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SAM HOUSTON STATE UNIVERSITY / Engineering / POLS 2305 / What are the five principles of politics?

What are the five principles of politics?

What are the five principles of politics?

Description

School: Sam Houston State University
Department: Engineering
Course: American Government
Professor: Heather evans
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Five Principles of Politics, Constructing a Government: The Founding and the Constitution, and Federalism and The U.S. Constitution
Cost: 50
Name: POLS 2305 Midterm 1 Review
Description: This review covers all Chapter 1-3;5 for the first midterm test
Uploaded: 09/25/2018
5 Pages 69 Views 2 Unlocks
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POLS 2305.03 Midterm 1 Review 


What are the five principle of politics?



Chapter 1: Five Principles of Politics 

Government—the institutions and procedures through which a land and its  people are ruled

Autocracy –A single individual rules  

Oligarchy –A small group of landowners, military officers, or wealthy  merchants’ rules

Democracy –A system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part  in the governmental process

Institutions –are the rules and procedures that provide incentives for  political behavior

Public goods –are those benefits enjoyed by anyone that may not be  denied to anyone once they have been provided

Path dependency—certain possibilities are made more or less likely  because of the historical path taken


What is the function of institution?



Home Rule—is government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its  own citizens. It is thus the power of a constituent part (administrative  division) of a state to exercise such of the state's powers of governance  within its own administrative area that have been decentralized to it by the  central government. We also discuss several other topics like What are majority and minority groups?

Free Riding—enjoying a benefit while letting others bear the costs of  providing it. Not contribute to provision of the good, enjoying the good  whether or not one contributes.

Tragedy of Commons—the idea that a common access facility, owned by  no one because it

Is available to everyone, will be overused. Is a problem that occurs when  individuals exploit a shared resource to the extent that demand overwhelms  supply and the resource becomes unavailable to some or all.


What is the difference between an empirical question and a normative question?



 What are the Five Principle of Politics?

 1. Rationality Principle

 2. Institution Principle

 3. Collective Action Principle

 4. Policy Principle

 5. History Principle

 According to the text, the five principles that help explain  why government does what it does are:

(1) Rational; all political behavior has a purpose  

 (2) Institution; institutions structure politics

 (3) Collective Action; all politics is collective action  

 (4) Policy; political outcomes are the products of individual  preferences and  

 Institutional procedures  We also discuss several other topics like What is the basic plot of oedipus rex?

 (5) History; how we got here matters

 What is “institution”?

 Institution refers to “Routine, structured relations based on rules and  procedures that provide incentives for political behavior (thereby shaping  politics) “

 What is the “Voting Model”?

 V = (p)B – C + D

 Note: (p) refers to probability

 The examples of a public good:

 Clean Water & Environment, National Security We also discuss several other topics like In what year was printing press developed?

 Why Free Riding is a problem?

Because individuals may be able to enjoy the benefit of others’ efforts  without contributing themselves. When everyone in the society wants to do  the same, then “collective action” would be impossible. We also discuss several other topics like Which idealogy believes that economic thinking is the best?

 What is the difference between an empirical question and a  normative question?

Empirical questions are testable with facts, normative questions are more  opinionated, less testable.

 Chapter 2: Constructing a Government: The Founding and  the Constitution

Articles of Confederation—the original constitution of the US, ratified in  1781, which was replaced by the US Constitution in 1789. Written document  that established the functions of the national government of the states.

Separation of Powers—the debate about the balance of power between  states and the national government was at the heart of the constitutional  struggle between the Federalists and Antifederalists.  

Grants-in-aid—funds given by Congress to state and local governments

Necessary and Proper Clause—often called the “Elastic Clause”. Gives  congress power to pass laws not listed in the Constitution if they are  “necessary and proper” to execute other powers. Article 1 Section 8 Clause  18 gives congress the power to “make all Laws which shall be necessary and  proper for carrying into Execution…Powers vested by this Constitution in the  Government of the United States….” We also discuss several other topics like How is collaborative ethnographic research facilitated?

The Great Compromise—An agreement reached at the Constitutional  Convention of 1787 that gave each state an equal number of senators regardless of  its population but linked representation in the House of Representatives to  population. If you want to learn more check out How do you simplify linear equations?

Full Faith and Credit—states are to recognize actions and decisions taken in other states as legal and proper

Check and Balance—the mechanisms through which each branch of government  is able to participate in and influence the activities of other branches.

Bicameralism—the division of a legislative assembly into two chambers or houses. (House and Senate that make up Congress)

The Three-Fifth Compromise—an agreement reached at the Constitutional  Convention of 1787 stipulating that for purposes of the apportionment of  congressional seats, every slave would be counted as three-fifths of a person.

 What are the two major identities before the American Revolution?

The two major identities before the American Revolution were Loyal British  Colonists, long standing loyal Colonists, who were transformed gradually into the  excited or angry revolutionists, and then the Americans!

 According to “Social Contract” theory, what should be protected by  the government?

 (1) there must be guarantees that people will not harm one another, and  (2) people must be able to rely on one another to keep their agreements.  Chapter 3: Federalism and The U.S. Constitution

Categorical Grant—Government decides what categories need to be  funded and provide funding to states accordingly.

Divided Government—when one party controls the presidency and the  other party controls at least on chamber of Congress

Unfunded Mandates—national standards or programs imposed on state  and local governments without accompanying funding

Antifederalist—opposed he creation of a stronger U.S federal government,  along with the ratification of the Constitution of 1787. The previous  constitution, called the Articles of Confederation, gave state governments  more authority.

Dual Federalism—(1789-1937)

1. Layer cake idea of power

2. Two very distinct layers of government

3. States exercised most important powers

It was called “dual federalism” because the duties and operations of the  different levels of government remained more strictly separated

Regulated Federalism—(1960s-1990s)

1. National government determines policies, state governments pay for  and administer them.

2. The federal government dictates national standards states must meet or rules states must follow

Block Grant—big amount, states could decide how to use

Judicial Review—the Court’s ability to strike down presidential actions or  laws passed by Congress

Cooperative Federalism—(1937-1960s)

1. During the New Deal, national government's power expanded  2. Marble cake idea of power

3. There was cooperation on some policies

4. A rise in grant-aids

A period of supportive relations, sometimes partnerships, between the  federal government and the state and local governments

 What are the four stages of Federalism?

 1. Dual Federalism

 2. Cooperative Federalism

 3. Regulated Federalism

 4. New Federalism

 In the constitution, which political branch is designed by the  founders as the most important one?

The Congress is by far the most powerful of all the branches of the  government. It is the representative of the people (and, originally, the  states), and derives its power from the people. As such, it is given power to  do the people's bidding and to rule over the people. It can set taxes, can  raise armies, can declare war, can suspend habeas corpus, can impeach the  President or judges, and can set laws touching the lives of every person in  the nation.

 Presidential Veto power is derived from what principle?

The Presidents power to veto comes from the executive branch. Because that is one of the powers that the executive branches have that comes from the  separation of powers and checks and balances.

 In addition to the expressed powers granted to the federal  government, which powers are derived from the expansive  interpretation of delegated powers?

 Implied Powers

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