Exam Study Guide
& Ionic bond - A bond with a cat-ion & an anion
- usually ametal & nonmetal however Hy & makes a change
- like ametal X Covalent bond- 2 atoms sharing one or more electrons
Ex. Ha H&H (share electrons to be stable) * Dipole -Dipole forces- attraction of polar molecules with opposite
partial charges & I think of it as an Ionic bond who a London dispersion - In everything!! Anything forced together on not Don't forget about the age old question of Relative and absolute can be used to describe which theme?
forced together has london clispersion. TEMPORARY
- The LDF increases as mass increases * Hyclrogen Bond-H & N, O, or F (Hydrogen bonding is FON)
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Polar of Non polar depend on Electronegativity
Electronegativitus the ability of an atom to attract electrons
I to ittelf Tonic
no H Bond yes LDE
Dipole-dipole H-C-FS LIDE
HBond © Dipole Dipole
Endothermic-heat absore © Exothermic-heat given of We also discuss several other topics like What are the 3 different types of inequality?
vapor pressure - amount of vapor at given pressure XD Hvap - Energy needed to vaporize
EX- weak intermolecular forces - high vapor pressure - lowat vap high low low
VP Atvap viscosity Boiling point * The higher molar mas
the higher Hvap UP DHvap viscosity Boiling point * Hydrogen bonds
increase Boiling point * soluble - liquid & solid * Miscible-liquid & liquid
solute - dissolved in the solvent solvent - whatever has the most grams or me Henrys Law - solubility of a gas increaces with pressime We also discuss several other topics like What are metric multipliers?
think of the soda can- When the can is closed there is a lot of pressure the gas Mixes, with the u
Tauid but when opened the sas escapes
You really have to practice. Soluble linsoluble 4 Electrolytes 6 memorize strong acids (soluble) Special solubles If you want to learn more check out What makes a social problem?
- Acetate CH3COO! HC104 any of these used Ammonium NH4 HBr
Barium Ba o are strong most HT
Nitrate NO2 HNO3 electrolytes,
Cyanide CN H2SO4
. Also any Alkali Metal G1 C NH2 & NH3 are bases & make OH- & are weak electrolytes. Don't forget about the age old question of Will the persistent avoidance of situations that a person fears trigger another panic attack?
coot is a weak crid-weak electrolyte
- so if an H is on the end of acetate it is weak
EX: CH3OH+H2O NR nonelectrolyte
Mn(NO3)2 h 2+ + NO3 Strong Electrolyte pbco 2Pb+ + cošo weak Electrolyte
If Ionic it has to be weak or strong
Then you can memorize the special solubles
above and use the Ionic solubility Chart
g of solute adoled
Molality (m)- nsolute
J Bg Soluent Could write it like
moles (n) = šoluto molar mass
( g sol la I mm solo
you need to find moles you t multiply but
if not you divide
If looking for
multiply Lt Molari
a bottom, divide
Mole fraction (x) = nsot
of Imsol Insol
- X 100 at = Imsoltmsolu?
Colligative properties Characteristics of solutions that depend on the concentration
and not the solute dissolved in the solvent
V * vapor Pressure Reduction pure is highest TX Boiling pont Elevation pure is Lowest & * freezing point depression lowest has highest hoff factor
hoff factor = í =ration Fe(NO3)3 Fe +30 Raoults Law = PA=XAPA
PA= vapor pressure above a solition CH3 COOHE H0+ CH3C00 XA = mole fraction of Solvent A
T + T = 2>i> 1 PA =vapor Pressure of solvent
- If no reaction iall