Study Guide for Exam 1
WEEK 1: Introduction to Course / Survey / Definitions of Race and Ethnicity 8/27 Mellody Hobson: Color Blind or Color Brave?
8/29 BonillaSilva, Eduardo, and Tyrone A. Forman. "“I Am Not a Racist But...”: Mapping White College Students' Racial Ideology in the USA." Discourse & society 11, no. 1 (2000): 5085.
∙ Be familiar with the general findings of prior studies on white racism (p. 50 to 52)
o White university students tend to be more racially tolerant in survey research as opposed to interviews
∙ Know how the white undergrads likely differ from the white adult population (p. 54)
o The undergrads that took the survey were taking some sort of social class, so they tend to be more liberal on racial issues
o The undergrads have a high school education, so they're more educated than those in the white population that didn't graduate from high school
∙ How does prejudice differ across survey responses and interviews (p. 7576)?
o For intermarriage, 8090% of the survey takers approved while only 30% of the interviewees approved of it
o In regards to affirmative action and the significance of discrimination, those in the interviews used semantics to dodge the question or create hesitation
68% used semantics when talking about affirmative action
85% used semantics when talking about intermarriage and significance of discrimination
∙ Be familiar with the concept of new racetalk (p. 76).
∙ How people discuss their racial views and the absence or presence of semantics ∙ Identify and understand the central elements of colorblind ideology (Table 5 on p. 70). ∙ Abstract and decontextualization notions of liberalism If you want to learn more check out math 118 ucla
i.e. race should not be a factor when judging people
∙ Cultural rationale for explaining the status of racial subjects in society i.e. blacks are lazy/don’t have proper work ethic
∙ Avoidance of racist language and direct racial references in explaining racial based dating If you want to learn more check out wsu aleks
∙ Naturalization of mattes that reflect the effects of arguments We also discuss several other topics like math 182
We also discuss several other topics like What is the notes receivable and interest revenue?
i.e. explaining segregation or limited intermarriage as a natural outcome
∙ Denial of structural character of 'racism' and discrimination viewed as limited, sporadic, and declining in significance
∙ Invoke the freemarket or laissezfaire ideology thus to justify contemporary racial inequality
i.e. kids should be exposed to all kinds of cultures but it cannot be imposed on them through busing
∙ What is racism?If you want to learn more check out decentralized purchasing is the practice where individual, local purchasing departments throughout a single corporation make their own, individual purchasing decisions to fulfill their individual local needs.
∙ Prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one's own race is superior
Vernā Myers: How to overcome our biases? Walk boldly toward them
∙ TED talk: What are the three ways any person can become an active participant in countering bias in ourselves and in others to create a more just world?
o Get out of denial, stop trying to be “good” people, instead strive to be real people who acknowledge their personal biases
o Move toward young Black men (or your biases more generally) instead of away from them
o When we see/hear something that is wrong, we have to have the courage to say something, even to the people we love
8/31 Winant, Howard. "Race and race theory." Annual review of sociology 26, no. 1 (2000): 169185. We also discuss several other topics like glacial milk definition
∙ Know the definitions of race and ethnicity (slide 7)
o Race: physical differences that groups and cultures consider socially significant o Ethnicity: shared culture, such as language, ancestry, practices, and belief
∙ Be familiar with the major theories of race and their assumptions (slide eight and elaborated in readings).
o The “Classics”
i.e. Herbert Spencer, Max Weber, Charles Darwin(Winant 173)
∙ Social construction of race
i.e. Emile Durkheim, Robert Park(Winant 174)
∙ Contemporary Racial Theory
∙ William Julius Wilson
∙ Racial formation theory
Used to look at race as a socially constructed identity, where the content
and importance of racial categories are determined by social, economic,
and political forces
WEEK 2: Major Themes in Sociological Research on Race and Ethnicity
9/3 Labor Day (no class)
9/5 Hirschman, Charles. "America's melting pot reconsidered." Annual review of sociology 9, no. 1 (1983): 397423.
∙ Be familiar with the four stages of the racerelations cycle (p. 400) and critiques of it (p. 401).
o 1. Contact
First contact of groups of people coming into a new place
∙ 2. Competition
Assumptions of culture, threats of resources
∙ 3. Accomodation
Giving opportunities for different people
Discrimination is able to wither away
Institutionalized racism can be born
∙ 4. Assimilation
∙ Vague, Lack of specificity of timing, Fails to address potential costs of meritocratic hiring, deterministic logic
∙ Know the four major indicators of assimilation (slide 3)
∙ Minorities going up into the middle class
∙ Bus problems
∙ Suburbs are predominantly
∙ Intercities are predominantly black
∙ Know the challenges to assimilation (slide 4)
∙ Structural changes of the economy
∙ Structural roots of racism
∙ Black white segregation and intermarriage
∙ Segmented assimilation
9/7 The New Immigrants: A New America (Kanopy)
∙ Be familiar with the different periods of immigration (i.e., time frames and groups who came) o First Immigration(16001700) (Britain, Poland)
o Old Immigration(18151880) (Ireland, China)
o New Immigration(18001924) (Italy, Russian Empire)
o Current Immigration(1965now)(Mexico, Syria)
∙ How does US compare to other nations in terms immigration?
o Normal to us, yet other nations feel it as a threat to their goods and resources o No one had ever let as many people in their country as the US
∙ Know the push and pull factors (i.e., why do they come here)
Pursuit of prosperity (economic freedom)
Not common even with poverty, famine, etc
Idea of moving your life to a new country was terrifying
∙ How did immigrants learn about America prior to coming?
∙ Railroads, steamships, letters from family in US
∙ Know why do immigrants form ethnic enclaves?
∙ Provided psychological support
∙ What are the views of the nativeborn towards immigrants? Why are they concerned (i.e., what are the perceived threats)?
∙ Celebrate their immigration ancestors, they hate the immigration when it’s
happening around them(like in the past, hate it in the present)
∙ Saw immigrants as unassimilable, saw threats with poverty, crime, disease, religion, labor, radicalism, race
∙ Be familiar with the Eugenics policies (i.e., what did they call for)
∙ Racial superiority and inferiority showed by the government
∙ Claimed to be based on science
∙ Argued that “racial hygiene” could be achieved in sterilization and immigration restriction
WEEK 3: Indicators of Assimilation
9/10 Waters, Mary C., and Tomás R. Jiménez. "Assessing immigrant assimilation: New empirical and theoretical challenges." Annu. Rev. Sociol. 31 (2005): 105125.
∙ Know where ethnic groups are most likely to be concentrated (Slide 2).
o California, Texas, Florida, New York, Illinois
∙ Know trends in the percent and number of immigrants since 1900 (Slide 3) o In 1900, there were 10.3 m immigrants, resulting in 13.6% of the US population o In 2016, there were 43.7 m immigrants making up 13.5% of the population o In 2060, there is estimated to be 78.2 m immigrants making up 18.8% of the population ∙ Be familiar with concept of generation.
o 1st generation: foreign born or immigrants
o 2nd generation: children of immigrants
o 3rd generation: grandchildren of immigrants
∙ Know the different indicators of assimilation and patterns discussed for them in class. o Socio economic status
o Residential segregation
o Linguistic patterns
∙ Know how the most recent wave of immigration is different from previous waves. o New immigrant gateways
o Immigrant replenishment
∙ What accounts for changing geography of immigrants?
o Immigration Reform and Control Act in 1986
o Greater freedom to be mobile
o Militarization of Tijuana/San Diego border
o Gateways not having policies to help immigrants
∙ How are new immigrant gateways unique?
o Have more freedom to define their position
o Immigrants and nativeborn residents interact more
o Institutionalized arrangements that influence immigrant assimilation
9/12 Pagnini, Deanna L., and S. Philip Morgan. "Intermarriage and social distance among US immigrants at the turn of the century." American journal of sociology 96, no. 2 (1990): 405432.
∙ Know why intermarriage is an important (top of p. 406)
o Ultimate indicator of assimilation
o Reveal the intimate and profound relations between members of different groups and strata
o Reduces the ability of families to pass onto children a consistent and coherent ethnic culture
∙ Be familiar with racial gaps in interracial involvement, in addition to sex gaps within different racial groups (lecture).
∙ Be familiar with explanations for racial homogamy (lecture).
o Opportunities for contact in local mate markets
Minorities see less of each other, opening their preferences
o Preferences for partners with certain characteristics (color blind)
o Third parties (displacement)
“Parents do not approve but I do”
∙ Know how education shapes interracial involvement for different groups of minorities (lecture).
o All races that have a college degree tend to have a higher percentage of intermarriage as opposed to people who have less than a college degree
o Hispanics and Asians have the biggest difference when education is a factor
∙ Be familiar with the patterns highlighted from today’s article and the explanations for them (lecture and highlighted in text)
o “Within each ethnic group, generational homogamy was very strong. Immigrants tended to marry other immigrants; secondgeneration native whites tended to marry other secondgeneration native whites.” (Pagnini 430)
o “...the greater endogamy for new immigrants that we document still persists, although endogamy is much less extreme for all white ethnics.” (Pagnin 431)
9/14 The Apple Pushers (Kanopy)
∙ What countries are the featured immigrants from?
o Russia, Mexico, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Morocco
∙ What were their images of America prior to coming?
o Opportunity, jobs, education, liberty, money
o Princess’ castle, big buildings, nice houses, money in streets, big cigars
∙ What are food deserts and what led to them?
o A district with little or no access to fruits and vegetables in a low income area o Abandonment of homes in places like Bronx
∙ What are the challenged to running a green cart?
o Location(picking a good spot)
o Neighborhood competition
∙ What are the contributions of street vendors to society?
o Give immigrants opportunities to live a better life
o Provides fresh fruits and vegetables to food deserts
WEEK 4: The Great Migration
9/17 Tolnay, Stewart E. "The African American “great migration” and beyond." Annual Review of Sociology 29, no. 1 (2003): 209232.
∙ Know the differences between black and white migration to the North (top of 218; bottom of 223; top of 228).
o Black immigrants
Tended to live in the least desirable areas in the city
Had economic, racial, and societal incentives of moving
o White immigrants
Tended to live in nicer neighborhoods
Could not relate to racial or societal incentives, but could relate to economic incentives
∙ Know the causes of the Great Migration, adaptation to society, and impact on northern cities (slides and text).
o Negative images of blacks
o Bimodal population(racially)
o Push factors
Displacement of tenant farmers
Unskilled jobs/domestic services in cities
Inferior education opportunities, Jim Crow laws, political disenfranchisement, and racial violence
∙ Be familiar with recent trends and emphasis of social science research (slides and text).
o “Black southern migrants were less likely than white southern migrants to return to the South”(Tolnay 223)
o “Black immigrants were more likely than white migrants to return to their southern birth states”(Tolnay 223)
o “Return migrants account for at least half of all African American migrants to the South”(Tolnay 223)
o “Return migrants generally settled in southern metropolitan areas, often in
9/19 J.D. Vance on his new book Hillbilly Elegy YouTube
∙ Know how the South differs in terms of racial disparities in imprisonment and link to group threat perspective (last lecture)
o People in Kentucky, Tennessee and northern Louisiana, Alabama, and Georgia tend to not identify with any ancestry identification besides “American”
∙ Be familiar with differences in black and white migration patterns, including relative and absolute numbers (slides 2 and 4)
∙ Be familiar with the results from today's article (previous slide / conclusion of article)
o “The disadvantaged position of blacks in the southern society and economy created incentives for out migration that were not shared by whites who also moved north in large numbers between 1910 and 1970.” (Tolnay 228)
WEEK 5: Racial and Ethnic Antagonism
9/24 Alexander, J. Trent, Christine Leibbrand, Catherine Massey, and Stewart Tolnay. "Second Generation Outcomes of the Great Migration." Demography 54, no. 6 (2017): 22492271.
∙ Where did JD Vance grow up?
o Middletown, OH and Jackson, KY
∙ Who are the ScotsIrish, when did they come here, where do they live, and what is there subculture (according to Vance)?
o Came from rural areas of Scotland, Ireland, and England(earlymid 18th c.) o They live in the Appalachian mountains(Upper South/Midwest) of the US
o Family, loyalty
∙ How does Vance view culture?
o What they brought from their home land or what they developed when they immigrated to their new land
o How people affect their new home land culture
∙ Why has religion declined among working class whites?
o Protestantism and Evangelism is practiced in ‘mega churches’, not geographically available for working class
o Community churches began to consolidate to mega churches, bringing them to middle/upper middle class neighborhood
∙ What is the political orientation of Vance?
∙ What made Trump popular?
o His tone, he is authentic and appealing to the people who are not familiar with politics o Talks about the lies of the elites and uses pathos for the ones that feel hopeless ∙ What is wrong with the way elites think about the working class?
o Don’t care about them, forget how complex people are
9/26 Olzak, Susan, Suzanne Shanahan, and Elizabeth H. McEneaney. "Poverty, segregation, and race riots: 1960 to 1993." American Sociological Review (1996): 590613.
Know trends in rioting (slide 3)
Be familiar with the theories of rioting.
What are the features of hypersegregation? https://www.citylab.com/equity/2015/05/americahas halfasmanyhypersegregatedmetrosasitdidin1970/393743/
Know trends in hypersegregation.
Know the general conclusions from today’s study.
9/28 Exam 1 in class: multiplechoice