CHAPT 3 NOTES: NATIONS AND SOCIETIESWhat is a nation?What is society?What is political identity?Society: complex human organization; collection of ppl. bound by shared institutions that define human relations should be conductedEthnic identity/ethnicity: specific attributes and societal instits. that make one group of ppl. culturally diff. from othersBased on customs, lang., relig., etc.Generally assigned at birthNot inherently politicalEthnicity exists when ppl. acknowledge and are acknowledged by others as belonging to a distinct groupIdentities conditioned by polit., cultural and econ. context of each societyNation: group that desires self-gov’t through indep. stateNational identity: sense of belonging to nation and belief in its polit. aspirationsOften (but not always) derived from ethnic identityInherently politicalBasis for nationalism:Pride in one’s ppl and belief that they have unique polit. destinyHomogeneity from nat’lism = nation pride ↓Nat’lism NOT inherently badCan drive to modern civilizationCitizenship: individ’s. relationship to state, where citizens swear allegiance to that state and the state in return is obligated to provide rights to those citizensPurely political = more easily changed than ethnic or nat’l diversityBasis for patriotismPatriotism: pride in one’s stateCan develop with nationalism, but can adobe very distinct
Weak state = patriotism ↓
Citizen ≠ patrioticEthnic or national identity ≠ patrioticCitizenship, ethnicity, and national identity aren’t exclusive
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Ethnic Identity, National Identity, and Citizenship: Origins and Persistence
End of 18th century = emergence of ethnic and national identities in Europe
Citizenship began in Athens and Ancient Rome - fell with Rome, then reemerged
Emergence of modern state in 15th and 16th century Europe = sovereignty over ppl ↑ = more security = mobility ↑
Language and cultural practices emerge, social institutions = ethnic identityWays ppl identified themselvesAthnic identity ↑ = state development ↑State = institution that embodies ppl’s collective identityNational identity and ethnic identity = legitimacy ↑National identity unifies ppl = ability to raise armies ↑Nation-state: state encompassing, dominant nation that it claims to embody and representEthnic and national identities → citizenship
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Ethnic and National ConflictEthnic conflict: conflict in which diff. ethnic groups struggle to achieve certain polit. or eco. goals at each other’s expenseNational conflict: conflict in which 1 or more groups within the country develop clear aspirations for polit. Indep., clashing with each other as a resultCan have both ethnic and national conflict, or can be diff. from each otherConflicts can start because of society, econ. Or politics.Societal = ethnic heterogeneityEcon: struggle for resources between groups and general level of poverty across country as wholePolit: state and regime (capacity or autonomy level; democratic or non-democratic)Can be hand to distinguish cause and effect (endogeneity)How to prevent or end ethnic or national conflicts?Depends on nature of conflict (equality, autonomy, secession) Try to create institutions that make ppl. feel that polit. system is fair and serves their needsDon’t institutionalize group division - be flexible enough to cooperate
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Key Terms: self-determination, nation,nationalism, ethnic nationalism, civic nationalism, secession, irredentism, federalism