GEOG 1101: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
DEVELOPMENT OF CARTOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE
∙ T and O maps
o Orions is the Latin word for east.
o Occidens is the Latin word for west.
o The other two words in the map is the Latin for sea and ocean. o Circle represents infinity (beginning or the end).
o These types of maps became very popular before the Roman Emperors.
o Monks drew these maps and the purpose of them drawing the maps was not to help with navigation but to show their sole purpose to God. ∙ Mappa Mundi (Maps of the World)
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of proximal stimulus?
o Center of this map is Jerusalem representing Jerusalem as the center of the world.
o Heaven is located on top associating east and under world is located on the bottom associating west.
o Sun rises in the east, goes across the sky and sets in the west. o Metaphorically, sun is born in the east and dies in the west. o Sun reborn every day representing crucifixion and resurrection. o The powerful miracle for the Christians is the resurrection. o Association between the east (where the sun rises) and heaven is that people are born.
o Ancient Egypt was typically divided into two parts: east and west. The west part had the cemeteries showing the theoretical symbolism of the association of sun dying in the west.
∙ Ebstorf Map
If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of lambda?
o This map shows that Christ is covering the whole world (Christ’s head, toes and hands are shown in the extremities of the map).
o The Garden of Eden surrounded by mountains is located in the east near Christ’s head.
∙ The Islamic world have a completely different view of the world. o Muhammed al-Idrisi
Important cartographer living in Sicily
He created one of the most advanced ancient world maps called Tabula Rogeriana for Roger II in 1154.
He gathered information about the rivers, lakes, food sources, natural resources and coastlines.
∙ The common thing between the Chinese map and the map produced by the Islam is that they tend to put where they are from in the center of the map they produce.
∙ Christopher Columbus widely used the Florentine map based on Ptolemy’s geography.
∙ Abraham Ortelius produced the first modern atlas of 53 maps called Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the World).
∙ Importance of maps
o Preformation of the world
o Increase in navigation and trade
o Renaissance challenged
o Printing press
∙ Growth of the European Cartography
o Geographical spread of merchant capitalism If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of recommended dietary allowance (rda)?
o Rise of nationalism and nation-states in Europe
o Renaissance and “scientific revolution”
o Development of printing press
o Rediscovery of “God’s eye view of the world” (God’s eye view of the world is the floating view of the world)
∙ Plan des Dimes de Champeaux
o Perspective of the world with respect to a person physically walking through the landscape.
∙ (Re)discovery of perspective
o Important for understanding distance, scale and representation of the landscape. If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of evaporative cooling?
o Represents the fundamental difference of thinking of the world o Viewer placed outside the image
o Creates illusion of sense of proportion and depth
o Encourage people to think in terms of lines of latitude and longitude. ∙ Map of Nicolas Bataille
o Flat (no depth)
o Not to scale
o Size showed the importance (Biggest person was the most important person)
∙ William Hogarth drew the “Satire on False Perspective” We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of law?
o Flattening image
∙ Traditional Chinese Art
o Particular style of painting – rules-line painting (Jiehua). This kind of painting used the ruler for painting to give an accurate description of depth.
∙ Australian Aboriginal Representations of space
o This map was used by the aboriginal people in Australia.
o Circles in this picture represent a gathering place.
o This is a map of where people might go to find food or water. o This map represents a gathering place for humans.
∙ For the aboriginal people, there is no separation between the spiritual world and the material world.
∙ Aboriginal people used different symbols to represent different things. ∙ Possum skin coat maps We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of elementary matrix?
o Possum is an animal.
o People in those days would draw map on the inside skin of the animal and wrapped around.
o They would travel around the world with this map wrapped around. ∙ Native Americans used a similar kind of thing for mapping, but instead of possum skin, they would use deer skin.
∙ Marshall Islands stick charts
o Rebbilib – This is a map where each of the shells represent an island. Coconut fiber is used to represent the current.
∙ Marshall Islands consist of two parallel island chains: Ratak and Ralik. ∙ Process of mapping
o The world as it is, and the world understood through mapping is quite different.
o The first set of decisions involve around what to put on the map and the choices of projection.
o The second set of decisions involve around how to represent what we are looking at, how to put north on top and south on the bottom, what kind of symbols and colors to use, etc.
o The symbols used by people used 100 years ago for religious buildings was a cross.
o Cross became a universal symbol for all religious buildings. o The third set of decisions involve around decoding like how the data, the symbols, the colors are understood.
o The fourth set of decisions involve around the perception of the world like how the world can be perceived using map.
∙ Picturizing the map is culturally based.
∙ Pareidolia, the Greek word for “Beyond the image” is a fancy term for the process where our brain tries to make sense out of the things we see without thinking.
∙ Interpretations of what we see are culturally and historically specific. ∙ Trompe-l’oeil is the term referenced for the style of art of tricking the eye. ∙ Mapping of the same data can be done using different symbols. ∙ Reasons for difference between how the world is and the way we understand the world to be is due to:
o Poor map making skills (Poor choice of colors and symbols) o Poor map reading skills (Poor choice of formatting)
∙ Why would we want to project a 3-D Earth to a 2-D map?
o Convenience (easy to carry around)
o Allows us to focus on particular parts of Earth by changing the scale of the map.
∙ Why is the way to project a 3-D object to a 2-D one important? o This can lead to different understandings of sizes; hence they can influence our actions.
∙ Global Grid
o Latitude: Measures the north or south distance from the equator. o Parallel or Lines of Latitude: lines of equal distance from the equator. o Equator is a natural divider to determine the latitude.
o Polar circumference of the Earth is 24,860 miles.
o Distance between each degree of latitude should be 24,860 / 360 = 69.06 miles.
o Longitude: Measures the east or west distance from the equator.
o Meridians: The lines of longitude.
o There is no natural basis for determining the longitude.
o 1884 Conference fixed the Prime Meridian – 0 degree east or west at Greenwich.
o Time Zone is based on the Prime Meridian.
o Distance measured by a degree of latitude varies significantly with longitude (its smaller closer to the Poles)
o Latitude is given first, longitude is given second. (For example: 37degrees 12’ 52” S 15degrees 34’ 03” E
o Absolute location is expressed in terms of degrees, minutes and seconds.