×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to UA - Study Guide - Midterm
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to UA - Study Guide - Midterm

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

UA / OTHER / CJ 100 / In crime and criminal justice what is felony?

In crime and criminal justice what is felony?

In crime and criminal justice what is felony?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: OTHER
Course: Intro To Criminal Justice
Professor: Jimmy williams
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Criminal Justice and Intro to criminal justice
Cost: 50
Name: First Exam Study Guide
Description: Generally covers each chapter, once I know how the tests are the study guides will get better, hope this is helpful!
Uploaded: 09/14/2018
6 Pages 9 Views 27 Unlocks
Reviews


CJ100­320 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE


In crime and criminal justice what is felony?



Highlight = Important Concept            Highlight = Key Term

Chapter 1: Crime & Criminal Justice

Main Terms

Crime: Violation of Laws

Social Control: Spoke or unspoken rules in a society

Herculean Task: Balance in control

Sociological Imagination: Putting yourself in someone else’s shoes

Three Levels of CJS

­ Federal/State/Local

­ Processes: Law Enforcement, Courts, & Corrections

­ Jail vs. Prison:  

o Jail is less than a year

o Prison more than a year

Crime Control & Due Process:

Herbert Packer:

­ Crime Control: Emphasis on public safety with an efficient system, (assembly line) ­ Due Process: Emphasis on individual rights and minimal error

Classifying Crime

­ Street Crime 

­ Mainly thought of when people think of ‘crime’, violent & property


What is official crime statistics?



We also discuss several other topics like humd class

­ White Collar / Corporate Crime 

­ Breaking laws to either (1) hurt the business for personal gain or (2) to benefit a  Corporation 

­ Cyber­Crime 

­ Computer facilitated ( crime can be committed without a computer )

­ Computer focused ( crime only exists because of computers )

Misdemeanor v. Felony

­ Misdemeanor: Minor offense; punishment ranges from small fines to 1yr in Jail ­ Felony: Punishment includes atleast 1yr + a day in Prison

Violent, Property, & Public Order

­ Focus on the victim. 

­ Violent: Committed out of passion / heat in the moment, but a rare occurrence

­ Property: Typically reported, although can be protected by civil law

­ Public­Order: Victimless crime, Controversial because the person doing it can hurt  themselves or society

Chapter 2 How Crime is Measured & Who it Affects


What are the classifying crimes?



Dark Figure of Crime

Reasons for not reporting

o A crime not perceived as a crime

o Victim either knows or fears the offender

o Victim is the offender

o Victim is embarrassed 

Official Crime Statistics

- Quetelet & Guerry

o ‘founded’ the database 

- Generated at different levels of government and/or different stages

Uniform Crime Report (UCR)

- 18,000+ agencies voluntarily submit stats

- Hierarchy Rule; 

o Person can commit a string of crimes, but only the ‘worst’ one is recorded If you want to learn more check out renvous

Pt. 1 Offenses (Index Crimes)

- Criminal Homicide ­ Burglary

- Forcible Rape ­ Larceny­Theft

- Robbery ­ Motor Vehicle Theft

- Aggravated Assault ­ Arson

- Human Trafficking* (recently added)

National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS)

- Collects all offenses, even if all committed at once

- Police may not use this form of collecting because it means more work for them

Victim Surveys

- Ask participants to report crimes that have been committed against them in specified time frames

National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)

- NCVS cuts out the middle man with UCR + NIBRS

o Targets unreported crime

o Primary source of victimization data

o Doesn’t ask all crime, only non­fatal violent, and property crime

NCVS Methodology

­ Samples 90,000 household yearly, In­person/telephone interview

*2016, 78% household / 84% Individual

Self­Report Studies: 

- Crimes individual committed 

- Confidentiality + anonymity are important, can be combined 

Monitoring The Future

- Developed in 1965, run by University of Michigan 

o Behavior, Attitude, Values

- 50,000 surveys to 8th, 10th,& 12th grades We also discuss several other topics like chapter 6 biology study guide

Victims of Crime

- A person that has suffered direct physical, emotional, or financial harm as a result of the  commission of a crime. Don't forget about the age old question of ole miss geology

- “Ideal” Victim: often portrayed as completely innocent

- Victim Precipitation: When a crime victim played some kind of role in their victimization.

Mendelsohn’s Typology (self­explanatory) 

Innocent­ Wrong place wrong time

Victim w/ minor guilt­ isn’t actively involved

Guilty Vic. / Guilty Offender­ victim may have engaged in crime

Guilty Vic. / Guiltier Offender­ Victim could have attacked, but the offender was more  successful. 

Guilty Vic.­ Victim instigated the crime

Imaginary­ Victim is pretending/ lying that a crime occurred.

Victims of Violent Crime

- Becoming a victim of violent crime is mostly feared.

o In 2016, 1.3% of the total population was a victim of violent crime

- Direct + Vicarious victimization can occur & can suffer from social, psychological, and/or  physical harm

Victims of Property Crime

- Effects of property crimes include

o Financial loss

o Losing property that may not be returned

o Altered lifestyles

Victims of Hate Crime 

- Hate Crime: Traditional offense like murder, arson, vandalization with added elements of bias

- 3 Elements

o Hate language was used when committed

o Hate symbols  If you want to learn more check out chris pope uga

o Police confirmed by other means: date, location, tattoos, etc

- Hate Crime Stats Act 1990

o Originally only included race, religion, sexual orientation, and ethnicity

Victims of Financial Crime

- Facts:

o 1:10 identity theft victims experience severe emotional distress o 1:3 with violent crime

- Estimated Costs:

o $40­$50 billion in fraud

o $24.7 billion in identity theft

o $800.5 million internet based

Special Victims

- Elderly 

o 2/3 of abusers are family

o 1 in 24 incidents are reported

- Children

o Boy and girls have similar rates

o 90% of victims know the abuser

Rights and Assistance

- Victim Rights and Restitution Act 1990 

o Federal law made the victim a key part of the CJS

- Victims ‘Bill of Rights’  

o Be informed, be heard, seek restitution, be protected.

Victim Impact Statement: Account given expressing effects of the event during trial Chapter 3 Criminal Law

Overview:

­ Laws must be clear, fair, & well defined

­ A law clarifies the relationship between citizens & gov

­ Democracies have laws that theoretically represent the views of the people ­ Laws can change

Timeline

­ Hammurabi 

o One of the earliest written codes, over 250 rules

o Established under the eye­for­eye rule

­ Magna Carta 

o “Great Charter”, Limited the kings powers & guaranteed citizen rights o Foundation for common law

o Due process

Development of Law

­ Common Law 

o Passed decisions precedent: decisions made in passed cases are used as a bias for  present case If you want to learn more check out cse help room msu

o 4 Issues: 

 Predictability

 Reliability

 Efficiency

 Equality

­ Statutory Law 

o Bill that’s written into law, can only be changed if a new law is passed

4 Main Sources

1. Constitutions 

­ Fed/State, Bill of Rights

­ Fed is superior bc of supremacy 

­ States cant take a way guaranteed freedoms

2. Statues 

­ Define criminal behavior

­ Represent the will of the people

­ Written in penal codes, can be challenged, Unconstitutional Persse, or Unconstitutionally Applied

3. Case Law 

­ Ensures uniformity

­ Jurisdiction matters

4. Administrative & Executive Order 

­ Admin: rules boards & agencies, can be contested

­ Exec: ruled by the president, controls forces, effects general public indirectly

Types of Law

­ Will be either criminal or civil, procedural or substantive

Criminal vs. Civil

­ Criminal: actions that are defined as a crime by the government

­ Civil: private individual rights

­ Both control behaviors & impose sanctions on accused, an overlap

­ Tort Law: covers personal wrongs & damages

­ Double jeopardy: Cant try a person twice for the same jurisdiction

o Ex. OJ Simpson was tried 2 times but once as Criminal & once as Civil.

Criminal: Civil:

­ Gov vs defendant ­ 2 individuals 

­ Prosecutor / public defender              ­ Tort, Private attorney

­ Beyond reasonable doubt ­ Preponderance of evidence ­ Penalty can include incarceration  ­ Monetary payments

Substantive vs. Procedural

­ Substantive law: deals with crime itself

­ Procedural law: deals with rules and processes to handle criminal acts ­ Inherent relationship between two, both types of law are needed

Types of Crime

­ Felonies 

o Most serious classification, Formal & Informal

­ Misdemeanors 

o Up to 1yr in jail, mostly fines/probation

­ Inchoate Offenses 

o Crime is unnecessary 

o Allows CJS to prevent

o Attempt, solicitation, conspiracy

­ Infractions 

o Extremely minor, so much that it could be public order

o Jurisdictions consider it civil law

Page Expired
5off
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here