydrogen bonding between amino and

38. Anything that is not bacteria or archaea

39. The area of a

prokaryotic cell, usually near the center, that contains the genome in the form of DNA

compacted with protein

What are some examples of eukaryotic cells?

What is the nucleoid in a cell?

49. Because carbon 14 has such a long half life, (5730 years), scientists are able to take elements from biological samples and rocks and accurate

determine when those

carboxyl groups in the peptide backbone

Describe carbon dating

40. atomic mass The _____________ of an atom is equal to the sum of the masses of its

protons and neutrons

materials were found.

50. Because carbon-hydrogen covalent bonds store

considerable energy

Why do hydrocarbons make good fuels?

51. Because it has two lens systems

(ocular and

Why is the compound microscope called a compound microscope?

60. Carbohydrate matrix that is cross-linked by short polypeptide units

What is peptidoglycan?

objective)

52. because of the high

concentrations of

Why is the cytoplasm a jello-like structure?

61. Carbohydrates What type of loosely defined group of molecules contain

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in

the molecular ratio 1:2:1?

proteins and other

macromolecules it

holds

53. Beta sheets What type of secondary structure is usually planar?

54. Bohr Who proposed the idea that every atom possesses an orbiting cloud of

tiny subatomic particles called

62. Carbohydrates

Lipids

Acids (nucleic)

Protiens

63. A carbohydrate that have two simple sugars that have bonded

together covalently

Biological macromolecules are traditionally grouped into what 4 categories? (CLAP)

What is disaccaride?

55. Both are light microscopes that use photon beams to show a picture to the retina of

electrons whizzing around a core, like the planets of a miniature solar system. At the center of each atom is a small, very dense nucleus formed of two other kinds of subatomic particles: protons and neutrons

What do dissecting microscopes and compound microscopes have in common?

64. Carbon What type of atoms form the framework of biological

molecules?

65. carbon Carbohydrates have an empirical formula is (CH2O)n where n

stands for the number of __________

atoms

66. Carbon-hydrogen Lipids have a very high portion on nonpolar ___________-__________

bonds

your eye

56. The bounding structure of the

eukaryotic nucleas. Composed of two phospholipid

bilayers with the outer one

connected to the endoplasmic

What is the nuclear envelope?

67. Carry information to the ribosomes

68. A catalyst speeds up chemical reactions

69. A cell lacking a

membrane bounded nucleas or

membrane bounded organelles

What is the function of mRNA? What is a catalyst?

What are prokaryotes?

reticulum

57. Buffer A _________ is a substance that resists changes in pH. They act by releasing

70. Cells All living (or once living) organisms are composed of

______________

hydrogen ions when a base is added

and absorbing hydrogen ions when

acid is added, with the overall effect of

keeping [H+] relatively constant.

58. C G =

71. Cells are the smallest of living things, the basic units of organization of all organisms

72. Cells arise only by

What is the second principle of the cell theory?

What is the third principle of the

59. Calcium and iron are stored in the body by binding as ions to storage

proteins.

7. Storage

division of a previously existing cell

cell theory?

73. Cellulose This is the chief constituent of the cell wall in all green plants, some algae,

and a few other organisms, an

insoluble complex carbohydrate

formed of microfibrils of glucose

84. Compound light microscope What type of microscope was

used in Lab 1: Cell

structure and

organization?

molecules

74. cell walls Plant cells are surrounded by rigid _______________ which help keep plants

erect. Animal cells do not need this.

75. central vacuole Most plant cells contain a large ________________ where various metabolic

85. A compound microscope uses a 2D high magnification while a dissecting microscope uses low 3D

magnification

What is the

difference between a compound

microscope and a dissecting

microscope?

products are stored.

76. chemical Valence electrons and their interactions determine the ___________

properties of an element

77. chemical bonds Atoms in a molecule are joined together by ____________

78. Chitin _________________ is a the structural material found in arthropods and

many fungi, is a polymer of N

acetylglucosamine, a substituted

version of glucose. When cross

linked by proteins, it forms a tough,

resistant surface material that serves

as the hard exoskeleton of insects

and crustaceans

86. copying RNA is produced by ___________ DNA

87. covalent Water consists of one oxygen atom

joined to two

hydrogen atoms by

two single, polar

___________ bonds

88. covalent Because carbon atoms can form up

to four

___________bonds,

molecules

containing carbon

can form straight

chains, branches,

79. Chromosomes are the genetic material that make up the cell

What is the function of chromosomes in the cell?

rings, balls, tubes

and coils

89. Covalent bonds Water consists of one atom joined to

80. closer to nucleas When an electron releases energy, it moves in what direction?

two hydrogen

atoms by what type

81. Cluster together and expose their polar groups to the

surrounding water while confining their nonpolar parts of

the molecules

together within the cluster

What happens when a lipid is placed in water?

90. A covalent bond that involves equal sharing of electrons between two of the same atoms (O2, H2,)

91. A covalent bond where electrons are shared unequally due to differences in electronegativity of the atoms involved. One atom with have a partial negative net charge and the

of bonds?

What is a non polar bond?

What is a polar Covalent bond?

82. compartmentalized Do Eukaryota cells have DNA organized or compartmentalized?

other will have a partial positive net charge but the bond make the two

83. A compartment that holds DNA in

multiple linear

chromosomes and is separated from the rest of the

cytoplasm

What is a nucleas?

net neutral

92. crawling Actin is involved in cellular....

93. cytoplasm The ____________________ contains all of the sugars, amino acids, and proteins the cell uses to

carry out its everyday activities.

94. cytoplasm The area of the cell that is surrounded by the

105. DNA and RNA What are the two varieties of nucleac acids?

106. DNA and RNA What are two examples of nucleic acids?

plasma membrane is called the.......

95. cytoplasm The ___________________ is a semifluid matrix that fills the interior of the cell (including any

organelles if present)

107. DNA is either organized in within the cytoplasm or DNA is

An organism is placed into one of two broad categories dealing with its DNA within the cytoplasm. What

distinguishes those two broad

96. Cytoplasmic Streaming

_________________________ is the amount of cytoplasm between cells, distributes materials within

compartmentalized in the cytoplasm

categories?

the cells more quickly

97. cytosol The part of the cytoplasm that contains organic molecules and ions in solution is

called the _____________

108. DNA, RNA In living organisms, molecules of _________ are used to store and transmit

the genetic information from one

generation to the next, while

molecules of _________ use the genetic

98. cytosol

The fluid

portion of

the

cytoplasm; it contains

dissolved

organic

What is the cytosol?

109. Domain Archaea Domain Bacteria

110. Domain Archaea Domain Bacteria Domain Eukarya

information to actually assemble proteins

Which two domains are comprised of single celled, prokaryotic organisms?

What are the three types of domains?

molecules

and ions.

99. daltons The mass of atoms and subatomic particles is measured in units called _____________

111. Domain Eukarya Which domain is classified of Eukaryotes?

112. double helix A ______________ is the structure of DNA, in which two compleatley

100. degradation of organic

molecules

101. Dehydration reaction

What is the role of lysosomes?

To form a covalent bond between two monomers, an —OH group is removed from one monomer, and a hydrogen atom (H) is removed from the other. This reaction is the same for joining nucleotides when synthesizing DNA or joining glucose units together to make starch. This reaction is also used to link fatty acids to glycerol in lipids. This chemical reaction is called

condensation, or a __________________________, because the removal of —OH and —H is the

polyneucleotide strands coil around a

common helical axis

113. electronegativities Carbon and hydrogen both have very similar _____________. This results in no

significant differences in charge over

the molecular surface.

114. element an ____________ is any substance that cannot be broken down to any other

substance by ordinary chemical

means.

115. energy levels The letters K, L, M and so on are used to designate what?

116. energy storage Fats are excellent ____________ molecules

same as the removal of a molecule of water

(H2O).

102. Deoxyribose In DNA, the sugar that makes up its

117. Energy that an object has due to its positron

What is potential energy?

backbone is called.....

103. diffusion Most cells are relatively small for reasons related to the ______________ of substances into

and out of cells

104. Disaccharides ___________________ serve as effective reservoirs of glucose because the enzymes that normally

use glucose in the organism cannot break

the bond linking the two monosaccharide

subunits.

118. Enzymes In living systems, what catalyzes almost every chemical reaction

necessary for life?

119. Enzymes are biological catalysts that facilitate specific chemical reactions. Because of this property, the appearance of enzymes was one of the most

important events in the evolution of life. Enzymes are three-dimensional globular proteins that fit snugly around the molecules they act on. This fit facilitates chemical reactions by stressing

Enzyme Catalysts

127. fatty acids and glycerol

128. finger-like

projections of the cytoplasm in the cell structure and organization of an Amoeba

What are the two main kinds of molecules that make up lipids?

What are Pseudopodia?

particular chemical bonds.

120. Enzymes are proteins that act as a catalyst, speeding up chemical reactions

What are enzymes?

129. fold Proteins ______ upon themselves in order to form a 3D shape

130. fold up Because lipids have a long chain of

121. eukaryotes Were the organisms you

viewed in class

eukaryotes or

prokaryotes?

carbon-hydrogen bonds, lipids cannot

___________ like a protein to confine their

nonpolar portions away from the

surrounding aqueous environment

131. function The shape of a protein determines

122. Eukaryotes are typically multicellular, have a nucleas, as well as membrane bound organelles.

Prokaryotes however, are always unicellular, do not have a nucleas, and dont have membrane bound organelles

What is the

difference

between a

Eukaryote and a prokaryote? (3 things for each)

its.....

132. function Shape =

133. Functional Group Definition: A molecular group attached to a hydrocarbon that

confirmed chemical properties or

reactivities

123. Eukaryotes have many specialized compartments for each specific part, while prokaryotic cells are just one large

How can you tell the

difference

134. Genetic

information (DNA produces this)

What are genes?

room

between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic

135. Glycerol _______________ is one of the two main kinds of molecules that make up lipids

and it is a 3-carbon polyalcohol

cells?

124. farther away from the nucleus When an electron

136. Glycerol, Fatty acids, and A

phosphate group

Phospholipids includes three kinds of subunits. What are they?

125. A fat molecule having at least two double bonds between adjacent carbons in one or more of the fatty acid chains

absorbs energy, it moves in

what direction?

What is a

polyunsaturated fat?

137. glycogen The comparable molecule to starch in animals is ................ it is an insoluable

polysaccharide containing branched

amylose chains

138. Glycoproteins The extracellular membrane is made primarily of.....

126. Fatty Acids _____________ are one of the two

kinds of

molecules that

139. A group of atoms held together by energy in a stable association

What is a molecule?

make up lipids and they are

140. guanine During proper base pairing in DNA, cytosine pairs with,

long-chain hydrocarbons with a

141. Heat, change in pH, chemical conditions

What causes the dedaturization of a protein?

carboxylic acid (COOH) at one end.

142. highly Elements possessing 7/8 electrons in their outermost shell are _________

reactive

143. Hydrocarbons Molecules consisting only of carbon and hydrogen are called..........

144. Hydrogen Water molecules always tent to form the maximum number of what type of

bonds?

145. hydrogen All atoms have a nucleus consisting of protons and neutrons, except ______________,

the smallest atom, which usually has

only one proton and no neutrons in its

nucleus

158. It means that if you know the sequence of one DNA strand, you will know the sequence of the other one too without looking at it

AAGCTGGCTAA

you will know that the pair is TTCGACCGATT

What does is mean when DNA strands are complimentary to another?

146. Hydrogen bonds What types of bonds hold DNA strands together?

159. Its energy level When electron absorbs or releases energy, what

level is it changing

147. Hydrogen Oxygen

Nitrogen

Carbon

Which 4 of the 12 elements necessary to produce life make up 96.3% of the weight of the body?

about itself?

160. Label Radioactive isotopes are often used to do what to

specific molecules and

148. Hydrolysis In this reaction, called _____________, a hydrogen atom is attached to one

subunit and a hydroxyl group to the

other, breaking the covalent bond

joining the subunits.

then follow their

progress either in a

chemical reaction or in

living cells and tissues?

161. lactose When glucose is linked

149. An individual fat molecule,

composed of a glycerol and

three fatty acids

What is a triglyceride?

to the stereoisomer

galactose, the resulting

disaccharide is ___________,

or milk sugar

162. less than 1 micrometer How big are prokaryotic

150. individual ions In living systems, ionic compounds generally exist as......

151. In ribosomes Where does protein synthesis occur?

152. in the nucleas The DNA of eucaryotic cells are located where?

153. Ionic The atoms in NaCl are held together by what type of bonds?

154. ions Atoms in which the number of electrons does not equal the number of protons

are known as __________

155. Isomers _______________ have the same molecular formula but different structures

163. A light microscope uses light and beams of photons to create a picture, whereas an electron microscope use focused beams of electrons to view images which is helpful to view very tiny specimens.

164. A lipid is a molecule that is insoluble in water (polar) but dissolves readily in nonpolar organic solvents; includes fats, oils, waxes, and steroids

cells?

How is a light

microscope different from an electron microscope?

What is a lipid?

156. isotopes Atoms of a single element that possess different numbers of neutrons are called

____________of that element.

165. lipid synthesis What is the role of the smooth endoplasmic

reticulum?

157. It is an electron that exists in the outermost energy level of an atom

How is a valence electron different from other electrons?

166. look for chloroplasts, cell walls/plasma membranes, and how large the central vacuole is

167. The loss of an electron by an atom or a molecule

168. The loss of a protein

conformation (which then in turn means the loss of the protein function)

What are the three necessary criteria to determine if a tissue sample has come from an animal or a plant?

What is oxidation? What is denaturization?

169. Magnification is how blown up a picture is, resolution distinguishes clarity, or sets apart two close things

170. Magnification is the ability to enlarge the image of an object

What is the

difference between magnification and resolution?

What is

magnification?

180. The movement of

cytoplasm between cells

181. Muscles contract through the sliding motion of two kinds of protein filaments:

What function does

cytoplasmic streaming serve within a cell?

5. Motion

171. Mass A dalton is a unit that measures

which?

Mass

Weight

172. Mass ____________ refers to the amount of a

substance, but

actin and myosin.

Contractile proteins also play key roles in the cell's cytoskeleton and in moving materials within cells.

182. near the center of the cell in an area called the

nucleoid

Where are prokaryotes found in a cell?

173. The material within the cell, excluding the nucleas,

weight refers to the force gravity exerts on a substance.

What is a

cytoplasm?

183. neutral Typically, an atom has one electron for each proton and

is thus electrically........

184. neutrons Isotopes differ in the number of __________ they contain

The protoplasm

174. matter Any substance in

185. Nitrogenous bases, pentose sugar, phosphate group

What three things are needed to make a nucleotide?

175. The membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of the cell, consists of a single phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins

176. mitochondria, plastids, endoplasmic reticulum

the universe that has has and

occupies space is defined as.......

What is the plasma membrane?

Can you list some compartmentalized organelles?

186. No Do prokaryotic cells have organelles?

187. no Do Prokaryotic cells have a nucleas?

188. no Is the nucleoid in a prokaryotic cell separated

from the rest of the cell?

189. no Are polar molecules attracted to non polar

molecules?

177. Monosaccharides The simplest of the carbohydrates are

_______________ and they

cannot be broken

down into smaller

sugar molecules

178. More potential energy Electrons that are farther away from

the nucleus always

190. no additional cells are originating spontaneously at present

Although life likely evolved spontaneously in the

environment of early Earth, biologists have concluded that ............................................ Rather, life on Earth

represents a continuous line of descent from those early cells.

179. the most important molecules of the cell because they form the core of all biological membranes. An individual phospholipid can be thought of as a substituted triglyceride—that is, a triglyceride with a phosphate

replacing one of the fatty acids.

have what type of energy?

What are

phospholipids?

191. Noble gasses Elements possessing all 8 electrons in their outermost

shell are nonreactive and are

know as.....

192. nonpolar Because carbon and hydrogen bonds have no

significant differences in

charge over the molecular

surface, hydrocarbons are

_____________

193. Nucleac acid _____________________ carry information inside cells, just as disks contain

the information in a computer or

road maps display information

206. One long molecule built by linking together a large number of small similar chemical sub units (monomers)

What is a polymer?

194. nucleac acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids

needed by travelers.

The four main groups of biological macromolecules are.....

207. one mile If the nucleus of an atom were the size of

a golf ball, the first

electron orbital would

195. nuclear envelope The nucleas is surrounded by a double membrane structure

called the ______________

196. nucleic Unique among macromolecules,

208. One of a group of molecules identical in atomic composition, but differing in structure/shape

be ______________ away What is an isomer?

_________ acids are able to serve as

templates to produce precise

copies of themselves

197. Nucleic Acid A ______________ is a nucleotide polymer, chief types are DNA,

which is double-stranded, and

RNA, which is typically single

stranded

198. nucleolus Ribosomal subunits are produced in a region of the

nucleus called the ............

199. Nucleotides Organisms use sequences of _______________ in their DNA to

specify the sequences of amino

acids in their proteins

200. nucleotides organisms use sequences of ___________________ in the DNA to

specify the sequences of amino

acids in their proteins

209. opposite 5' and 3' strands of DNA run in ____________

ways

210. Opposite electrical charges Ionic bonds involve an attraction between

atoms with what types

of electrical charges?

211. orbitals Electrons that are the same distance away

from the nucleus will

have the same energy

level, even if they

occupy different

_____________.

212. organelle We call any discrete macromolecular

structure in the

cytoplasm specialized

for a particular

function an _______________

201. The nucleus of the atom will break up into

elements with lower

atomic numbers

What happens to isotopes that become too unstable?

213. organized Are Prokaryotic cells organized or

compartmentalized?

202. Observing/dissecting specimens at low

magnifications (up to

What is a dissecting microscope used for?

214. organized into one circular chromosome

How is the DNA in a prokaryotic cell organized?

40x) in three

dimensions.

203. Observing objects at high magnifications on thin specimens mounted

What is a compound microscope used for?

215. other carbon atoms The framework of biological molecules

consists predominantly

of carbon atoms

bonded to.....

to glass slides (usually in two dimensions)

204. Ocular magnification x Objective magnification

205. One is water hating and the other is water loving

How do you mathematically find the total magnification?

Whats the difference between hydrophobic and hydrophilic?

216. Other globular proteins use their shapes to "recognize" foreign microbes and cancer cells. These cell-surface receptors form the core of the body's endocrine and immune systems.

2. Defense

217. oxidation carbon-hydrogen bonds (C---H) release energy when ______________ occurs

218. Peptide The covalent bond that links two amino acids is called a ____________ bond

232. polyunsaturated Fats containing ________________ fatty acids have low melting points because their

fatty acid chains bend at the double

bonds, preventing the fat molecules

from aligning closely with one another.

219. peptidoglycan Most bacterial cells are encased by a strong cell wall composed of _______________

which is a carbohydrate matrix crossed

linked by polypeptides

220. phosphate The 5' end of a nucleotide chain is composed of a ___________ group

221. phosphodiester In nucleic acids, adjacent nucleotides are

233. Posativley

charged sodium ions are

attracted to

negatively

charged chloride ions

How is the crystal structure of salt formed?

covalently linked by ___________ bonds

222. phylogenetic Organisms are grouped together based

234. primary structure The specific amino acid sequence of a protein is called....

on their ________________ relationships with each other

235. produces proteins

What is the function of ribosomes for cells?

223. Pill The presence of a ______ would definitely identify a cell as prokaryotic

236. prokaryotes Every cell contains DNA, the hereditary molecule. In ____________ the simplest

224. Pill and nucleoid

What structures are only found in prokaryotic cells?

organisms, most of the genetic material lies in a single cellular molecule of

225. Plastids Plant cells contain several features that animal cells don't have. In addition to

organelles common to all eukaryotes,

plant cells contain organelles called

__________ that carry out specialized

functions such as the storage of starch

and photosynthesis

DNA

237. Prokaryotic __________________ cells contain their genetic material in a nucleoid region

238. Prokaryotic cells in addition to lacking a nucleus, ______________________ do not have an internal

membrane system or numerous

membrane-bounded organelles.

226. polar covalent bond

227. Polymere of alpha glucose - glucose stored in plant energy

228. Polymer of B glucose

structure of

plants

What type of covalent bond is formed by an unequal sharing of one or more electron pairs?

What is starch?

What is celluose?

239. Prostaglandins _______________ are a group of about 20 lipids that are modified fatty acids, with

two nonpolar "tails" attached to a 5-

carbon ring.

240. protein Amino Acids put end to end to end to end to end make a____________

241. protein Ribosomes are responsible for ______ synthesis in the cell

229. Polypeptide A protein is composed of one or more long unbranched chains. Each chain is

called a ______________ and is composed of

amino acids linked by peptide bonds

230. polypeptides A long, unbranched chain of amino acids is called

231. Polysaccharides ____________________________ are carbohydrates composed of many monosaccharide

sugar subunits linked together in a long

chain

242. Protein fibers play structural roles. These fibers include

keratin in hair, fibrin in blood clots, and collagen. The last one, collagen, forms the matrix of skin, ligaments, tendons, and bones and is the most abundant protein in a vertebrate body.

4. Support

255. RNA is similar to DNA, but with two major chemical differences. First, RNA molecules contain ribose sugars, in which the C-2 is bonded to a hydroxyl group. (In DNA, a hydrogen atom replaces this hydroxyl group.) Second, RNA molecules use uracil in place of thymine. Uracil has a similar structure to thymine, except that one of its

Name the two

differences between DNA and RNA

243. protein secretion and storage What is the role of the Golgi apparatus?

244. protein tetramers What are intermediate filaments composed of?

245. Protiens _________ Are polymers of amino acids

246. Protons, neutrons and electrons What are the three

carbons lacks a methyl (—CH3) group.

256. A saturated fat is composed of fatty acids which all have internal carbon atoms containing the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms. AN unsaturated fat does not have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms

What is the difference between an unsaturated fat and a a saturated fat?

subatomic particles?

247. purines and pyrimidines The two types of nitrogen bases present

in nucleotides are

____________ and _______________

257. Secondary Structure In a protein,

hydrogen

bonding

interactions

248. (Rare) When a protein who lost its conformation reverses back to have its conformation again

What is renaturization?

between CO and NH groups of the

249. Receptor proteins _________________ induce changes within the cell

when they come in

contact with specific

molecules in the

environment, such as

hormones, or with

molecules on the

surface of neighboring

cells.

250. reduction The process of gaining electrons in a reaction is

called

258. Sets the boundary of the cell and controls the passage of materials into and out of the cell

259. A single unit of nucleic acid, composed of a phosphate, a 5-carbon sugar and a purine or a pyrimidine

260. The smaller the cell, the larger the surface area to volume ratio will be

primary

structure

What is the role of the plasma

membrane?

What is a nucleotide?

What is the relationship between

251. A region around the nuclear of an atom that has a high

probability of containing an electron.

What is an orbital?

area and

volume in a

cell?

261. The smallest chemical sub unit of a polymer What are

252. Ribose In RNA, the sugar that makes up its backbone

is called.....

253. Ribsomes ______________ are the cellular structures that

all cells need to

synthesize proteins

254. RNA directs protein synthesis What is the function of RNA?

262. Small proteins called hormones serve as intercellular messengers in animals. Proteins also play many regulatory roles within the cell—turning on and shutting off genes during development, for example. In addition, proteins receive information, acting as cell-surface receptors.

monemers?

6.

Regulation

263. solute, solvent When 1 g of sugar is dissolved in 500mL of water, the sugar is

called the _____________ and the

water is called the ___________

276. This eukaryotic

organism contains

both "animal like" and "plant like"

What makes the cell structure and organization of Protists different than other types of organisms?

264. Specialized plastids that contain chlorophyll, a green pigment which functions in

photosynthesis

What is a chloroplast?

characteristics.

277. Through x rays What is the easiest way to study the shape of a protein?

278. thymine During proper base pairing in DNA, adenine pairs with ___________

265. Starch this is An insoluble polymer of glucose the chief food storage

substance of plants

266. Subatomic Particles Atoms are composed of which

279. Tight junctions These types of junctions between neighboring cells of the lining of

the human digestive tract are very

secure and prevent leakage

267. A substance that increases the overall reaction.

of the following? Ions

Macromolecules Molecules

Subatomic Particles What is a catalyst?

280. The time it takes for one half of the atom sample to decay

281. Tiny organs

Different local

environments where different reactions occur

Describe half life What are organelles?

268. sucrose When glucose forms a disaccharide with the structural

isomer fructose, the resulting

disaccharide is _______________, or

table sugar

282. To adjust the picture and make it more

clear

283. To carry genetic

What is the purpose of the course focus adjustment knob?

What is the function of DNA?

269. Surface area to volume ratio, or the diffusion of substances in and out of the cell

What is the most important factor that limits the size of cells?

information (gene) They are the blueprint of the cell

DNA directs RNA synthesis

270. surface to volume A large __________ -to- ___________ ratio is needed to allow for optimal

exchange of nutrients and

gasses into and out of the cell

271. T A =

284. To carry individual amino acids to

ribosomes

285. To control the amount of light that is being

What is the function of tRNA?

What is the purpose of the light control disc on a microscope?

272. A term used to describe the contents of the cell

273. There is no possible way we can ever pinpoint where an electron

actually is

274. They all have low atomic masses

What is a cytoplasm?

What is one key problem with the Bohr diagram?

Of the 12 naturally occurring elements necessary for life,

shed through your retina

286. To control the light/ turning it on and off so the bulb does not burn out

287. to hold and rotate objective lenses

What is the purpose of the light switch on the microscope?

What is the purpose of the nose piece on a microscope?

what do their atomic masses have in common?

288. To hold up the lenses What is the purpose of the arm on a microscope?

275. They are in both Are plasma membranes in both animal and plant cells or just

one or the other?

289. To increase

magnification and rotate to see more clearly

What is the purpose for the objective lenses?

290. To observe the specimen with our retina

291. To serve as a spot to observe the specimen

292. To study biology: the understanding of cells and tissues

293. To support the

microscope

What is the purpose of the ocular lens on a microscope?

What is the purpose of the stage on a microscope?

For what purpose do we use abilities like resolution and magnification?

What is the purpose of the base on a microscope?

305. U RNA is similar to the structure of

DNA but the

main difference

is that instead of

A = T,

it is

A = _____

306. unicellular Are prokaryotic cells

294. total volume Surface area increases while ____________ remains constant

multicellular or unicellular?

295. To use with the 400x magnified lens so that

when adjusting the

picture, you do not

shatter the lens

296. To view your slide/ to create a picture that may be observed by the retina of the eye

What is the purpose of the fine focus adjustment knob?

What is the purpose of the light source on a microscope?

307. Usually it is covered by a dense forest of chloroplasts

308. A variety of globular proteins transport small molecules and ions. The transport protein hemoglobin, for example, transports oxygen in the blood.

Membrane transport proteins help move ions and molecules across the

Why is the

nucleas difficult to observe?

3. Transport

297. Transfer Which type of RNA carries amino acids?

298. transfer Ionic bonds involve a ___________ of electrons from one atom to

another

membrane.

309. the varying sequences of the four types of nucleotides that make up each strand

Information is stored in a

molecule of DNA by ............

299. Transport proteins ______________________ help molecules and ions move across the

plasma membrane, either from

the environment to the interior

of the cell or vice versa.

310. Waste and storage What is that big empty space in

plant cells used

for?

311. Water tearing What does

300. Trick question: electrons weigh little to nothing. They in theory weigh 1/1840 daltons, but they

How many daltons does an electron weigh?

312. A weak polar covalent bond formed with a hydrogen atom

hydrolysis

mean?

What is a

hydrogen bond?

weigh approximately 0

301. Trick question, they can be both

Are eukaryotic cells

multicellular or unicellular?

313. weight Mass refers to the amount of a

substance, but

302. tubulin What are microtubules composed of?

________________ refers to the force gravity

303. Two forms of glucose that differ in the placement of the hydroxyl group

attached to carbon

number 1

304. Two single covalent bonds

What is alpha glucose and beta glucose?

What bonds make up H2O?

314. When an isotope breaks apart into elements with lower atomic numbers and releases energy in the process

315. When atoms with opposite charges are attracted to each other

316. When two atoms are across from one another, not right next to one another, they are opposite, not the same

exerts on a

substance.

What makes an isotope

radioactive?

What are ionic bonds?

What is a cis configuration?

317. When two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons

What are covalent bonds?

318. Yes Can functional groups participate in hydrogen bonding? 319. yes Do electrons in the same orbital have the same potential energy?

320. yes do Nonpolar molecules have a uniform distribution of electrical charge?

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