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UA / Engineering / CJ 100 / Define felony.

Define felony.

Define felony.

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Engineering
Course: Intro To Criminal Justice
Professor: Jimmy williams
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Criminal Justice and Intro to criminal justice
Cost: 50
Name: First Exam Study Guide
Description: Generally covers each chapter, once I know how the tests are the study guides will get better, hope this is helpful!
Uploaded: 09/14/2018
6 Pages 33 Views 27 Unlocks
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CJ100­320 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE


Define felony.



Highlight = Important Concept            Highlight = Key Term

Chapter 1: Crime & Criminal Justice

Main Terms

Crime: Violation of Laws

Social Control: Spoke or unspoken rules in a society

Herculean Task: Balance in control

Sociological Imagination: Putting yourself in someone else’s shoes

Three Levels of CJS

­ Federal/State/Local

­ Processes: Law Enforcement, Courts, & Corrections

­ Jail vs. Prison:  

o Jail is less than a year

o Prison more than a year

Crime Control & Due Process:

Herbert Packer:


What is official crime statistics?



­ Crime Control: Emphasis on public safety with an efficient system, (assembly line) ­ Due Process: Emphasis on individual rights and minimal error

Classifying Crime

­ Street Crime 

­ Mainly thought of when people think of ‘crime’, violent & property

­ White Collar / Corporate Crime 

­ Breaking laws to either (1) hurt the business for personal gain or (2) to benefit a  Corporation 

­ Cyber­Crime 

­ Computer facilitated ( crime can be committed without a computer )

­ Computer focused ( crime only exists because of computers )

Misdemeanor v. Felony

­ Misdemeanor: Minor offense; punishment ranges from small fines to 1yr in Jail ­ Felony: Punishment includes atleast 1yr + a day in Prison


What are the classifying crimes?



If you want to learn more check out Give an example of operative report.

Violent, Property, & Public Order

­ Focus on the victim. 

­ Violent: Committed out of passion / heat in the moment, but a rare occurrence

­ Property: Typically reported, although can be protected by civil law

­ Public­Order: Victimless crime, Controversial because the person doing it can hurt  themselves or society

Chapter 2 How Crime is Measured & Who it Affects

Dark Figure of Crime

Reasons for not reporting

o A crime not perceived as a crime

o Victim either knows or fears the offender

o Victim is the offender Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four classes of biological molecule?
We also discuss several other topics like Name some countries with lowest gii?

o Victim is embarrassed 

Official Crime Statistics

- Quetelet & Guerry

o ‘founded’ the database 

- Generated at different levels of government and/or different stages

Uniform Crime Report (UCR)

- 18,000+ agencies voluntarily submit stats

- Hierarchy Rule; 

o Person can commit a string of crimes, but only the ‘worst’ one is recorded

Pt. 1 Offenses (Index Crimes)

- Criminal Homicide ­ Burglary

- Forcible Rape ­ Larceny­Theft

- Robbery ­ Motor Vehicle Theft

- Aggravated Assault ­ Arson

- Human Trafficking* (recently added)

National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) If you want to learn more check out Who is inanna?

- Collects all offenses, even if all committed at once

- Police may not use this form of collecting because it means more work for them

Victim Surveys

- Ask participants to report crimes that have been committed against them in specified time frames

National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)

- NCVS cuts out the middle man with UCR + NIBRS

o Targets unreported crime

o Primary source of victimization data

o Doesn’t ask all crime, only non­fatal violent, and property crime

NCVS Methodology

­ Samples 90,000 household yearly, In­person/telephone interview

*2016, 78% household / 84% Individual

Self­Report Studies: 

- Crimes individual committed 

- Confidentiality + anonymity are important, can be combined 

Monitoring The Future

- Developed in 1965, run by University of Michigan 

o Behavior, Attitude, Values

- 50,000 surveys to 8th, 10th,& 12th grades We also discuss several other topics like What makes a good communicator?

Victims of Crime

- A person that has suffered direct physical, emotional, or financial harm as a result of the  commission of a crime.

- “Ideal” Victim: often portrayed as completely innocent

- Victim Precipitation: When a crime victim played some kind of role in their victimization. Don't forget about the age old question of Where are the major population clusters?

Mendelsohn’s Typology (self­explanatory) 

Innocent­ Wrong place wrong time

Victim w/ minor guilt­ isn’t actively involved

Guilty Vic. / Guilty Offender­ victim may have engaged in crime

Guilty Vic. / Guiltier Offender­ Victim could have attacked, but the offender was more  successful. 

Guilty Vic.­ Victim instigated the crime

Imaginary­ Victim is pretending/ lying that a crime occurred.

Victims of Violent Crime

- Becoming a victim of violent crime is mostly feared.

o In 2016, 1.3% of the total population was a victim of violent crime

- Direct + Vicarious victimization can occur & can suffer from social, psychological, and/or  physical harm

Victims of Property Crime

- Effects of property crimes include

o Financial loss

o Losing property that may not be returned

o Altered lifestyles

Victims of Hate Crime 

- Hate Crime: Traditional offense like murder, arson, vandalization with added elements of bias

- 3 Elements

o Hate language was used when committed

o Hate symbols 

o Police confirmed by other means: date, location, tattoos, etc

- Hate Crime Stats Act 1990

o Originally only included race, religion, sexual orientation, and ethnicity

Victims of Financial Crime

- Facts:

o 1:10 identity theft victims experience severe emotional distress o 1:3 with violent crime

- Estimated Costs:

o $40­$50 billion in fraud

o $24.7 billion in identity theft

o $800.5 million internet based

Special Victims

- Elderly 

o 2/3 of abusers are family

o 1 in 24 incidents are reported

- Children

o Boy and girls have similar rates

o 90% of victims know the abuser

Rights and Assistance

- Victim Rights and Restitution Act 1990 

o Federal law made the victim a key part of the CJS

- Victims ‘Bill of Rights’  

o Be informed, be heard, seek restitution, be protected.

Victim Impact Statement: Account given expressing effects of the event during trial Chapter 3 Criminal Law

Overview:

­ Laws must be clear, fair, & well defined

­ A law clarifies the relationship between citizens & gov

­ Democracies have laws that theoretically represent the views of the people ­ Laws can change

Timeline

­ Hammurabi 

o One of the earliest written codes, over 250 rules

o Established under the eye­for­eye rule

­ Magna Carta 

o “Great Charter”, Limited the kings powers & guaranteed citizen rights o Foundation for common law

o Due process

Development of Law

­ Common Law 

o Passed decisions precedent: decisions made in passed cases are used as a bias for  present case

o 4 Issues: 

 Predictability

 Reliability

 Efficiency

 Equality

­ Statutory Law 

o Bill that’s written into law, can only be changed if a new law is passed

4 Main Sources

1. Constitutions 

­ Fed/State, Bill of Rights

­ Fed is superior bc of supremacy 

­ States cant take a way guaranteed freedoms

2. Statues 

­ Define criminal behavior

­ Represent the will of the people

­ Written in penal codes, can be challenged, Unconstitutional Persse, or Unconstitutionally Applied

3. Case Law 

­ Ensures uniformity

­ Jurisdiction matters

4. Administrative & Executive Order 

­ Admin: rules boards & agencies, can be contested

­ Exec: ruled by the president, controls forces, effects general public indirectly

Types of Law

­ Will be either criminal or civil, procedural or substantive

Criminal vs. Civil

­ Criminal: actions that are defined as a crime by the government

­ Civil: private individual rights

­ Both control behaviors & impose sanctions on accused, an overlap

­ Tort Law: covers personal wrongs & damages

­ Double jeopardy: Cant try a person twice for the same jurisdiction

o Ex. OJ Simpson was tried 2 times but once as Criminal & once as Civil.

Criminal: Civil:

­ Gov vs defendant ­ 2 individuals 

­ Prosecutor / public defender              ­ Tort, Private attorney

­ Beyond reasonable doubt ­ Preponderance of evidence ­ Penalty can include incarceration  ­ Monetary payments

Substantive vs. Procedural

­ Substantive law: deals with crime itself

­ Procedural law: deals with rules and processes to handle criminal acts ­ Inherent relationship between two, both types of law are needed

Types of Crime

­ Felonies 

o Most serious classification, Formal & Informal

­ Misdemeanors 

o Up to 1yr in jail, mostly fines/probation

­ Inchoate Offenses 

o Crime is unnecessary 

o Allows CJS to prevent

o Attempt, solicitation, conspiracy

­ Infractions 

o Extremely minor, so much that it could be public order

o Jurisdictions consider it civil law

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