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GWU / Political Science / PSC 1001 / What are the factors affecting democracy?

What are the factors affecting democracy?

What are the factors affecting democracy?

Description

School: George Washington University
Department: Political Science
Course: Introduction to Comparative Politics
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Politics, Comparative Politics, and political science
Cost: 25
Name: Comparative Politics Week 4
Description: These notes go over democracy, its origins, and its institutions. Key Terms: parliamentary system, presidentialism, semi-presidentialism, federalism, political parties, single-member district, proportional representation, runoff elections
Uploaded: 09/23/2018
17 Pages 64 Views 5 Unlocks
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CHAPT. 6 NOTES: DEMOCRATIC REGIMESDon't forget about the age old question of What is the study of how people make choices under scarcity and the results of these choices for society?

DEFINING DEMOCRACY

  • democracy: polit. pwr exercised either directly or indirectly by ppl through particip., competition, and liberty
  • liberal democracy: polit. system that promotes particip., competition and liberty
  • emphasize individ. rights
  • affects state autonomy and capacity
  • democracy isn’t necessarily best

If you want to learn more check out What is the function of osteoprogenitor?

ORIGINS OF DEMOCRACY

  • ancient Greece and Rome
  • Athens: allowed public to participate in gov’t → ppl = state
  • Roman Empire:
  • Rebublicationism: indirect democracy that emphasizes sep. of pwrs w/in state and rep. Of public through elected officials
  • separation of powers: clear division of pwr among diff. Branches of the gov’t and provision that specific branches can check pwrs of other branches
  • England: Magna Carta restricted King’s rights and laid foundation for legislature, due process - no one is above law

2 FORMS OF DEMOCRACY

DIRECT

INDIRECT

Public participates directly in governance and policy making;If you want to learn more check out What is an example of a defense of negligence?

Historically found in small communities like Athens

Public participates indirectly through elected reps;Don't forget about the age old question of What is elizabeth cady stanton best known for?

Prevalent today

CONTEMPORARY DEMOCRATIZATIONWe also discuss several other topics like Where does the krebs cycle occur?

Modernization and Democratization

  • Democratization correlated w/ modernization?
  • NO → lack of democ. In modern Asia, democ. Failed in Latin A

If you want to learn more check out What is a utilitarian appeal?

Elites and Democratization

  • Middle class = essential for democratization
  • Poverty can be obstacle to democracy because have little to fight for.
  • Elites controlling resources and money = obstacle to democ.
  • Elite might give up pwr if able to get money out of it or resources depleted

Society and Democratization

  • Civil Society: orgs. Outside of state that help ppl define and advance our interests
  • Not necessarily polit.
  • Provides ideas and tools for polit. action and mobilization
  • Modernization can help encourage civil society

International Relations and Democratization

  • Foreign investment, globalization and trade can help promote democ.
  • Int’l pressures or incentives
  • Can also strengthen civil society

Culture and Democratization

  • Democracy and individualization lead to modernity?
  • Pdit. culture can shape our character in each country

  • What may lead to democ. Now may not be true in the future

Where the Debate Belongs

  • Democ. valued because:
  • Intrinsic importance in human life
  • Instrumental role in generating polit. incentives
  • Constructive in creating values
  • Democ, isn’t regional

DEMOCRACY AND DEMOCRATIZATION

Democracies at Risk?

  • Slowly, gradually
  • Manipulate democ. Instits.
  • Elites go along
  • polarization
  • yoleration, restraint

Optimism to Pessimism

  • 1990s: democ.=universal
  • 2010s: democ death

  • Democracy polit. System in which polit. pwr exercised either directly or indirectly by ppl
  • Components

- accountability

- participation

- pontestation

  • Spectrum of regimes that are more or less democratic

        

History of Democracy

  • Athens: 6th-5th cent. BCE
  • Roman republic: 509-27 BCE
  • Late 18th-19th cent:
  • Am. revolution
  • French revolution

Liberalism

  • individual liberties
  • polit. liberalism
  • ecar. Liberalism
  • Early democs. emphasized liberties before inclusion
  • Mass suffrage resisted
  • Ppl in pwr hold into it

3 Waves of Democretization

  • 1st wave: 1852-1925
  • reverse wave: 1925-45
  • 2nd wave: 1945-1960
  • reverse wave: 1960-74
  • 3rd wave: 1974-1990s
  •  reverse wave: 1990s-present?

Democratization         

  • movements, counter-movements

Why Democ?

  • Sen: “universal value”
  • doesn't have to do w/ culture
  • Don’t need authorization for econ development
  • Human freedom → valued by everyone
  • instrumental
  • Dialogue, learning
  • Civic Culture
  • Civic management
  • Social capital
  • causality?
  • Econ development
  • Wealthier = more likely to be democ.
  • Econ structure
  • Complexity (wealthier=more complex)
  • Class struggle
  • Middle class
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