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CARLETON UNIVERSITY / Architecture / ARCH 2300 / What is classical architecture about?

What is classical architecture about?

What is classical architecture about?


School: Carleton University
Department: Architecture
Course: Introduction to Modern Architecture
Professor: Marie j debanne
Term: Fall 2018
Cost: 25
Name: Introduction to Modern Architecture Lecture 2
Description: Notes from class.
Uploaded: 09/15/2018
4 Pages 106 Views 3 Unlocks

andreatamayo (Rating: )

Lecture 2

What was classical architecture about?

Claude Perrault

American National Architecture used Greek orders to show democracy, order, power ex. White house

∙ Gothic revival/ Neogothic

∙ Value of orders – had deep symbolic, mythical properties and beliefs – written by Vitruvius

∙ Vitruvius’ books were very popular and used by many everywhere The emptying out of meaning of classical Architecture in our times…

∙ Ex. Charle Moore, Piazza D’Italia, New Orleans 1978

∙ Ex. Disney Whorls HQS, Michael Graves, Burbank CA 1991

∙ Skins are very dramatic but not actually following the true original rules in  their build

What was classical architecture about?

∙ Cosmos = the universe seen as a well-ordered whole

Jean-jacques lequeu is the author of what?

If you want to learn more check out In economics, what are the natural resources?

∙ Ex. The Greek Theater; The CHORA; places of ritual participation o Share stories, have an audience, great acoustics, environmental –  bring people together

o Built into the earth, placed appropriately for purpose into the site,  wind, and sun

o Architecture is cosmetic – in tune w cosmos Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 3 forms of business?

Contemporary detachment between site and building

∙ Discontinuity of “Nature” + built world ex. Ordinary Homes

o “I live inside my house” for living purposes = no sense of cosmic  continuity

Divine Sources 2. The Classical Tradition

∙ Ex. Maison Carrée, Nimes (France) ca.10CE

o Roman temple in Corinthian order

∙ Parthenon, Athens, 448-432BCE

What are the origins of modernity?

o Transformation wood from stone

∙ Doric order; intercolumniation adjustment

∙ A cosmological ground for architecture

∙ Architecture is the divine order

Cosmos: comprising two separate but interrelated realms: Celestial and  Terrestrial

∙ Celestial – eternal, perfect, unchanging, harmonious order, geometry,  manifested in regularity  

∙ Terrestrial – changing, irregular, brief, mortal, disorder, darkness – the realm  of becoming (rather than being)

∙ Microcosm + macrocosm: man at center, focus on man

∙ Central Ideas in Vitruvius’ Text Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 3 mechanisms of evolution?
Don't forget about the age old question of What do origin stories tell us about people?

1. Architectural proportions and musical harmonies were analogous. 2. The natural, eternal and invariable proportions in nature - source of  true beauty.

3. The ancients have authority to architecture because they hold true  to proportion

o Devine building of body building and nature

o Architecture should be reconciled with senses through optical corrections o Optical corrections in Parthenon – tapering = swelling of columns o Through antiquity = renaissance musical harmony is crucial Don't forget about the age old question of What was the main purpose of the deposition?

Divine Sources 1. The Judio Christian

∙ Ex. Chartres and Reims Cathedra

∙ Medieval aesthetics – numbers and measurements = the divine truth Origins of Modernity

∙ From persistence of Vitruvian theories into the renaissance and into the 18th century

∙ Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642)

o Initial challenges to cosmological worldview in new science –  hypotheses and instruments  

o Invention of telescope – sun in canter of solar system

o Instruments and measurement gave access to truth (mathematician  and scientist)

∙ Rene Descartes (1596 - 1650)

o “I think, therefore I am” French philosopher, mathematician, and  scientist

o The seed of modern thoughts – the idea of doubt: appearances are  false

∙ Guarini “how the create various projections to delight the senses” ∙ Antoine Desgodets: Les Edifices Antiques de Rome 1682 We also discuss several other topics like Why is the human cerebral cortex so heavily folded?

o Writes about inconsistencies through measurement of ancient/  traditional buildings

o Site + acoustics are not the same – acoustics/ sounds are more precise Claude Perrault (1613 - 1688)

∙ The quarrel between the ancients and the moderns

∙ The 17th century perspective on what it means to be modern - A fundamental  shift:

o Moving away from a cosmological ground for architecture

∙ Provides on set of rules for architecture

∙ Followed Galileo and Descartes

∙ Founding member of two royal academies: science and architecture ∙ Exacts proportions do not ensure the beauty f a building

∙ Did Renovation at East wing of the Louvre – 1st time doubling columns

o Paired columns with larger than usual intercolumnar spacing o Iron bracketing – reinforced concrete and stone

∙ Draws column orders on top of a grid – measure and stabilize for modern ∙ Francois Blondel – refutes Perrault’s theories – proportions are natural not  “customary” and architecture is analogs to music

Architecture + Enlightenment; Nature, Character, Origin + Type

∙ Observatoire, Paris, 1667, Perrault – simplicity, mechanisms, featured in  many of Perrault’s art

Divine Sources 3. Architecture – as a discipline – is made aware of its own  history  

∙ Travels to European cities to discover ruins of antiquity ex. Pompeii 1748  ∙ Enlightenment: development to new practices and forms – Isaac Newton +  James Thornhill

o produced industrial revolution, rise of political republics (French  revolution) ect

o Architects challenge with enlightenment: settle on primary eternal  truths with growing awareness of relativity and contingency of man’s  cultural expression

o Some believed knowledge should be presses into service of humankind ∙ Encyclopedia to define specificity + limits of an area of knowledge, social  institutions, or an art

∙ Laugier – Belief in primitive hut

o Nature is most beautiful and correct

o No extra ornament

∙ Architecture becomes self-conscious (in own modernity) – search for origin o Myth of New World as a(pre-Christian) Golden age

∙ Prophetic message: Laugier’s sense of Neoclassicism: loved Maison Carrée w  true principles

o Ste. Genevieve, Soufflot – Greco-Gothic syntheses

∙ Jean-Jacques Lequeu (1756 - 1825)  

o Author of Architecttura Civile  

o The rules of the science of shading and rendering in architectural  drawings

o Naturalists temples, inspired by nature

o Indorse and elevate the spirit of the human – can be perfect and smart o Ex. Le Parc des Buttes Chaumont, Paris

∙ Important Publications:

o Jean-Jacques Rausseau: The Social Contract (1762)

o Conillac: Treatise on Sensations (1754)

o Nicolas Le Camus De Mezieres: The Genius of Architecture…(1780) ∙ Architecture should make the viewer feel a mood – happy, scared, sad, in awe o Ledaux: Hotel D’Hallwyl, Mariais District, Paris 1766 – very modern,  creates atmosphere

o Pavillion Du Barry

o Pavillion Guimard, Ledaux, Paris 1772 – comfort, reception, private  theater, roman theme, suppressed ornamentation,

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