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Notes #exam 1

by: Dodo Notetaker

Notes #exam 1 ART 101

Dodo Notetaker
Introduction to Drawing I
Jena Thomas

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Introduction to Drawing I
Jena Thomas
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dodo Notetaker on Monday August 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ART 101 at University of Miami taught by Jena Thomas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Drawing I in Art at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 08/31/15
Middle America Terminology A Latin America B Middle America Mexico Central America 7 countries 3 The Caribbean West Indies Jr a Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles Eastern Caribbean 1 Leewards Dominica amp North 2 Windwards Martinique amp South Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Cayman Islands ABCs Hispanic islands of the Western Caribbean Bay Islands off of Honduras Corn Island Nicaragua Providencia amp San Andres Colombia WOO9 4 Mesoamerica Area of high Indian cultures Azetcs and Mayas and related Indian groups The people living in the nonSpanish speaking Caribbean usually also include four Middle American and South American countries Within the Caribbean region Belize Guyana Suriname and French Guiana Common Characteristics but what really characterizes this realm is its diversity A Location between North and South America B Third World Countries C Mainly Humid Tropical Climates Augelli39s Regions EuroAfrican Rimland vs EuroIndian Mainland A Colonial History Spanish British French Dutch and American in the Rimland B Historical Agricultural Economies Hacienda vs Plantation C Racial Composition Topography A Tell Columbus story when he was asked by Queen Isabella to describe what Hispaniola looked like crumpled piece of paper B About 7075 mountainous C Frequent earthquakes and sometimes volcanoes current fear that Mt Popocatepetl 17887 feet elev only 45 miles southeast of Mexico City and even closer to Puebla Mexico39s 4th largest city with about 1 million D Related to Plate Tectonics collision of 6 plates Paci c Cocos Nazca South American Caribbean and North American Climates of Middle America A Three Keys 1 Latitude Tropical Direction of Winds Northeast Trade Winds Orographic Rainfall vs the Rainshadow effect 3 Elevation Mountains a Tierra Caliente 03000 feet plantation crops sugar bananas cacao etc and American Indian Populations b Tierra Templada 3000 to 7000 feet most coffee grown here c Tierra Fria 7000l 1000 American Indian Populations d Paramos Grasslands l l000l4000 feet called the Puna in Peru because biographers distinguish between the Paramos wetter and the Puna dryer e Helada above 14000 feet zone of permanent snow B Humid Tropical Climate Types 3 l Af eastern coast of Central America gt 80quot or rainfall per year Am northeastern coasts of greater Antilles and eastern sides of the Lesser Antilles also gt 80quot of rainfall per year 3 Aw Savanna Yucatan northern Gulf of Mexico coast of Mexico Pacific side of Central America and Mexico south of Cabo Corrientes lowland areas of Cuba Bahamas etc 5060quot of rainfall per year C Dry Climates B l 2 3 Baj a California Northern Mexico rainshadow areas of Greater Antilles Agriculture about 40 of the population is still rural in this realm A Plantation System quot O Equot39gtP Ni 0 l humid tropical climate tierra caliente coastal location pro t oriented and generally efficient wage labor used to use slaves often foreignowned highly specialized sugar bananas and cacao seasonal labor Zafra vs Tiempo Muerto large scale operation example of Latifundia has fallen on hard times now Western European invention British French and Dutch Oriented towards foreign markets B Hacienda System 509 NP EAPPJNE Spanish invention domestic orientation large scale operation again an example of Latifundia often absentee ownership owned as much for prestige as for pro t usually not very ef cient land often poorly used e g cattle vs crops indigenous labor force of share croppers and tenant farmers paragon of inequality Shifting Cultivation example of Minifundia example of Multilinear Evolution according to Julian Steward U of Illinois anthropologist bP Ni practiced in Humid Tropical Forested environments very old practice preColumbus slash and burn techniques corn beans and squash triad all mixed together intercropping symbiotic relationship land abandoned after 2 or 3 years soils are leached of their fertility and weed encroachment ecologically it makes sense this is not the type of agriculture that is 3 destroying the rainforest that is the cutting down of the forests to raise cattle and the cutting of forests for lumber 7 two main problems 1 population pressure and 2 increasing raising of cash crops 7 Latin American Settlements Spanish colonial town vs the Large Metropolitan City A Colonial Spanish Town in Latin America much like the preindustrial city of Europe established by the Laws of the Indies during the early 1500s See diagram 1 rectangular grid street pattern central plaza government buildings meeting place f1estas church school etc 3 narrow streets designed for walking and carts often crowded today 4 wealthy live near the town39s center 5 low buildings and little industry other than cottage industries and home crafts 6 up to 50000 pop B Large Metropolitan Cities 1 usually over 500000 See Diagram 2 CBD 3 Spine 4 Elite Residential Sector 5 Zone of Maturity 6 Zone of In Situ Accretion mixed area that may have started out as a squatter settlement and has matured into more substantial housing lower middle class and upper lower class no effective zoning here 7 Zone of Peripheral Squatter Settlements two views 1 zones of crime and despair and 2 zones of hope and selfhelp housing quotarrabalesquot in Puerto Rico quotbarriosquot in Dominican Republic quotciudades perdidasquot in Mexico quotshantytownsquot in Jamaica and quotranchosquot is Venezuela 8 Disamenity Zones of Squatter Settlements often these are areas with some unattractive natural feature like a gully of a hillside that is prone towards landslides C Ways Latin American Cities Differ from those of North America 4 1 Population Growth 2 to 30 population would double in 35 or 23 years if these growths continued into the future 2 Unemployment Rates 3 Informal Sector of the Economy 4 Shanty Towns squatter settlements 5 Poorer 6 Urban Primacy except for Brazil and Ecuador Panama Canal Issue A B In 1903 Panama secedes from Colombia and USA signs treaty to build the canal 1904 construction on the canal begins completed in 1914 1977 Panama and USA sign the Canal Treaties designed to return the Canal to Panama beginning in 1979 and ending on December 3 l 1999 USA spends 3 billion on the Canal and recovered about 2 billion therefore only about 23 of the total cost was recovered Reasons for returning the Panama Canal to Panama 1 It had become obsolete 2 It was not defensible militarily C Unpopular in Latin America used as an example of Yankee Imperalism D It was the moral thing to do


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