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MGMT 2500 Organizational Behavior Exam Review
Intro to Management
Management is a process of planning, organizing, directing, controlling, and to ethically achieve stated objectives.
Objectives have outcomes, measures, standards, and constraints. Outcomes- The end result of objectives.
Constraints- The limits, barriers, or opportunities of an objective. Peter F. Drucker- The father of modern management (1954). o According to Drucker, management must be effective,
efficient, and economical.
Managers manage humans, money, materials, and time.
o On the job they manage resources, train others, and their
own personal job which includes duties and responsibilities.
o Time is the scarcest resource.
Materials include tools and technology.
Dr. Robert Katz- found that managerial skills differ by the following ranks:
If you want to learn more check out Oceanic transform connects what?
Dr. Mintzberg- 3 categories of managerial roles: interpersonal, informational, and decisional. We also discuss several other topics like What is the function of a working fluid?
Chapter 1: Organizational Behavior
Organizational behavior studies the individuals, teams, and organizations.
Organization- A system of consciously coordinated activities of two or more people.
Dr. Pfeffer- Discovered that only 12% of today’s organizations are truly people centered.
Pareto’s Law- The minority significantly contributes to the majority. George Elton Mayo (Hawthorne Studies)- Showed the social and psychological effects of studying people at work.
Mary Parker Follett- coined the term subordinate acceptance which helps define leadership.
Douglas McGregor’s Theory X- People dislike work
o People must be punished to work
o Most prefer to be directed.
Douglas McGregor’s Theory Y- Work is natural
o Reward help achieve organizational
The first principle of total quality management is to do it right the first time to avoid costly rework. If you want to learn more check out What is the study human fossils, environmental context, and
other related evidence?
W. Edwards Deming- Believed that if there are errors, 15% are employee mistakes and 85% are managerial mistakes.
o Build teamwork, trust, and mutual respect
o Higher education moved from a public good to a private good. o Learning is now lifelong
o Promotions are fewer
o Competition is global
o Corporate overhead costs (selling, general, & administrative costs) should be no more than 20% of total sales.
o Organizations have moved from vertical strictures to horizontal. Project teams and task forces
o Global competition and Al Qaeda have taught us about asymmetric competition.
Human capital- the productive potential of one’s knowledge and actions
Social capital- The productive potential of strong, trusting, and cooperative relationships
Ethics- A personal code of conduct among individuals. Many organizations use human asset accounting.
Management- Process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives efficiently and ethically. Don't forget about the age old question of What is socio-centric?
Contingency approach to management- Using management tools and techniques in a situationally appropriate manner.
Common corporate ethical complaints
o Use of company resources for personal use
o Employee relations
o Conflicts of interest
Characteristics of moral problems in management
o Extended consequences
o Multiple alternatives
o Mixed outcomes
o Personal implications
Ethical problems in management
o Ethical analysis
Corporate ethical officers must be a good listener first.
o Good ethics is the best model for ethics
Ponzi Scheme- When old investors are paid from the investment of new investors.
Chapter 2: Managing Diversity
40% of all U.S. corporate profits are earned from international trade. Understanding culture is more difficult than understanding language. 4 layers of diversity
o Internal dimensions
o External dimensions If you want to learn more check out What are the five principles of politics?
o Organizational dimensions
Personality- The core dimension of diversity.
Discrimination- When employment decisions are based on factors that are not job related.
Affirmative Action- An artificial intervention to achieve equality of opportunity in an organization. If you want to learn more check out What term best describes the political culture of texas?
Barriers and challenges to diversity
o Inaccurate stereotypes and prejudice
o Various sexual orientations
o Poor career planning
o Unsupportive and hostile working environment for diverse employees.
Ethnocentrism- The belief that your race, family, religion, or culture is the best.
The definition of U.S. civil rights is constantly changing.
Chapter 3: Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring Manifestations- shared things (objects), shared saying (talk), shared doing (behavior), and shared feeling (emotion).
Espoused values- Stated values and norms
Enacted values- Exhibited values
Sustainability values- Values that will not harm the environment and future mankind.
Organizational culture is correlated with employee attitudes and behavior.
o Does not predict financial performance
Mergers fail due to incompatible cultures.
4 functions of organizational culture:
o Organizational identity
o Collective commitment
o Social system stability
o Sense-making device to shape behavior
4 steps in organizational structure:
o Anticipatory socialization
Mentoring- The process of forming and maintaining intensive and lasting developmental relationships between a variety of developers and a junior person.
Chapter 4: Managing Across Cultures
Culture- The belief and values about how a community of people should do and act.
Congruent goals- your goals and objectives are the same as the organization’s.
Incongruent goals- Your goals and objectives differ from those of the organization’s.
IQ= intelligence quotient
EQ= emotional intelligence
CQ= cultural intelligence
High context cultures derive meaning from situational clues and slow and ritualistic negotiations.
o China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Mexico
Low context cultures derive meaning from written and spoken words, expertise, and performance.
o USA, Canada, Germany, Great Britiain
Individualistic countries have freedom of choice and free will. o USA
Collective countries have subordinate goals to the community. o Russia
Monochromatic time- Preference for doing one thing at a time because time is limited
Polychromatic time- Preference for doing more than one thing at a time because time is flexible and fluid.
Event time- Any time that day, your time is important.
Proxemics- The study of cultural expectations about interpersonal space.
o Created by Edward T. Hall
o 4 interpersonal distance zones
Why U.S. Expatriate’s Fail:
o The spouse cannot adjust
o Family problems
o The manager cannot adopt to new physical or cultural
o Manager is emotionally immature
When dealing with different cultures, one needs to be “comfortable with the uncomfortable”
Get to know global students, take them out to eat, and let them take you out to eat.
Chapter 5: Key Individual Differences and the Road to Success Self-Concept- A person’s self-perception as a physical, social, and spiritual being.
o Self esteem
o Organizational ID
Self-Efficacy- A person’s belief about his or her chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task.
Learned Helpfulness- Debilitating lack of faith in one’s ability to control the situation (self-defeating)
Self-Management- When an individual consciously controls the learning process of acquiring new behavior through the interplay of environmental cues, consequences, and cognitive processes.
Self-Monitoring- Observing one’s own behavior and adapting to the situation.
o A strong positive relationship between high self-monitoring and career success.
Organizational values or beliefs become part of one’s self identity. Congruency- When organizational goals and values are perceived as yours.
Personality- The stable physical and mental characteristics responsible for a person’s identity (how one looks, thinks, acts, and feels). Big 5 Personality Dimensions
o Emotional stability
o Openness to experience
Internal locus of control- belief that one controls key events and consequences in one’s life.
External locus of control- attributing outcomes to circumstances beyond one’s control.
Ability- Stable characteristics responsible for a person’s maximum physical or mental performance
Skill- Specific capacity to manipulate objects.
o Lack of sleep impairs cognitive psychomotor performance. Intelligence- Capacity for constructive thinking, reasoning, and problem solving.
Emotional Contagion- People can “catch” one another’s bad mood or displayed negative emotions.
Emotional labor- When an employee masks their true feelings and emotions – “faking” a positive attitude for the sake of the customer or organization.
o Can lead to bottled up anger and frustration
o Emotional repression can lead to emotional exhaustion and burnout.