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UTSA / Political Science / POLS 1133 / What are the 6 flags that flew over texas?

What are the 6 flags that flew over texas?

What are the 6 flags that flew over texas?

Description

School: University of Texas at San Antonio
Department: Political Science
Course: Texas Politics and Society
Professor: Badih elarba
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: pol, POL1133, tx, Studyguide, UTSA, and Politics
Cost: 50
Name: Texas Politics and Society Test 1
Description: This is a complete study guide going over the important things mentioned from lectures and in the book, in chapters 1-3.
Uploaded: 09/25/2018
8 Pages 175 Views 3 Unlocks
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TX Politics Test 1 Study Guide  (Ch1-3)


What are the 6 flags that flew over texas?



Public Policy- the response, or lack of response, to gov’t decision makers  regarding an issue  

1. Agenda Building Identification: defining that we have a problem (ex: interest  groups, political parties, media, lobbyist, voting citizens)

2. Access and Representation: getting them to see the problem (Elected officials to advocate)

3. Policy Formulation: solutions to fix the problem identified  

4. Policy Adoption or Policy legitimation: law was debated and passed 5. Policy Implementation: putting new law into action; Bureaucracy  6. Policy Evaluation: Did it work?

∙ If it didn’t work, what were the ways in why it didn’t work


What term best describes the political culture of texas?



6 flags of Texas

1. Spain- coastline mapped 100yrs before Plymouth  

2. France- killed by Karankawa Indians -> Spain returns w/ missions & presidios ∙ Tejanos from Mex->TX to fend off French

3. Rep. of Mexico

∙ Empresario* land grant via Spain and negotiated by Stephen F. Austin *person contracted w/ Mex or Spain gov’t to recruit for Texas in  exchange for land

∙ “Come and take it” Gonzalez flag- fed rebellion TX vs. Mex

∙ Alamo: Santa Anna outnumbered Alamo; Alamo fighters were  respected

4. Rep. of TX: problem= survive war w/ Mex-> TX army unorganized  ∙ Goliad Massacre: Santa Anna wiped out James Fannin’s army  ∙ Houston> Mex= Treaty of Velasco-> free TX


What are majority and minority groups?



∙ Limited resources + structure -> Houston president

o Denied statehood because slavery We also discuss several other topics like What is the basic plot of oedipus rex?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the central description of humanism?

5. 28th state of Union

6. Confed of TX: joined confederacy because slavery & S economics

Political culture: values, beliefs, and attitudes about how gov’t and society should  function

Dr. Daniel Elazar: believed that political culture was shaped by state founding  origins and experiences  

∙ Moralistic: common good, gov’t promote public good, North/northeast (rio  grande valley in TX), rooted in New England Puritanism

∙ Individualistic: commercial success, entrepreneurial, gov’t provides order  and protect property (bureaucracy as interference), less concern for mass  participation in politics, South/Midwest Don't forget about the age old question of What does the great migration refer to?
Don't forget about the age old question of Why is western capitalism important in global idealizations?

∙ Traditionalistic: tradition and maintaining social order, wealthy families  control politics, rooted in plantation values of social hierarchy

Texas political culture: Individualistic & traditionalistic 

Individualistic: Influenced by frontier experience and inhabitants that created a  sense of rugged individualism and limited gov’t

Traditionalistic: Influenced by old south elitism, political bosses, and conservatism

Population change Texas increase in pop than any other state 1990, 27%  increase in last 15 yrs.

#2 in size & population (very diverse) = increased representation in US congress  and population congestion  We also discuss several other topics like What is a domain in math?

∙ Natural increase (births)- children having children problem

∙ International immigration

∙ In-migration

Urban 88%-90% >Rural- and expected to increase (Urban, Suburban, Metros) Ex) West TX losing population, counties like Harris, Bexar, and Travis will increase Majority-minority: The minority is now the majority (50 yrs. ago was the opposite) Don't forget about the age old question of What is carbon fixation?

∙ Hispanics increasing in politics in state

∙ Asian population growing

∙ African Americans constant

Economy One of the largest economies in the world on its own then: cotton, cattle, oil; now: PLUS, tech and services

1820’s-1860’s- Land-based (King cotton & cattle) economy helped TX pay off debt  from Independence to Reconstruction era

Spindletop, 1901: economic/cultural shift, not as many children = family farm  formed (men leaving to city)

∙ Urbanization, energy and oil-based economy

∙ 1980’s recession caused oil prices to shoot up

2000’s- Technology industry- research & development

Present day- service, tech, and trade  

NAFTA- Trade between Mexico, U.S., & Canada.  

o Texas exports increase & jobs

o Mequiladores: enabled US to make US goods w/ cheap labor

o Trade War=Tariffs rose on Mexican & Canadian goods

TX economic regions

Shift from D-> R

Historically Democratic: progressives, greenbacks, farmer’s alliance, populists

Started to favor Republican economics w/ majority of TX voters: President Hoover  then President Eisenhower (backed by “Shivercrats”: Democrats who followed  conservative D governor)

“Battleground Texas” -Democrats attempt to turn Texas blue  

∙ New Deal -> Great society = conservative D -> liberal D

∙ Civil Rights = D -> R

Evolution of TX constitution

Coahuila y Tejas 1827(short lived): aligned w/ Mexican values, church head of gov’t,  unicameral house, governor 1 yr terms, slavery not allowed, raised taxes-> declared independence

First to govern Anglos 

Republic of Texas 1836: 3 separate branches, bicameral legislature: house & senate

∙ Traditionalistic views

∙ 4-tier system: justice, country, district, state supreme court; make treaties,  national military  

∙ Freedom of religion and property rights (Ministers couldn’t hold officer) ∙ Slavery legalized

Texas constitution 1845: Annexed into US (could make 4 states), two legislative  houses, allowed women property rights, taken from old Spanish constitution  

Confederate States of America 1861: Keep slavery, leave union and join  confederacy

Texas constitution of 1866:  

∙ No slavery: freedmen allowed own property but banned from voting/holding  office. De-jure (poll taxes/literacy tests) & De-facto: discrimination against  blacks RACISM NOT ILLEGAL UNLESS ACTED ON

∙ No to paying back war debt

∙ $ for office holders increased, increase the size of state SC, congressional  appointment based on # of white males

Reconstruction (carpetbagger) constitution 1869: Radical R’s, limited voting and  political rights of ex confederates, opposed “mild” policies by Pres Johnson, raised  taxes, Texas can’t secede (Texas v. White), removed local authority, blacks given  more rights 

Texas Constitution 1869 EJ constitution: centralized power, spoils system, raised  taxes

Constitution of 1876: decentralize & reduce gov’t power= distrust (traditionalistic/individualistic views)

Current constitution-excessive detail and doesn’t fit today’s society

∙ Retrenchment and reform- from Constitutional convention in 1875  ∙ Governor EJ Davis “power-grab” -> succeeded by Governor Richard Coke ∙ Written by Grangers who trusted popular sovereignty> officials, business, or  political parties

∙ Weak governor & legislature= cheap and fragmented  

17 articles in TX constitution

Revisions of TX constitution failure

1970’s- legal experts commission made recommendations to TX legislature->  deadlocked and adjourned wo/ making any changes. TX legislature proposed 8  amendments to voters-> voters rejected all

1999- Senator Bill Ratliff(R) & Representative Robert Junell(D) bills to reduce  constitution size died in committee in both houses. Bill went against political culture

State vs. US constitution  Purpose of constitution: Establishes basic rules of governing, Primary source of state’s policy making, assigns and limits gov’t

All gov’t (local, state, national) participate in taxing= concurrent issue & power

States reserve the right (10th amendment of US constitution) to regulate themselves (ex: capital punishment, marriage, education, etc.)

State constitution: 

US Constitution  

Broad

Short  

State Constitution

Specific & overly detailed Long

Restrictive

Checks & balances (In Texas between: legislature, governor, and judiciary)

Plural executive system- executive power

divided by many state officials

Bill of rights- grants freedom and rights to citizens in the constitution

Federalism- gov’t shares in the running of our country American Fed system of gov’t

∙ Federal system: division of power between national & regional gov’t

US bill of  

rights

• Amendments  

1-10

• limits 3  

branches of  

gov't

Both

• Individual  

TX bill of rights • Article 1

• forbids  

discrimination • property owner  rights

• protection to  crime victims

• rights can't be  reduced by  

legislation  

∙ Unitary system: all gov’t is controlled by central/national gov’t  ∙ Confederal system: power divided w/ weak nation gov’t & strong sovereign regional gov’t

liberties and  rights

US controls states: TX receives 30% of budget from US

∙ Categorical Grants: grants $ for specifics  

∙ Block Grant: how you use the $ is up to you

∙ Fed mandates: provided $ for state programs

Supremacy clause (article 6/VI in US constitution)- fed gov’t has the say> statues  (state legislature) & ordinances (local gov’t)

TX legislature  

What it does: Lawmaking, Budget and Taxation, Oversight

makes law, represents the citizens (people’s branch), checks power of others,  appropriate money to projects

Problems: doesn’t mirror our society, incumbency (winning elections consecutively)  more important than governing, does not check their own power, ideological  compared to right morals

Structure: weak constitutionally (grange), underpaid, overworked, nonprofessional  legislature: part-time job (grange), $600/mon

Representation- low since majority is old white male republicans

Qualifications &  membership

House of  

representative s

•2yr terms

•minimum age of 21 •2yrs. in TX

•150 members

Both

•US citizen

•registered voter •no term limit •1 yr in district

Senate

•4yr terms

•minimum age of 26 •5yrs. in TX

•31 members

H of R can impeach, Senate finds defendant guilty or innocent Legislature is a part-time job w/ low pay for the amount of work they do TX uses single-member districts (ex: mayor)

Sessions

Biennial sessions- every 2 yrs. In odd-numbered yrs.

1 session= 140 days

Sine die: legislature must adjourn at the end of regular session and, unlike most  state legislatures, cannot call an extraordinary session or otherwise extend a  session

∙ Strengths the governor’s veto powers

Governor may call special sessions of no more than 30 days each Biennial sessions help legislature avoid reacting rashly to situations

Leadership’s Power

Very powerful mechanism for obtaining loyalty of committee members and chairs Speaker of the House

∙ Appoints ½ of all committee seats and designates the chair  ∙ Joe Straus: current speaker of the house

Lt. Governor

∙ Appoints 80% of all committee seats and designates the chair  ∙ Dan Patrick: current lt. governor

Leadership can choose the committees to send a bill, allowing for more likelihood of  passage or less. They send bills to committees who  

Committees in H of R & S

Standing committee: consider legislation in H&S (main workers) Conference committee: work out differences in bills passed by H&S Interim committee: study issues between sessions of the state legislature

Types of Gerrymandering (political & racial as well) Packing: ramming many voters of one party into district  

Cracking: tearing up dense pockets of party voters to dilute their votes

Stacking: merging 2 districts of the same party to force incumbents to run against  each other

Incumbents almost NEVER lose- $/reelection machines

∙ Franking privileges- free mail to vote for themselves

∙ Known/Name recognition or reputation

∙ Constituent (body of voters) services- took care of your problems ∙ Experience “In” gov’t

∙ TX doesn’t have term limits

Bill-> Law in TX legislature  

1. 1st reading; sponsor of bill

2. Sent to committee (By leadership)

3. Logrolling- I’ll support your bill, if you support mine

4. Committee; markup, if changed- 2nd reading

5. Committee takes vote; simple majority

6. Full chamber debates; votes

7. Both must pass! Usually if one dies the other die

8. If both pass; goes to conference committee where differences between the  houses to create 1 bill

9. Reported back full legislature for 3rd and final reading

10.If passed, goes to governor  

11.If governor vetoes (happens after sessions bc/ legislature won’t come back  since governor won’t call special session), the legislature can override (very  rare)

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