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AUM / Biology / BIOL 1020 / What does the theory of biological evolution say?

What does the theory of biological evolution say?

What does the theory of biological evolution say?

Description

School: Auburn University Montgomery
Department: Biology
Course: Organisms, Adapt., Environ
Professor: Professor taliaferro
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Biology, natural selection, Phylogenetics, protists, and evolution
Cost: 50
Name: AUM Biology 1020 First exam 9/20
Description: All 4 chapters that were gone over within the first month of class. Mostly know definitions, examples, and understand the concept! Or just be able to notice examples and associate with the larger words. Good Luck!
Uploaded: 09/16/2018
10 Pages 113 Views 2 Unlocks
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Study guide for Biology 1020’s first exam


What does the theory of biological evolution say?



Highlight​-Important terms Highlight- Be able to list this! Highlight-Understand concept Know BOLDED​ people

Chapter 22 Evolution:

- Scientific theory:general explanation of natural phenomena supported by many experiments and observations

- Scientific theory of Biological evolution explains:

- Unity of life

- Rich diversity

- Match between organisms and their environment

- Biological evolution:genetic change in a population of organisms over time, which is also called Descent with Modification

- Scientists believed all living things descended from an anaerobic prokaryote


Where are endemic species found?



- Malthus​ published Essay on the principle of population: which stated as humans evolve there will be a point where humans can’t feed themselves and may suffer from drought, famine, or disease

- Lamarck​ “Hypothesis of evolutionary process”: living things changed over time - also believed organisms could acquire traits over time

- Cuvier-​ Vertebrae fossils: fossils are different from the living organisms at that time - realized extinction, but did not believe new species took the older species place If you want to learn more check out What do origin stories tell us about people?

- Lyell​-Principles of Geology: stated how the Earth changed overtime

- first to recognize the earth shifted over time such as mountains


What are the 3 mechanisms of evolution?



- also believed in the use of a trait will strengthen the trait and if one does not use the trait then it will disappear

- Darwin​-Voyage on the Beagle, published Descent with Modification

- Darwin took Lyell’s book with him on his journey

- Wallace​-Sends Darwin his manuscript about natural selection: the process in which traits that are useful will be passed down by reproduction and the other species that don’t reproduce will die out

Study guide for Biology 1020’s first exam

- Darwin​-Publishes On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection:Created in conjunction with Wallace in London

- Darwin was first to realize Natural Selection

- Traditional View: Earth was young. Life was created in its current and unchanging (perfect permanent) form

- More info. On Darwin

- Didn’t do well in school, so father put him in medical school, which he was grossed out We also discuss several other topics like What was the main purpose of the deposition?

- After medical school failed then went to theology school for ministry - Meet a botanist, which introduced him to Captain Robert FitzRoy, which invited Darwin on the Beagle journey

- Married first cousin, Emma Wedgewood, who was known for wealth through fine China

- Adaptation: explains the match between organisms and their environment, which is a result of natural selection

- Adaptations can be structural or behavioral

- Endemic species: only found in that one location and not anywhere else

- “Tree of Life:” there’s a common ancestor that everything descended from, which results in the new species created

- Represents the history of evolution through life’s diversity

- Individuals DO NOT evolve: Generations do We also discuss several other topics like Why is the human cerebral cortex so heavily folded?

- Genetic variation is REQUIRED to increase or decrease inherited traits that are useful and not useful in a population

- Adaptations vary in different ENVIRONMENTS 

- Survival of the fittest: ability to sustain life long enough to pass on genetic info.

- Direct observation: study that can be seen by evaluating the subject without altering the environment

- Homology: shared derived traits

- Structures can change over time as organisms adapt to their surroundings - Vestigial structures are homologous structures that serve no purpose - Fossil Record: Various fossils and the information that’s been derived in sequence of transition

- Biogeography: the distribution of organisms around the EarthWe also discuss several other topics like Which part of the brain is responsible for memory?

Study guide for Biology 1020’s first exam

- Wallace line:how one particular bird looks different on one country than the other - Genetics: similarity of DNA sequences indicated relatedness

- Biochemistry: similar chemical structures/ reactions

- Mass extinction: 50% of a species dies off in a short period of time from a global climate change

- Human footprint: ecological impact the humans have on the world

Chapter 23 Natural Selection:

- In order to have natural selection you must have genetic variation

- Microevolution- change in allele frequencies in a population over generation

- 3 mechanisms cause allele frequency We also discuss several other topics like How to prepare journal entries?

- Natural selection

- Genetic drift

- Genetic flow

- Sources of genetic variation 

- Mutation

- Gene duplication

- Sexual reproduction is another way genetic variation which is recombination of genes from parent cells crossing over

- Populations: group of individuals of the same species that live in a particular area - Gene pool: consists of all the genes in a population

- Allele frequency:proportion of a particular allele

- Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium: 

- The control group, so if the population is in then there no evolutionary force to create genetic variation Don't forget about the age old question of Does the dna or protein part of the phage serve as the genetic material and is transmitted to the phage progeny?

- If the population is out of the equilibrium then there is evolutionary change - Important because it the math equation that is used to determine evolution

- Assumptions for Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium 

- No mutations

- Random mating

Study guide for Biology 1020’s first exam

- No natural selection

- Now gene flow

- Extremely large population size

- Adaptations:inherited traits that help an organism survive

- Genetic drift: allele frequency fluctuates by chance

- Mostly seen in small population

- Reduces genetic fitness/variation

- Founder effect: allele frequencies in small groups that varies from the larger group, which reduces variation

- Bottleneck effect:sudden reduction of population due to a change in environment

- Humans affecting diversity: *results of bottleneck effect*

- Habitat diversity

- Species diversity

- Genetic diversity

- Effects of genetic drift 

- Loss of genetic variation within populations

- Significant in small populations

- Allele frequencies change at random

- Geneflow:movement of alleles among populations

- Can increase fitness of populations

- Relative fitness:how many species can produces the most offspring to spread their genes out in the world

- 3 modes of selection 

- Directional selection:favors individuals at one extreme to another

- Disruptive selection: favors individuals at both extremes

- Stabilizing selection :favors intermediate variants and acts against extremes Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life:

- Phylogeny: evolutionary history of a species or group of related species - Systematics classifies organisms and determines their evolutionary relationships

Study guide for Biology 1020’s first exam

- Taxonomy: scientific discipline concerned with classifying and naming the organisms

- Binomial nomenclature: created by Linnaeus which includes 2 parts to naming a certain species, which are the specific epithet and genus

- Hierarchical classification: system for grouping species in increasingly inclusive categories (Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species)

- Phylogenetic tree: evolutionary history representation of a group of organisms - Node: branch point represents the divergence of 2 species

- Sister taxa: groups that share an immediate ancestor

- Basal taxon: divergences early in the history of a phylogenetic tree which originate near the common ancestor

- Polytomy: branch from which more than 2 groups emerge

- Phylogenies are created by using:

- DNA

- Morphology

- Genes

- Biochemistry of living things

- Homologies:phenotypic and genetic similarities due to shared ancestry - Due to divergent evolutions: they structures are modified over time due to their environment

- Analogy: different ancestors with traits becoming more similar over time - Due to convergent evolutions: adaptive structures due to similar traits based on same lifestyle

- Clade: group of species that include the ancestral species and all its descendents - Monophyletic: ancestor species and all its descendents

- Paraphyletic: ancestral species and some of the descendents usually excludes the one that's on the side

Study guide for Biology 1020’s first exam

- Polyphletic: includes distantly related species but does not include their most recent common ancestor

- Ancestral characters: traits that originated from the ancestor

- Shared derived trait: evolutionary unique to a particular clade

- Outgroup: used to compare the studying group to

- Ingroup: the group that we are studying

- Branch length represents how much time has passed since the evolution and number of genetic changes that have taken place

- Maximum parsimony: used to infer relationships between species, which means the fewest changes evaluated is the most accurate

- Maximum likelihood: used to infer relationships which states given certain rules about DNA being common of specific mutations

- Phylogenetic trees allow us to measure various features of an ancestor and its descendants

- Molecular clocks:track evolution to estimate absolute time of a evolutionary change

- 3 domains:

- Bacteria: unicellular; cell walls contain peptidoglycan

- Archaea:unicellular, usually live in extreme environments

- Eukarya: contain nucleus and membrane bound organelles

Chapter 28 Protists:

- Characteristics of protists:

- Eukaryotes

- Polyphyletic

- Unicellular

- Live in damp places

- Phototrophs: contain chloroplast and complete photosynthesis

Study guide for Biology 1020’s first exam

- Heterotrophs: absorb molecules and inject large food particles

- Mixotroph: combine phototroph and heterotroph

- Locomotion for protists: pseudopods, cilia, and flagella

- Protists causes diseases such as Chaga, malaria, and African sleeping sickness - Vector: transmits the disease

- Ecological importance 

- Make their own food

- Base of the aquatic food web

- Live within their counterpart

- Produce oxygen

- Keep the climate cool

- Ex. Dinoflagellates provide food for the coral & protozoans help break down the wood inside termites

- Zooplankton: drifting heterotrophs

- Important food item for other aquatic organisms

- Decomposers

- Commercial importance 

- Fossil fuels which is acquired by the ancient remnants of the one living organisms - Carrageenan: make the food creamy

- Diatomaceous: insecticide, pool filters

- Produce biofuel

- Food itself that can be confused by humans

- Bikonta: have 2 flagellum

- Unikonta:have one flagellum *only one is humans is sperm*

- 4 Supergroups

- Excavata *often parasites* 

- Scooped out feeding apparatus

- Live with no oxygen

Study guide for Biology 1020’s first exam

- Reduced mitochondria

- Ex. Giardia, Trichomonas, Trypanosoma, & T. Cruzi

- SAR Clade *grouped together because of molecular sequence*

- S​tramenopiles (straw hair): one flagellum is hairy and the other is smooth - Photosynthetic

- Diatoms (example)

- Made of glass

- Produce hydrogen oil which is a rich source for aquatic

organisms

- Brown algae

- Large and most complex

- Multicellular

- Ex. seaweed and kelp

- Contain holdfast which anchors the algae and stemlike

which support the leaflike blades

- Oomycetes “egg fungi”

- Often called water molds

- Cell wall is made of cellulose

- Ex. Saprolegnia which is a decomposer of dead fish

- Phytophthora infestans which is the cause of the

Irish famine

- A​lveolates: Sacs under plasma membranes *most toxic*

- Dinoflagellates: 2 flagella (one vertical and other horizontal) and reinforced cellulose plates

- Red tides produce nerve toxins which are dangerous to

breathe in

- Can cause shellfish poisoning

- Bioluminescence

- Spiky to keep from being fed upon

- Apicomplexans: obligate parasites

- Tip of cell is used to penetrate host cell

- Ex. Plasmodium which causes malaria and is vectored by

mosquitoes

- Ciliates: use cilia to move and feed

- Big nucleus completes cellular duties

- Small nucleus is for sexual reproduction by completing

conjugation which is swapping small nuclei

- Binary fission is their way of asexula reproduction

Study guide for Biology 1020’s first exam

- Feed by using cilia as a whirlpool to funnel food in and

excess water is pumped out by contractile vacuole

- R​hizarians: shelled amoebas that move and feed by pseudopodia

- Threadlike pseudopodia

- Ex. Radiolarians

- Feed by phagocytosis which is engulfing target organisms

- Endosymbiosis:relationship between 2 species in which one organism lives inside of the other

- Primary endosymbiosis: heterotrophic eukaryote engulfs that cyanobacterium which started the divergence of red and green algae

- Secondary endosymbiosis: previous heterotrophic engulfs the cyanobacterium which will further diverge the group

- Supergroup Archaeplastida: 

- Rhodophytes which are the red algae

- Live in saltwater

- Chlorophytes which are the green algae

- Form colonies

- Formation of true multicellular bodies

- Charophytes which are the common ancestor of the land plants

- Supergroup Unikonta: one flagellum 

- Related to fungi and animals

- 2 clades

- Amoebozoans

- Include slime molds (decompose things)

- Plasmodium is a supercell with a whole bunch of nucleui

- Tublinids (Amoeba proteus)

- Phagocytosis feeding

- Entamoeba (live in intestines)

- Entameba Histolytica is the third leading death in humans

- Opisthokonta:rear flagella

- Choanoflagellates “collar cells”

- Unicellular

- Possible ancestor to animals

- Climate changes

- Upwelling: nutrients and delivered up from the bottom floor

Study guide for Biology 1020’s first exam

- Coral bleaching: symbiotic dinoflagellates leave coral when its warm which causes the coral to die because that’s their source of food which leaves just a white shell made up of calcium carbonate

- Ocean acidification: burning of fossil fuels causes more carbon dioxide into air, which mixes with the water and creates carbonic acid. Then the acid impairs the reef production and eats away at the shells of crustaceans and mollusks

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