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CARLETON UNIVERSITY / Architecture / ARCH ARCH 2300 / What is classical architecture about?

What is classical architecture about?

What is classical architecture about?


School: Carleton University
Department: Architecture
Course: Introduction to Modern Architecture
Professor: Marie j debanne
Term: Fall 2018
Cost: 25
Name: Introduction to Modern Architecture Lecture 2
Description: Notes from class.
Uploaded: 09/15/2018
4 Pages 30 Views 3 Unlocks

andreatamayo (Rating: )

Lecture 2

What was classical architecture about?

Claude Perrault

American National Architecture used Greek orders to show democracy, order, power ex. White house

∙ Gothic revival/ Neogothic

∙ Value of orders – had deep symbolic, mythical properties and beliefs – written by Vitruvius

∙ Vitruvius’ books were very popular and used by many everywhere The emptying out of meaning of classical Architecture in our times…

∙ Ex. Charle Moore, Piazza D’Italia, New Orleans 1978

∙ Ex. Disney Whorls HQS, Michael Graves, Burbank CA 1991

∙ Skins are very dramatic but not actually following the true original rules in  their build

What was classical architecture about?

∙ Cosmos = the universe seen as a well-ordered whole

Jean-jacques lequeu is the author of what?

If you want to learn more check out Financial capital refers to what?

∙ Ex. The Greek Theater; The CHORA; places of ritual participation o Share stories, have an audience, great acoustics, environmental –  bring people together

o Built into the earth, placed appropriately for purpose into the site,  wind, and sun

o Architecture is cosmetic – in tune w cosmos

Contemporary detachment between site and building

∙ Discontinuity of “Nature” + built world ex. Ordinary Homes

o “I live inside my house” for living purposes = no sense of cosmic  continuity

Divine Sources 2. The Classical Tradition

∙ Ex. Maison Carrée, Nimes (France) ca.10CE

o Roman temple in Corinthian order

∙ Parthenon, Athens, 448-432BCE

What are the origins of modernity?

o Transformation wood from stone

∙ Doric order; intercolumniation adjustment

∙ A cosmological ground for architecture

∙ Architecture is the divine order

Cosmos: comprising two separate but interrelated realms: Celestial and  Terrestrial

∙ Celestial – eternal, perfect, unchanging, harmonious order, geometry,  manifested in regularity  We also discuss several other topics like What are the 3 forms of business?

∙ Terrestrial – changing, irregular, brief, mortal, disorder, darkness – the realm  of becoming (rather than being)

∙ Microcosm + macrocosm: man at center, focus on man

∙ Central Ideas in Vitruvius’ Text

1. Architectural proportions and musical harmonies were analogous. 2. The natural, eternal and invariable proportions in nature - source of  true beauty.

3. The ancients have authority to architecture because they hold true  to proportion

o Devine building of body building and nature

o Architecture should be reconciled with senses through optical corrections o Optical corrections in Parthenon – tapering = swelling of columns o Through antiquity = renaissance musical harmony is crucial

Divine Sources 1. The Judio Christian Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 3 mechanisms of evolution?

∙ Ex. Chartres and Reims Cathedra

∙ Medieval aesthetics – numbers and measurements = the divine truth Origins of Modernity

∙ From persistence of Vitruvian theories into the renaissance and into the 18th century

∙ Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642)

o Initial challenges to cosmological worldview in new science –  hypotheses and instruments  

o Invention of telescope – sun in canter of solar system

o Instruments and measurement gave access to truth (mathematician  and scientist)

∙ Rene Descartes (1596 - 1650)

o “I think, therefore I am” French philosopher, mathematician, and  scientist

o The seed of modern thoughts – the idea of doubt: appearances are  false

∙ Guarini “how the create various projections to delight the senses” ∙ Antoine Desgodets: Les Edifices Antiques de Rome 1682

o Writes about inconsistencies through measurement of ancient/  traditional buildings

o Site + acoustics are not the same – acoustics/ sounds are more precise Claude Perrault (1613 - 1688) If you want to learn more check out What were 5 poems of bilgames?

∙ The quarrel between the ancients and the moderns

∙ The 17th century perspective on what it means to be modern - A fundamental  shift:

o Moving away from a cosmological ground for architecture

∙ Provides on set of rules for architecture

∙ Followed Galileo and Descartes

∙ Founding member of two royal academies: science and architecture ∙ Exacts proportions do not ensure the beauty f a building

∙ Did Renovation at East wing of the Louvre – 1st time doubling columns

o Paired columns with larger than usual intercolumnar spacing o Iron bracketing – reinforced concrete and stone

∙ Draws column orders on top of a grid – measure and stabilize for modern ∙ Francois Blondel – refutes Perrault’s theories – proportions are natural not  “customary” and architecture is analogs to music

Architecture + Enlightenment; Nature, Character, Origin + Type

∙ Observatoire, Paris, 1667, Perrault – simplicity, mechanisms, featured in  many of Perrault’s art Don't forget about the age old question of What is the goal behind society portraits?

Divine Sources 3. Architecture – as a discipline – is made aware of its own  history  

∙ Travels to European cities to discover ruins of antiquity ex. Pompeii 1748  ∙ Enlightenment: development to new practices and forms – Isaac Newton +  James Thornhill

o produced industrial revolution, rise of political republics (French  revolution) ect

o Architects challenge with enlightenment: settle on primary eternal  truths with growing awareness of relativity and contingency of man’s  cultural expression

o Some believed knowledge should be presses into service of humankind ∙ Encyclopedia to define specificity + limits of an area of knowledge, social  institutions, or an art

∙ Laugier – Belief in primitive hut

o Nature is most beautiful and correct

o No extra ornament

∙ Architecture becomes self-conscious (in own modernity) – search for origin o Myth of New World as a(pre-Christian) Golden age

∙ Prophetic message: Laugier’s sense of Neoclassicism: loved Maison Carrée w  true principles

o Ste. Genevieve, Soufflot – Greco-Gothic syntheses

∙ Jean-Jacques Lequeu (1756 - 1825)  

o Author of Architecttura Civile  

o The rules of the science of shading and rendering in architectural  drawings

o Naturalists temples, inspired by nature

o Indorse and elevate the spirit of the human – can be perfect and smart o Ex. Le Parc des Buttes Chaumont, Paris We also discuss several other topics like Why is the human cerebral cortex so heavily folded?

∙ Important Publications:

o Jean-Jacques Rausseau: The Social Contract (1762)

o Conillac: Treatise on Sensations (1754)

o Nicolas Le Camus De Mezieres: The Genius of Architecture…(1780) ∙ Architecture should make the viewer feel a mood – happy, scared, sad, in awe o Ledaux: Hotel D’Hallwyl, Mariais District, Paris 1766 – very modern,  creates atmosphere

o Pavillion Du Barry

o Pavillion Guimard, Ledaux, Paris 1772 – comfort, reception, private  theater, roman theme, suppressed ornamentation,

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