Botany 130 Week 4
Plant Structures and Growth
What are the three leaf venations?
What are the three leaf arrangement patterns?
Which vascular tissue moves water in the plant and which tissue moves food? Name the four functions of the root system?
What are the guard cells of the cell called?
Shoot Apex (Apical bud) location of new growth
Node areas of leaf attachment
Internode space inbetween nodes
Axillary bud can grow into either new leaves or branches, located at the node Shoot composed of stem and leaves
Root system composed of the primary root, lateral roots, and the root apex Root function anchorage, storage, absorption, and conduction
There are 3 plant tissue systems, dermal, vascular, and ground tissue
Dermal Tissuecomposed of parenchyma cells
∙ Two layers, surface adaxial surface and deep abaxial surface
∙ Stomata (guard cells), specialized epidermal cells that open/close in response to environmental and physiological signals to balance water loss and O , CO requirements ₂ ₂ ∙ Glands Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of emulsified?
∙ trichomes (hairs, think root system for example)
Vascular Tissue Composed of xylem and phloem tissues creating the veins of the plant
∙ Xylemtracheid and vessel cells that are dead at maturity, thick cell walls and are hollowed tubes used for water conduction
∙ Phloem sieve tube cells and companion cells. Long, cylindrical cells stacked on top of each other used for food conduction. Living at maturity but lack a nucleus.
Ground Tissue composed of many cell types
2) Collenenchyma We also discuss several other topics like What is the content of holt v. sarver (1969)?
4) Misc (resin ducts, dioblast with crystals Don't forget about the age old question of The woman from willendorf is made of what?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between staple and filament fibers?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the main factors of production?
Primary Growth is growth originating in the apical meristems of shoots and roots to increase plant length while Secondary Growth is from secondary/ lateral meristems that result in increase growth as wood
Meristems localized regions of cell division and growth
Intercalary meristems primary replacement growth
Tunicacorpus organization of the shoot apex of most angiosperms and a few gymnosperms, consisting of one to multiple layers of cells (tunica layer) and an interior (corpus)
Tunica layer surface growth
Corpus layer volume growth
Angiosperm group of plants whose seeds are borne within a mature ovary (fruit) Gymnosperm a seed plant that doesn’t enclose its seeds in mature ovaries (ex. pine trees) Cotyledon is the embryonic leaves in seed bearing plants
What are the three leaf venationspinnate, palmate, and parallel
What are the three leaf arrangement patterns? Opposite, alternate, and whorled
Which vascular tissue moves water in the plant and which tissue moves food? xylem are for water conduction, phloem for food conduction Don't forget about the age old question of What are the types of objections?
Name the four functions of the root system? Anchorage, absorption, storage, and conduction
What are the guard cells of the cell called? Stomata
Chemical Composition of Plants
4 main components Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Important from each category
Carbohydrates remember glucose (C H O ) Ribose (C H O ) and Glyceraldehyde (C H O ) ₆ ₁₂ ₆ ₅ ₁₀ ₅ ₃ ₆ ₃
How can you tell the structural difference from the name of a monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide (what separates the groups structurally)?
Monosaccharides are only single structure sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose) hence mono (1) Disaccharides are carbs composed of two sugar structures (di means 2)
Polysaccharides are chains of many sugar structures bonded together
Glucose can be presented in three forms: alpha glucose, betaglucose (both ring forms), and glucose chain form
How can I tell alpha glucose and beta glucose apart? When looking at a diagram comparing the two (recommended to pull one up) they are nearly identical except for one significant difference. On the carbon 1 (first carbon going clockwise starting at the oxygen).
Alpha glucose Carbon 1
Beta glucose Carbon 1
What does this do? – It makes the two glucose forms link together in different forms, making different molecules
Betaglucose links in a way to create beta 1,4 cellulose
Alpha glucose links to create alpha 1,4 starch
Amylopectin branched chain of repeated alphaglucose monomers
Amylose linear chain of repeated alphaglucose monomers
Lipids fats and oils (triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols
Triglycerides molecular component of fat and oils that have long chains of CH₂
Phospholipids links together to form the phospholipid bilayer of cells with polar heads on the outside and nonpolar tails on the inside
Sterols examples include cholesterol, ergosterol, and betasitosterol, like lipids, very hydrophobic and found in membranes.
Proteins composed of amino acid chains in which an amino acid is composed of an amino group (NH ) a carboxyl group (COOH) and a Hydrogen bonded to a central carbon atom that ₂ has a “R” group
The “R” group is the only difference found between amino acids
Enzymes catalysis to specific biochemical reactions
(REMEMBER THIS ENZYME!! ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco)) 4 layers of protein organizations in increasing complexity
1) Primary protein chains
2) Secondary alpha helix and beta sheets
3) Tertiary three dimensional structures composed of secondary structures 4) Quaternary composed of two or more tertiary structures
Nucleic Acids composed of a nitrogenous base (purine or pyrimidine), a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic acid (RNA) are the two to know for now Primary metabolites molecules required for plant survival (ex. amino acids)
Secondary metabolites not required for survival but created to improve the fitness of the plant (ex. Alkaloids such as morphine, caffeine, and nicotine)
Salicylic acid secondary metabolite used as a messenger enzyme to signal a pathogen invasion used in willow trees
Endergonic reactions energy in reaction or require an input of energy to activate (+) Exergonic reactions only form of spontaneous reactions that require no input of energy ()
G= HT S
T is measured in Kelvins (to convert from Celsius, add 273)
G is Gibbs free energy of the system
H is the change of heat in a system (positive when energy is absorbed by the system, negative when released
S is the entropy of the universe (negative when things are built, positive when broken)
Catalystslower the activation energy by forming temporary associations with reacting molecules
Active site site where the substrates fit and the reaction occurs in the catalysts
Feedback inhibition after a certain level of product from a reaction is made, the products inhibit the production of more by binding to a regulatory enzyme at the start of the pathway
How to remember the flow of electrons in an oxidation reduction reaction O xidation
Water potential the sum of a pressure potential and a solute potential
Water potential = pressure potential + solute potential
Turgor pressure when a plant cell swells with water but the cell wall doesn’t allow expansion Aquaporin water channel
Note a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids in a secondary helical structure can pass through the membrane, embedding the protein in the membrane
Electrochemical transport concentration gradient (higher pressure of substance outside cell will go into the cell via channels and vis versa (unless the membrane potential opposes this movement
Respiration process by which the chemical energy of carbohydrates is transferred to ATP, the universal energy carrier molecule
ADP+P ATP (endergonic)
(adenosine diphosphate + phosphate Adenosine Trisphosphate) Glucose in, ATP out Occurs in the mitochondria
Order of breakdown
Glucose is the breakdown of Glycolysis to 2 pyruvate which are broken down to create NADH electron carriers for the ETC
Components of a mitochondria outer and inner membrane, intermembrane space, cristae, and matrix
Is the formation of ATP endergonic or exergonic?
Answer: creating ATP is endergonic, breaking is exergonic
1) Glycolysis occurs in the mitochondria cytosol
2) Pyruvates enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) which occurs in the matrix
3) NADH electron carrier used in the Electron Transport Chain (ETC) located in the inner mitochondria membrane
4) Majority of ATP produced in step 3 through the creation of a H+ concentration gradient inside the cell, leading to them being pumped out through an ATP proton pump.
5) H+ atoms bond with oxygen to create water
Note: The ATP generated in the ETC are created because of the H+ electrochemical potential gradient, which is harnessed by the proton pump ATP synthase to phosphorite ADP (adding phosphorous)
Carbohydrate (CH O)n H O+CO yields ATP ₂ ₂ ₂
Polysaccharides Monosaccharides Pyruvate Acetyl CoA Krebs Cycle Oxidative Phosphorylation and ETC H O₂
6CO +6H O C H O + 6O ₂ ₂ ₆ ₁₂ ₆ ₂
Plant photosynthesis uses energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation from the sun to remove electrons from H O and add them to fully oxidized carbon (CO ) to form carbohydrates ₂ ₂
What is the storage form of photosynthetically reduced carbon?
What absorbs the sunlight in plant cells during photosynthesis?
Answer: Chlorophyll (a and b) and carotenoids
How does the plant use photosynthesis to create its energy?
Answer (basic overview): plant photosynthesis uses energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation from the sun to remove electrons from H O and add them to fully oxidized carbon ₂ (CO ) to form carbohydrates ₂
our visible range of vision can see 400700 nanometer wavelength range, wavelengths absorbed well by chlorophyll (a and b) and carotenoids
Stroma the ground substance of plastids
Thylakoidflattened sacs arranged in stacks(grana) inside a chloroplast, site of light dependent reactions of photosynthesis reactions
Thylakoid membrane site of the lightdependent reactions of photosynthesis (photosynthetic pigments embedded directly in the membrane)
Reaction Center site where water is oxidized (water oxidation leads to the creation of O )₂ Electrons removed from water are pushed to PQ, reducing to PQH₂
PQH reduces the cytochrome B /F complex and becomes PQ again ₂ ₆
PQ is plastoquinone
During this step, protons (H+) move into the thylakoid lumen, establishing an electrochemical potential of H+ which drive the synthesis of ATP
Where in the plant would you find most chlorophyll molecules?
Answer: Bound to proteins that are embedded in the thylakoid membrane
Products of the electron transport chain in the thylakoid are ATP and NADPH What are the pores in the leaf that absorb CO called? ₂
3) Regeneration of acceptor
Beneficial processes/diagrams to review through book graphs include:
Election Transport Chain
Layers of a plant cell (besides the three cell systems)
Innerworkings of the chlorophyll
Importance of Rubisco, glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate (PGAL), Rubp
REMEMBER TO NOT CRAM study in short frequent burst throughout the week. Breakdown review by section or all at once. This covers the majority of the chapters but it’s encouraged to look in the book as well. This is a study guide, not a cheat sheet and is made to help you learn the material.
These methods help me learn from the book:
∙ Bolded terms there’s a reason the authors bolded it
∙ Index in the back of the book
∙ Intensive review of the major processes
∙ side notes