Early US History
September 18, 2018
Study Guide for EXAM 1
What motivated each nation to create colonies?
Spanish: colonized America in order to search for gold and silver, found silver and gold in the Inca and Aztec Empires
French: wanted access to the fur trade, wanted to spread Catholicism Dutch: wanted access to the fur trade
English: freedom of religion, better access to trade, more natural resources
Reformation > Americans
French: middle ground/assimilation
2. Native Americans
*compete for recourse
3. Geography/ Resources
New England warfare
*fur trade (inter waterways)
The 3 Captivity Narratives:
Treatment corresponded with gender and role
Religion used for survival
Finds way back to colony
Several months captive
Assimilation led to end of torture
Sondies (no burial)
Domestic work led to assimilation
11 weeks captive
Traded back to colony
Adopted Native American trends/practices
Short Answer Identifications
1) Briefly outline how humans were created in each of these stories.
CHEROKEE: The reader states, “Men came after the animals and plants. At first there were only a brother and sister until he struck her with a fish and told her to multiply, and so it was. “ OTTAWA: According to the Ottawa story, “the great hare caused the birth of man from their corpses, as also from those of the fishes which were found along the shores of the rivers.” Not If you want to learn more check out ant 3000
only was man created from the hare, but overtime, man and man’s culture would be based off of the animal that created them.
HAUDDENOSAUNEE: The Hauddenosaunee story states that, “Sky Woman gave birth to twins. The first born became known as the Good Spirit.” Man was created by the Good Spirit by using red clay.
2) What common themes or elements do these stories share? In particular, what do you notice about the role of women? What roles do animals and the natural world play in the processes described? Who or what has power? Where is power coming from? According to the Cherokee story, “When the world grows old and worn out, the people will die and the cords will break and let the earth sink down into the ocean, and all will be water again.” The natural world started out flat and began with some higher being who creates the world. It took the creator 7 nights before animals were given power, and after the animals and plants were created, the men and women were created. This story has the women being used solely as a child maker, where she would birth a child every seven days. Over time, the woman’s rights were restricted and she was forced to only birth one child during a year. Both the Ottawa and Hauddenosaunee believed that mans origins came from various animals. 3) What evidence do you find in these stories that European culture influenced Native American beliefs about creation? Cite one specific passage as evidence. According to the Ottowa story, “some of the savages derive their origin from a bear, others from a moose, and others similarly from various kinds of animals; and before they had intercourse with the Europeans they firmly believed this, persuaded that they had their being from those kinds of creatures whose origin was as above explained.” Don't forget about the age old question of hist 101 final exam
Good and evil =God & Devil
4) Finally, from your analysis of these documents (which were all originally passed among Indian peoples orally and not as written texts), what would say are the strengths and weaknesses of the oral tradition as historical source material? Can we learn anything about preEuropean contact Indian life and thought from these stories? If so, what do these stories tell us?
The stories help show that, although they’re all from different backgrounds and cultures, their beginnings are all somewhat similar and start with the creation of the world and then animals and then finally man. If you want to learn more check out umd stat minor
Time and method of telling
1) When is this written and why is it written?
It is written in 1493 and it was written in order to tell of his tales from his voyages and who he met and the places he went.
2) How does he describe the Native people he meets?
The natives were quick to take flight at first because they were fearful by nature as well as timid, however, they were also very honest, simple and humble. They weren’t materialistic at all. They were very generous.
3) What clues does he give about how he's categorizing those he meets or hears about? (Note some specific passages in the reading)
“they are by nature fearful and timid.
Yet when they perceive that they are safe, putting aside all fear, they are of simple manners and trustworthy, and very liberal with everything they have.”
“These people practice no kind of idolatry; on the contrary they firmly believe that all strength and power, and in fact all good things are in heaven”
“Nor are they slow or unskilled, but of excellent and acute understanding” “In all these island there is no difference in the appearance of the people, nor in the manners and language, but all understand each other mutually… each man is content with only one wife, except the princes or kings, who are permitted to have twenty. The women appear to work more than the men.” We also discuss several other topics like drawing on the reform programs of the gilded age and the example of european legislation, progressives sought to reinvigorate the idea of an activist, socially conscious government.
“island named Charis, people who are
considered very warlike by their neighbors. These eat human flesh. The said people have many kinds of rowboats, in which they cross over to all the other Indian islands, and seize and carry away everything that they can.”
4) Why does he want to return to America?
To show proof of what he has seen and what others can’t imagine. He wants people to know that these are not fables, that these islands and people do in fact exist.
1) When is this written and why is it written?
This was written in 1520 and it was written in order to tell of the great city he would plan on conquering. Don't forget about the age old question of langowski rutgers
2) How does he describe the Aztec capital city? What does he notice about it and why are those things important? (Note some specific passages in the reading)
“This great city contains a large number of temples, or houses, for their idols, very handsome edifices, which are situated in the different districts and the suburbs; in the principal ones religious persons of each particular sect are constantly residing, for whose use, besides the houses containing the idols, there are other convenient habitations.”
“This city has many public squares, in which are situated the markets and other places for buying and selling.”
“if the inhabitants of the city should prove treacherous, they would possess great advantages from the manner in which the city is constructed, since by removing the bridges at the entrances, and abandoning the place, they could leave us to perish by famine without our being able to reach the main land” If you want to learn more check out psyc 311 textbook notes
These are all very important and essential because he cares about religion, money and power. 3) Can you detect a tension or contradiction here? He calls Montezuma and the Aztecs barbarous, but notes how admirable their civilization is. How do you explain that? He believes them to be barbarous solely because of the fact that they are not knowledgeable of God. This is uncalled for. Just because they have different beliefs and aren’t aware of other religions and Cortes beliefs, does not make them barbarous. Instead it makes him judgmental. I believe he admires their civilization because of how large and wondrous it is. It’s filled with so many things that are new to him, he can only help but to appreciate it.
Las Casas "Devastation of the Indies"
1) When is this written and why is it written?
This was written in 1552 and it was written in order to tell about his desire to create better treatment of Native Americans.
2) How does he describe Native peoples? Why does he return to the subject of their religious beliefs multiple times? (Note specific passages in the reading) He describes them as tender imbeciles that are incapable of doing hard work. “the Inhabitants of the Island of Hispaniola, in their own proper Idiom, term Hammacks. The Men are pregnant and docible. The natives tractable, and capable of Morality or Goodness, very apt to receive the instill'd principles of Catholick Religion; nor are they averse to Civility and good Manners”
3) What kind of atrocities does Las Casas report? How does he describe the Spanish? Why is he so critical of his own people? What's wrong with what they are doing? (Note specific passages in the reading)
They took babies from mothers, they bashed the brains of innocents, tore women and children alive into pieces, behead men, and took children and women as slaves. He describes them as violently brutal, godless, offensive, defensive.
“They snatcht young Babes from the Mothers Breasts, and then dasht out the brains of those innocents against the Rocks”
“the Spaniards first attempted, the bloody slaughter and destruction of Men first began: for they violently forced away Women and Children to make them Slaves”
1) What is the middle passage and how does Equiano describe it? Who is supposed to read these descriptions and what emotions are they supposed to feel as they read?
All of their women stayed behind. “The first object which saluted my eyes when I arrived on the coast, was the sea, and a slave ship, which was then riding at anchor, and waiting for its cargo.” The men in charge were white men with red faces, long hair and evil looks. They spoke a language different from his. This letter was written to tell readers of the horrors of slavery. “I even wished for my former slavery in preference to my present situation, which was filled with
horrors of every kind” It’s supposed to make them feel empathy for them and dread that things like that happened. The men would be whipped or flogged if they didn’t eat or if they tried to jump overboard to escape slavery.
2) Thinking about the runaway slave ads, what information do these ads give us about the health, wellbeing, physical condition, and appearance of VA’s enslaved peoples? How does this information help us to better understand the lives of slaves? (JOHN STITH) mulattoe man slave,5’8 5’9, thin faced, bushy hair, grin when speaks, old clothes, tried escaping a lot and resulted in getting handcuffed, and getting an iron neck collar (ROBERT MUNFORD) slave in Mecklenburg county red eyes, bow legged, short, branded on the right cheek R and M on left
(GEORGE NOBLE) Gibb is a slave was 6’, knock kneed, flat footed, right knee bent, whipping scars on back Robin another slave 6’, stout, film over an eye, sore on a shin Dinah another slave old female, fat, almost 6’, stumpy thumb
(MARY CLAY) Jude, slave, mulatto, 30, only has one eye, long black hair, scar on elbow, scars on face
(JOSHUA JONES) slave Ben, 5’6, 35, carpenter, rotten teeth
(WILLIAM GREGORY) slave Peter, 44, black, slim, cut teeth
(PETERFIELD TRENT) Peter brown, painter,3540yrs, 5’85’9, dark complexion, slim, thin face, missing some front teeth; Walton, negro, 23, light complexion, smooth skin, decaying top teeth, short hair
(CHARLES GRYMES) Johnny, negro man, 22, 5’8
(JOHN SCOTT) tom, negro, short, full eyes, knock kneed
(GABRIEL JONES) sam, negro, 5’55’6, broad face
(DAVID WALKER) Jemmy, dark mulatto man, 5’95’10, large feet, long middle toes, part of front tooth missing
(EDWARD CARY) Kate, mulatto negro woman, 18, 5’95’10, speaks smoothly 3) What evidence do you see of owners’ attitudes towards their slaves in these ads? What about in the other readings?
They will pay a hefty amount of money to anyone who finds their slaves. Some will pay to have the slave found and then killed and brought the head. The loss of their slave would cause them a serious economic result.
4) What skills did these runaways possess? Why might these skills be important during the colonial period?
Singers of hymns, preachers, worked with horses, raced horses, dancers, artful, writer, card playing, cockfighting, reading, painter, carpentry, maid, talkative, strong drinker, spin, weave, sew, iron, well, mechanics, coopers, masons, smiths, wheelwrights
5) What evidence do the ads offer of slave resistance?
“First, there is the pure fact that they ran away: this was a major act of resistance, and required a great deal of courage. Most were not successful.”
7) Turning to Fithian’s journal, how does he describe Virginia society, particularly its planter elite? What qualities characterize their daily lives and how do they contrast with the lives of slaves?
“The Colonel, invented this Day a method for finding the difference of the value of money in this Province and in Maryland.” In this society, those of high class have several servants. “The family is invited to dine with Mr Turburville—Mr & Mrs Carter, Miss Priscilla & Nancy with three Servants went from Church—Ben, Bob, Miss Fanny, Betsy & Harriot with two Servants cross'd the River—Miss Sally with Tasker & one Servant rode in a Chair—Dined with us Captain Dennis, of the Ship Peggy; Dr Steptoe; & Mr Cunningham.” Those with money were considered to be gentleman. The gentleman would conduct their business at church. While the poor class tended to be full of negroes, servants and slaves. They would celebrate on Saturdays because it was their day of pleasure and amusement, they would be dressed festively and be full of cheer. 8) According to Fithian, how is Virginia different than his home colony of New Jersey? “In this place I think it needful to caution you against hasty & illfounded prejudices. When you enter among a people, & find that their manner of living, their Eating, Drinking, Diversions, Exercise &c, are in many respects different from anything you have been accustomed to, you will be apt to fix your opinion in an instant, & (as some divines deal with poor Sinners) you will condemn all before you without any meaning or distinction what seems in your Judgment disagreeable at first view, when you are smitten with the novelty. You will be making ten thousand Comparisons.” On Sundays, they dress differently. Also he normally would be in bed by 10 on a Sunday. In NJ, gentleman associated with farmers and mechanics. They don't care about ranks, they actually want equality of wealth among all inhabitants.