GEO 1310 EXAM #1
Globalization: The process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale.
Scale: A linear scale is a bar or line graphic that shows the distance on the map that is equal to a real-world distance, such as 100 miles. Linear scales are also called bar scales or graphical scales.
Formal and functional regions: Formal regions are used to identify specific areas defined by a characteristic, like an ocean or continent, while functional regions are used to define areas containing a kind of service, such as cable television, or points on a map that are a terminal for an activity, such as travel or communication via telephone.
Global economy: The world economy or global economy is the economy of the world, considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account.
Economic convergence: The idea of convergence in economics (also sometimes known as the catch-up effect) is the hypothesis that poorer economies' per capita incomes will tend to grow at faster rates than richer economies. As a result, all economies should eventually converge in terms of per capita income.
∙ World Trade Organization: The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade. The WTO officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakesh Agreement, signed by 123 nations on 15 April 1994, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
∙ World Bank: The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
∙ IMF: The International Monetary Fund is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." If you want to learn more check out How is aggressive selling performed?
∙ United Nations: The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international co-operation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II with the aim of preventing another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City.
∙ Latitude: Geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
∙ Longitude: Geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface. We also discuss several other topics like Are frequency and wavelength inversely proportional?
∙ Prime meridian: A prime meridian is a meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographical coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°. ∙ GPS: Global Positioning System, an accurate worldwide navigational and
surveying facility based on the reception of signals from an array of orbiting satellites.
∙ GIS: Geographic Information System, a system for storing and manipulating geographical information on computer.
∙ Remote Sensing: The scanning of the earth by satellite or high-flying aircraft in order to obtain information about it.
Map projections: Commonly, a map projection is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations on the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into locations on a plane. Map projections are necessary for creating maps. All map projections distort the surface in some fashion.
Types of maps:
∙ Thematic map: A type of map especially designed to show a particular theme connected with a specific geographic area. These maps "can portray physical, social, political, cultural, economic, sociological, agricultural, or any other aspects of a city, state, region, nation, or continent". If you want to learn more check out Who coined the term subordinate acceptance?
∙ Choropleth map: A map in which areas are shaded or patterned in proportion to the measurement of the statistical variable being displayed on the map, such as population density or per-capita income.
Sustainability: How to meet the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations to meet their own needs.
∙ Population density: A measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density.
∙ Rate of natural increase: The crude birth rate minus the crude death rate of a population.
∙ Total fertility rate: The total number of children born or likely to be born to a woman in her life time if she were subject to the prevailing rate of age-specific fertility in the population.
∙ Replacement rate: The number of children each woman needs to have to maintain current population levels or what is known as zero population growth for her and her partner.
∙ Population pyramid: Graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population, which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing.
∙ Cultural imperialism: The practice of promoting and imposing a culture, usually of politically powerful nations over less potent societies. ∙ Cultural nationalism: Form of nationalism in which the nation is defined by a shared culture. Don't forget about the age old question of How do ocean basins form?
∙ Cultural syncretism: The social processes by which the beliefs and practices of two unique cultures mix and create new cultural characteristics.
∙ Lingua franca: A language that is adopted as a common language between speakers whose native languages are different.
Geopolitics: Politics, especially international relations, as influenced by geographical factors.
Nation-state: A sovereign state whose citizens or subjects are relatively homogeneous in factors such as language or common descent.
∙ Colonialism: The policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.
∙ Decolonialization: The withdrawal from its colonies of a colonial power; the acquisition of political or economic independence by such colonies ∙ Neocolonialism: The use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence other countries, especially former dependencies.
Development and growth:
∙ Human development index: A composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which is used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
∙ Inequality: Differences between countries levels of development and growth
∙ Plate boundaries: Regions between plates; can be divergent, convergent, or transform.
∙ Rift valleys: A large elongated depression with steep walls formed by the downward displacement of a block of the earth's surface between nearly parallel faults or fault systems.
∙ Transform fault: A type of fault whose relative motion is predominantly horizontal in either direction.
Nonrenewable and Renewable resources:
∙ Nonrenewable: Any resource which cannot be grown or produced at a rate equal to or faster than its consumption.
o Natural Gas
∙ Renewable: Any organic natural resource which can replenish to overcome usage and consumption, either through biological reproduction or other naturally reoccurring processes.
Fracking: A well-stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.
Rain shadow: A dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind). The mountains block the passage of rain-producing weather systems and cast a "shadow" of dryness behind them.
Climate regions: A zone on the weather map that runs from the east to the west around the Earth and that has a distinct climate.
Biodiversity: The variety and variability of life on Earth.
Postindustrial economy: A period of growth within an industrialized economy or nation in which the relative importance of manufacturing reduces and that of services, information, and research grows.
U.S. and Canada climate:
∙ Boreal forest: Taiga, also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches. The taiga is the world's largest biome apart from the oceans. In North America it covers most of inland Canada, Alaska, and parts of the northern continental United States.
∙ Tundra: A vast, flat, treeless Arctic region of Europe, Asia, and North America in which the subsoil is permanently frozen.
∙ Prairie: Ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and a composition of grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type.
Megalopolis: A very large, heavily populated city or urban complex.
Urban decentralization: The social process in which population and industry moves from urban centers to outlying districts.
Edge cities: A concentration of business, shopping, and entertainment outside a traditional downtown (or central business district) in what had previously been a residential or rural area.
Gentrification: The process of renovating and improving a house or district so that it conforms to middle-class taste.
Federal states vs. Unitary states:
∙ Federal: A political entity characterized by a union of partially self governing states or regions under a central (federal) government. Power divided to different levels of government.
∙ Unitary: A state governed as one single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (subnational units) exercise only powers that their central government chooses to delegate.
NAFTA: The North American Free Trade Agreement is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
OAS: The Organization of American States, or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states. Headquartered in the United States capital Washington, D.C., the OAS's members are the 35 independent states of the Americas.
NATO: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
G8: The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014. Included France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States
Neotropics: A zoogeographical or phytogeographical region comprising Central and South America, including the tropical southern part of Mexico and the Caribbean.
Altiplano shields: The Altiplano Basin is a sedimentary basin within the Andes in Bolivia and Peru.
Altitudinal zonation: The natural layering of ecosystems that occurs at distinct altitudes due to varying environmental conditions. Temperature, humidity, soil composition, and solar radiation are important factors in determining altitudinal zones, which consequently support different vegetation and animal species.
El Niño: A band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east central equatorial Pacific including off the Pacific coast of South America
Urban environmental challenges in Latin America:
∙ Water contamination
Latifundia: Large land-holdings in Latin America which originated as imperial grants to settlers from the Spanish crown. With the incorporation of that continent into the world economy they slowly evolved from a form of feudalism into capitalist estates producing meat, hides, and crops for export.
Minifundia: Smaller versions of latifundia.
Agrarian reform: Government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land or, broadly, to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of the country, which often includes land reform measures.
Squatter settlements: Areas of unauthorized housing made from found materials such as cardboard, metal, packing cases, plywood, etc. They generally have no sanitation or electricity or water. Squatters settle on land, especially public or unoccupied land, without right or title.
Effects of colonization in Latin America:
∙ Replacement of traditional religions by Christianity
∙ European languages introduced to natives
∙ New diseases
∙ Poverty and resource scarcity after achieving independence
Effects of religion in Latin America:
∙ Widespread Christianity (Catholicism and Protestantism) leading to conservative and traditional values
∙ Influence from the pope
Supranational organizations vs. subnational organizations
∙ Supranational: International organization or union in which member states transcend national boundaries or interests to share in the decision making and vote on issues pertaining to the wider grouping.
∙ Subnational: Maintained by a nation as an organized whole or independent political unit
UNASUR: Intergovernmental regional organization comprising twelve South American countries.
Mercosur: South American trade bloc established by the Treaty of Asunción in 1991 and Protocol of Ouro Preto in 1994. Its full members are Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.
CAFTA: A free trade agreement between the United States and Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, as well as the Dominican Republic.
Neoliberalism: Modified form of liberalism tending to favor free-market capitalism.
Maquiladora: A factory in Mexico run by a foreign company and exporting its products to the country of that company.
Remittances: Money sent from a person back to their country of origin North American locations:
∙ Major cities:
o New York
o Los Angeles
o Washington DC
o Mexico City
∙ Canadian states:
∙ ∙ Mountains:
∙ Bodies of water:
Latin America locations:
∙ Capital cities:
∙ Bodies of water: