POLS 2305.03 Midterm 1 Review
Chapter 1: Five Principles of Politics
Government—the institutions and procedures through which a land and its people are ruled
Autocracy –A single individual rules
Oligarchy –A small group of landowners, military officers, or wealthy merchants’ rules
Democracy –A system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process
Institutions –are the rules and procedures that provide incentives for political behavior
Public goods –are those benefits enjoyed by anyone that may not be denied to anyone once they have been provided
Path dependency—certain possibilities are made more or less likely because of the historical path taken
Home Rule—is government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens. It is thus the power of a constituent part (administrative division) of a state to exercise such of the state's powers of governance within its own administrative area that have been decentralized to it by the central government. We also discuss several other topics like What are majority and minority groups?
Free Riding—enjoying a benefit while letting others bear the costs of providing it. Not contribute to provision of the good, enjoying the good whether or not one contributes.
Tragedy of Commons—the idea that a common access facility, owned by no one because it
Is available to everyone, will be overused. Is a problem that occurs when individuals exploit a shared resource to the extent that demand overwhelms supply and the resource becomes unavailable to some or all.
What are the Five Principle of Politics?
1. Rationality Principle
2. Institution Principle
3. Collective Action Principle
4. Policy Principle
5. History Principle
According to the text, the five principles that help explain why government does what it does are:
(1) Rational; all political behavior has a purpose
(2) Institution; institutions structure politics
(3) Collective Action; all politics is collective action
(4) Policy; political outcomes are the products of individual preferences and
Institutional procedures We also discuss several other topics like What is the basic plot of oedipus rex?
(5) History; how we got here matters
What is “institution”?
Institution refers to “Routine, structured relations based on rules and procedures that provide incentives for political behavior (thereby shaping politics) “
What is the “Voting Model”?
V = (p)B – C + D
Note: (p) refers to probability
The examples of a public good:
Clean Water & Environment, National Security We also discuss several other topics like In what year was printing press developed?
Why Free Riding is a problem?
Because individuals may be able to enjoy the benefit of others’ efforts without contributing themselves. When everyone in the society wants to do the same, then “collective action” would be impossible. We also discuss several other topics like Which idealogy believes that economic thinking is the best?
What is the difference between an empirical question and a normative question?
Empirical questions are testable with facts, normative questions are more opinionated, less testable.
Chapter 2: Constructing a Government: The Founding and the Constitution
Articles of Confederation—the original constitution of the US, ratified in 1781, which was replaced by the US Constitution in 1789. Written document that established the functions of the national government of the states.
Separation of Powers—the debate about the balance of power between states and the national government was at the heart of the constitutional struggle between the Federalists and Antifederalists.
Grants-in-aid—funds given by Congress to state and local governments
Necessary and Proper Clause—often called the “Elastic Clause”. Gives congress power to pass laws not listed in the Constitution if they are “necessary and proper” to execute other powers. Article 1 Section 8 Clause 18 gives congress the power to “make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution…Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States….” We also discuss several other topics like How is collaborative ethnographic research facilitated?
The Great Compromise—An agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that gave each state an equal number of senators regardless of its population but linked representation in the House of Representatives to population. If you want to learn more check out How do you simplify linear equations?
Full Faith and Credit—states are to recognize actions and decisions taken in other states as legal and proper
Check and Balance—the mechanisms through which each branch of government is able to participate in and influence the activities of other branches.
Bicameralism—the division of a legislative assembly into two chambers or houses. (House and Senate that make up Congress)
The Three-Fifth Compromise—an agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 stipulating that for purposes of the apportionment of congressional seats, every slave would be counted as three-fifths of a person.
What are the two major identities before the American Revolution?
The two major identities before the American Revolution were Loyal British Colonists, long standing loyal Colonists, who were transformed gradually into the excited or angry revolutionists, and then the Americans!
According to “Social Contract” theory, what should be protected by the government?
(1) there must be guarantees that people will not harm one another, and (2) people must be able to rely on one another to keep their agreements. Chapter 3: Federalism and The U.S. Constitution
Categorical Grant—Government decides what categories need to be funded and provide funding to states accordingly.
Divided Government—when one party controls the presidency and the other party controls at least on chamber of Congress
Unfunded Mandates—national standards or programs imposed on state and local governments without accompanying funding
Antifederalist—opposed he creation of a stronger U.S federal government, along with the ratification of the Constitution of 1787. The previous constitution, called the Articles of Confederation, gave state governments more authority.
1. Layer cake idea of power
2. Two very distinct layers of government
3. States exercised most important powers
It was called “dual federalism” because the duties and operations of the different levels of government remained more strictly separated
1. National government determines policies, state governments pay for and administer them.
2. The federal government dictates national standards states must meet or rules states must follow
Block Grant—big amount, states could decide how to use
Judicial Review—the Court’s ability to strike down presidential actions or laws passed by Congress
1. During the New Deal, national government's power expanded 2. Marble cake idea of power
3. There was cooperation on some policies
4. A rise in grant-aids
A period of supportive relations, sometimes partnerships, between the federal government and the state and local governments
What are the four stages of Federalism?
1. Dual Federalism
2. Cooperative Federalism
3. Regulated Federalism
4. New Federalism
In the constitution, which political branch is designed by the founders as the most important one?
The Congress is by far the most powerful of all the branches of the government. It is the representative of the people (and, originally, the states), and derives its power from the people. As such, it is given power to do the people's bidding and to rule over the people. It can set taxes, can raise armies, can declare war, can suspend habeas corpus, can impeach the President or judges, and can set laws touching the lives of every person in the nation.
Presidential Veto power is derived from what principle?
The Presidents power to veto comes from the executive branch. Because that is one of the powers that the executive branches have that comes from the separation of powers and checks and balances.
In addition to the expressed powers granted to the federal government, which powers are derived from the expansive interpretation of delegated powers?