ARCH 1100 Exam 1 Study Guide
o Archaeology: the study of human history through excavation and analysis of artifacts and other remains present
o Artifact: any movable object that has been used, modified, or manufactured by humans; portable
o Stratigraphy: order and interpretation the archaeologist imposes on the stratified deposits; stratigraphic record
o Provenience: 3D find spot (plan viewtop, section viewside) o Ecofact: animal bones, plant remains, etc. “natural artifacts” used by humans and tell diet, climate, status, and domestication
o Hominin: species clearly in the line of human evolution
o Subsistence: food people eat, how they get it, tools they use o Deep sea coring: drilling into the sea floor for isotopic compositionwater temperature, tiny fossilsoxygen levels
o Multiregional theory: homo sapiens developed separately across Europe, Africa, and Asia
o OutofAfrica theory: homo sapiens came from Africa and replaced homo erectus everywhere except Europe (Neanderthals)
o Mitochondrial DNA: many copies and shorter; easy to decode, inherited through mother’s line, forms mutations steadily; easy to calculate rate of change, implies that all modern humans derive from an original population in Africa
o Sahelanthropus tchadensis: skull and neck angle suggest bipedalism o Australopithecus afarensis: upper body of tree dweller, widespread geographically, Lucy and Selam
o Homo habilis: opposable thumbs, could be arboreal, larger brain o Homo erectus: habitually bipedal, first to leave Africa, stone tools, intentional burial of dead, built living structures, and hunted large game o Homo floresiensis: “hobbits” found on Flores island, decendent of erectus, 3 ft tall adults; shrunk due to ‘island dwarfing,’ hunted pygmy elephants, found with tools, had the region for planning in brain
Other Information: Don't forget about the age old question of What are the five principles of politics?
If you want to learn more check out Ferdinand de saussure, the father of modern linguistics, is born in?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the 6 flags that flew over texas?
o Deep time
o Uniformitarianism: forming and wear time similar to today o Superposition: varying depths of layers
o Three Age System: stone, iron, bronze
o Context Don't forget about the age old question of What does the great migration refer to?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the central description of humanism?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the basic plot of oedipus rex?
o Matrix: dirt around finding
o Association: what it’s found with
o Paleoanthropologists study human fossils, environmental context, and other related evidence
o Reconstructing ancient climate
o Plant cell fossils
o Ice cores
o Deep sea cores