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UH / Psychology / PSYC 1300 / What are the principles of behavioral genetics?

What are the principles of behavioral genetics?

What are the principles of behavioral genetics?

Description

ol.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-3 0}.lst-kix_a2ayp2ssqwr9-7 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_a2ayp2ssqwr9-6 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_a2ayp2ssqwr9-3 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_a2ayp2ssqwr9-5 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_a2ayp2ssqwr9-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_a2ayp2ssqwr9-8 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_a2ayp2ssqwr9-1 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-4}.lst-kix_a2ayp2ssqwr9-2 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_a2ayp2ssqwr9-0 > li:before{content:"➔ "}ul.lst-kix_1u1wqqyv1vwl-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bfslacbtg4m0-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1u1wqqyv1vwl-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bfslacbtg4m0-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1u1wqqyv1vwl-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bfslacbtg4m0-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3fzi11a2yicg-7 > li:before{content:"◆ 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"}ul.lst-kix_xfe8vwjm5z5f-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xfe8vwjm5z5f-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xfe8vwjm5z5f-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xfe8vwjm5z5f-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xfe8vwjm5z5f-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xfe8vwjm5z5f-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-8 0}ul.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_90lgon9vslk7-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_90lgon9vslk7-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_90lgon9vslk7-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_90lgon9vslk7-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_90lgon9vslk7-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_90lgon9vslk7-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_90lgon9vslk7-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_90lgon9vslk7-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_90lgon9vslk7-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nmdakgy5izxe-0 > li:before{content:"➔ "}.lst-kix_nmdakgy5izxe-1 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_e9fjtrgc3g5k-6 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_6wuwh4pgdc09-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6wuwh4pgdc09-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6wuwh4pgdc09-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6wuwh4pgdc09-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6wuwh4pgdc09-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ue1lswbnhl9j-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_6wuwh4pgdc09-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nmdakgy5izxe-5 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_6wuwh4pgdc09-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ue1lswbnhl9j-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_6wuwh4pgdc09-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6wuwh4pgdc09-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nmdakgy5izxe-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_nmdakgy5izxe-8 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_e9fjtrgc3g5k-3 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_e9fjtrgc3g5k-2 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-3}.lst-kix_dahbikpl07jv-8 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_90lgon9vslk7-1 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_u7kz1dto85ah-7 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_ycdq7dyio571-1 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_90lgon9vslk7-0 > li:before{content:"➔ "}.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_ycdq7dyio571-0 > li:before{content:"➔ "}.lst-kix_ycdq7dyio571-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_u7kz1dto85ah-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_u7kz1dto85ah-8 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_90lgon9vslk7-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_dahbikpl07jv-5 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_dahbikpl07jv-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_90lgon9vslk7-8 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_dahbikpl07jv-1 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_ycdq7dyio571-8 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_u7kz1dto85ah-0 > li:before{content:"➔ "}.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_90lgon9vslk7-5 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_u7kz1dto85ah-3 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ycdq7dyio571-5 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_dahbikpl07jv-0 > li:before{content:"➔ "}ul.lst-kix_dahbikpl07jv-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dahbikpl07jv-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dahbikpl07jv-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dahbikpl07jv-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dahbikpl07jv-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1u1wqqyv1vwl-3 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_dahbikpl07jv-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dahbikpl07jv-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1u1wqqyv1vwl-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}ul.lst-kix_dahbikpl07jv-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dahbikpl07jv-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjkrtdqd4mye-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjkrtdqd4mye-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjkrtdqd4mye-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjkrtdqd4mye-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjkrtdqd4mye-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjkrtdqd4mye-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjkrtdqd4mye-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjkrtdqd4mye-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjkrtdqd4mye-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1u1wqqyv1vwl-0 > li:before{content:"➔ "}.lst-kix_6wuwh4pgdc09-7 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_6wuwh4pgdc09-8 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_kd9hv28xvya2-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kd9hv28xvya2-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ycdq7dyio571-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ycdq7dyio571-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ycdq7dyio571-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ycdq7dyio571-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ycdq7dyio571-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ktsvjcf0e4yf-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kd9hv28xvya2-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ycdq7dyio571-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ycdq7dyio571-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kd9hv28xvya2-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ycdq7dyio571-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ktsvjcf0e4yf-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ycdq7dyio571-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3fzi11a2yicg-8 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_e9fjtrgc3g5k-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3fzi11a2yicg-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}ul.lst-kix_e9fjtrgc3g5k-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ktsvjcf0e4yf-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e9fjtrgc3g5k-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ktsvjcf0e4yf-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e9fjtrgc3g5k-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ktsvjcf0e4yf-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e9fjtrgc3g5k-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-7}.lst-kix_ktsvjcf0e4yf-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fjkrtdqd4mye-3 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_c3j5q334x32d-7 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_3fzi11a2yicg-0 > li:before{content:"➔ "}ul.lst-kix_ktsvjcf0e4yf-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ktsvjcf0e4yf-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ktsvjcf0e4yf-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ktsvjcf0e4yf-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_gsg25oxm1apf-6 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_ktsvjcf0e4yf-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ktsvjcf0e4yf-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6wuwh4pgdc09-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_fjkrtdqd4mye-7 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_5sg0pejts5up-5 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_xfe8vwjm5z5f-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xfe8vwjm5z5f-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gki8zsa3tgc1-5 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6wuwh4pgdc09-0 > li:before{content:"➔ "}ol.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e9fjtrgc3g5k-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e9fjtrgc3g5k-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e9fjtrgc3g5k-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_gsg25oxm1apf-2 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e9fjtrgc3g5k-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5sg0pejts5up-1 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-5}.lst-kix_1u1wqqyv1vwl-7 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_c3j5q334x32d-3 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_gki8zsa3tgc1-1 > li:before{content:"◆ "}ul.lst-kix_gsg25oxm1apf-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gsg25oxm1apf-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gsg25oxm1apf-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gsg25oxm1apf-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gsg25oxm1apf-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bfslacbtg4m0-2 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_gsg25oxm1apf-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gsg25oxm1apf-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gsg25oxm1apf-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gsg25oxm1apf-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bfslacbtg4m0-6 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-0}.lst-kix_ue1lswbnhl9j-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_u7kz1dto85ah-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u7kz1dto85ah-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u7kz1dto85ah-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u7kz1dto85ah-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u7kz1dto85ah-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u7kz1dto85ah-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u7kz1dto85ah-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u7kz1dto85ah-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u7kz1dto85ah-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-3 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-4 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-2}.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-1 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-2 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-5 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-6 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_3fzi11a2yicg-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3fzi11a2yicg-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3fzi11a2yicg-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3fzi11a2yicg-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3fzi11a2yicg-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3fzi11a2yicg-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3fzi11a2yicg-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-0 > li:before{content:"➔ "}ul.lst-kix_3fzi11a2yicg-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3fzi11a2yicg-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-7 > li:before{content:"◆ "}.lst-kix_30d18g2a6k3z-8 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ip0j34wagfzt-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5sg0pejts5up-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5sg0pejts5up-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_gki8zsa3tgc1-8 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_5sg0pejts5up-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5sg0pejts5up-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_gki8zsa3tgc1-7 > li:before{content:"◆ 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Biology of behavior Don't forget about the age old question of How do cultural processes shape what people want and need to live?

Genes and Behavior If you want to learn more check out Where is the genetic information in the cell?

Chromosomes - DNA (structure of genetic info), Gene(genome, alleles, dominant vs. recessive), behavioral genetics We also discuss several other topics like How many percent of water is found in plants?

Principles of behavioral genetics

  1. Relationship is complex
  • Multiple genes + environment affect behavior
  • Specific genes can cause specifics

  1. Most behaviors derive from many genes
  • Monogenic transmission (determined by single gene)
  • Polygenic transmission (more common many genes create a characteristic)

  1. Studying twins/adoptees helps separate heredity and environment
  • Controls variables
  • Heritability = extent to which a characteristic is influenced by genetics
  • Genetic markers (parts of genome) - environment interaction studies

  1. Environment affects how/why genes affect behavior
  • Epigenetics = “tags” deactivate DNA sequence without altering the structure
  • Soft inheritance = passing on

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the law of conservation of mass?

Nervous system

  • Central = brain, spinal cord
  • Peripheral
  • Somatic (voluntary) = body sensations and voluntary movement
  • Autonomic (involuntary)
  • Sympathetic (fight vs. flight)
  • Parasympathetic (Relaxation)

If you want to learn more check out What is kirchoff's volatage law?

Cells

  • Glial = “give” of central system structure, insulation (myelin), blood brain barrier, regulation of neuron transmission
  • Neuron = process, transmit info structure, action, interaction
  • Structure = building blocks of system soma (cell body), dendrites (receive signals), axon (sends signals), synapse (axon meets dendrite), terminal button (sacs of neurotransmitter), synaptic cleft (gap)
  • Types: sensory neurons, motor neurons, mirror neurons, interneurons (communicator)

We also discuss several other topics like Define the creation from a to z.

Neuron action = info travelling via electrical signal (action potential +) 100 ft per second

  • Travels down axon
  • Resting potential  more positive ions outside than inside cell membrane
  • Depolarization: negative positive (spike in voltage)
  • Repolarization: positive ions flow out
  • Refractory period = can’t generate action potential
  • Propagation, threshold, all or none principle

Neuron interaction = info between neurons via neurotransmitters

  • Synaptic = electrical converted to chemical signal
  • Axon vesicle releases transmitter into cleft, dendrite receptor detects neurotransmitter
  • Removal of leftovers: enzymatic degradation, reuptake

Neurotransmitters

  • Acetylcholine: muscle, learning, memory, sleeping, Alzheimer's (lack of)
  • DopamineL voluntary movement, anticipation, pleasure (addictions), cocaine blocks reuptake
  • Epinephrine (adrenaline): energize, doesn’t affect mental state
  • Norepinephrine: alertness, awareness (mental/physical), ADHD (lack of)
  • Serotonin: Dreaming, attention, depression (lack of), Ecstasy (then )
  • GABA (inhibitory): regulation, control, alcohol (increases), alertness
  • Glutamate (excitatory): learning, attention, neural development, nicotine ()

The brain

Regions:

  • Hindbrain: medula (breathing, heart, arousal, survival), pons (bridge to rest of brain), cerebellum (balance)
  • Midbrain: appendicular formation (wakefulness, top of brain stem) eye muscles, auditory functions
  • Forebrain: Thalamus (sensory info except smell), limbic system (hypothalamus: drives, pituitary gland (hormones)

               Hippocampus: learning/memory, amygdala: emotional significance of stimuli, cingulate gyrus

               Basal ganglia (voluntary control)

               Cerebrum (ganglia) outer layer = cerebral cortex

  • 4 lobes: frontal (motor cortex/thinking), parietal (somatosensory cortex touch), temporal (hearing/memory/emotion), occipital (primary visual cortex)

Cerebrum

Two hemispheres

  • Right: insight, solution, broad (bid idea)
  • Left: analytical, focus
  • Language/Speech: Broca's area (production) and Wernickels (comprehension)

  • Corpus Callosum connects the brain’s hemispheres
  • Transfers info (eyes are switched to process info)
  • “split -brain” research contrast

Brain Plasticity

Neuroplasticity = adopt new functions/reorganizations

  • Experience-based (ec: blind/deaf)
  • Neurogenesis = new cells
  • Arborization = new dendrites
  • Synaptogenesis = new synapses


Neuron Growth

Elizabeth Gould

  • Natural setting better for animals hard to learn under stressed environment
  • Fred “Rusty” Gage neuroplasticity in humans

Brdu detects cell growth

Measuring the brain

EEG = records electrical activity: shows when occurs

MRI = magnetic field image of brain structure
- fMRI = blood oxygen levels in brain tissue

PET = blood flow to brain (glucose in tracked:somas)

Diffusion tensor imaging = tracks fibers

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