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UA / English / EN 210 / What is mark twain known for?

What is mark twain known for?

What is mark twain known for?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: English
Course: American Literature II
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: american, Literature, and english
Cost: 50
Name: EN 210 Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Comprehensive study guide made from the given study guide supplemented with the most important notes from the readings, author information and our in class discussion of the text
Uploaded: 09/26/2018
36 Pages 46 Views 3 Unlocks
Reviews


Texts Covered and Focus 


What is mark twain known for?



·​ Biographical information provided in the NAAL for the following authors ·​ Powerpoints on Blackboard

·​ In-class lectures and discussions

·​ Major characters and their actions/speech/motivations; major plot points ·​ Significant passages discussed in class

·​ As examples of literary realism and/or literary naturalism

“American Literature: 1865-1914”(7-13)

“Realism and Naturalism”(955-956)

Poetry 

Walt Whitman: Song of Myself(Sections 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 11, 15, 32-34, 50-52) ● How he tried to be the poet for america

○ Wanted to have a common presentation to connect with the average person

○ Many levels of language reach a wide audience


What is difference between realism and naturalism?



○ Abstract vs. concrete

■ Concrete: street talk

■ Abstract: more advanced

○ Pre-civil war We also discuss several other topics like What is dimensional analysis physics?

● Free verse

○ No metrical regularity or rhyme

○ Anaphora

○ Initial repetition

○ Epistrophe: terminal repetition

○ Catalogs: rhythmic pattern to call attention to multiplicity of life

○ Vowel sounds never repeated in a line, makes it more musical We also discuss several other topics like What is quantitative adjective?

○ Open form with varied long and short lines

○ Influenced by opera to experience emotion

● Expansive, gregarious open form fit for the “open road of American life” ● Section 1: (p. 23) creeds and schools in abeyance (arguing for an open mind) ● Section 3: (p. 24) inception=starting point that is on purpose, procreant urge, now is a good time to start, sex, being satisfied with oneself


What is walt whitman best known for?



● Section 6: (p. 26) what is the grass? My disposition, handkerchief of the Lord, a child, hieroglyphic, uncut hair of graves, connection between many people, life itself, a recycling of energy, law of conservation, hopeIf you want to learn more check out What is archaeological fieldwork?

● Section 8: (p. 28) example of catalog; all lines start with The; timeline of cycle of life-vulnerable baby, teenagers caught having sex, suicide note Don't forget about the age old question of Why do we have canadian coins in circulation in the us?

● Section 10: (p. 28) wild mountain, hardworking man, interacting cultures, video of Vietnamese couple in restaurant, concrete, colloquial flat normal speech, gun in the corner=willing to use violence to protect guest

● Section 11: (p. 29) isolated from the other verses, connects to others because of the separation of mind and body, out of body experience, voyeuristic (speaker is observing the woman who is in turn observing the men), scene of woman watching the 28 men bathing from her house, masturbating, hidden language because of constraints on female sexuality

● Section 15: (p. 31) catalog of people, “pure contralto” high feminine voice, begins with image of someone singing, “lunatic is carried at last to the asylum, a confirm’d case”, each line is complete containing its own story with deep, complex meaning, there is an extra line that humanizes the lunatic “he will never sleep any more as he did in the cot in his mother’s bed-room”, there is unity in variety, works via juxtaposition, different types of lives show how close people are to one another (ex. Bride separated by prostitute only by drugs, then the president), the end of 15 is “And of these one and all I weave the song of myself”...the thesis of the poem Don't forget about the age old question of What is tonicity and how does it relate to osmosis?

● Section 32: (p. 44) animals are content with their lives and do not question or complain, horse

● Section 33: (p. 45) out of body experience, very long, catalog “where the…” ● Section 34: (p. 50) Texas, fall of the alamo, tells a terrible, gruesome story in a flat, matter of fact tone Don't forget about the age old question of Where did the idea of where the world first started come from?

● Section 50: (p. 65) contains dashes that allude to stuttering, attempt to express the inexpressible, maybe it’s the point that he still hasn’t figured “it” out even though he has tried for 49 sections already, what is our purpose in life, american section because looks at individualism and something that is within all of us

● Section 51: (p. 65) addresses the listener, “I am large I contain multitudes” “Do I contradict myself, very well then, I contradict myself”

● Section 52: (p. 66) recognizes he has spoken too long and may be difficult to understand but to keep trying and you will find yourself in the poem somewhere, “I stop somewhere waiting for you”

Emily Dickinson: Poems – #320, 372, 591, 1263

● Tight, elliptical verses: reflect a sense of the psychological interior where meanings are made and unmade

● “Compressed lyric”

● Compression or density if the most salient characteristic

● Vocabulary is highly associative and abstract

● Poems don’t always resolve themselves

● Used familiar forms only to break their rules: nursery rhymes, ballads, church hymns

● Used dashes and syntactical fragments to convey her pursuit of a truth that could best be communicated indirectly

● Used enjambment to force her reader to learn where to pause to collect the sense before reading, often creating dizzying ambiguities

● Focused on the speaker’s response to the situation rather than the situation itself ● Depicted as a death obsessed spinster, never married, lived at home, well read, rejected gender roles and explored sexuality, not published during her lifetime and when she was her work was heavily edited, most of her loved ones died ● 320: (p.97) a certain Slant of light, oppression, death, random capitalization, dashes and short lines

● 372: (p. 100) pain, body frozen and mechanical

● 591: (p. 103) I heard a fly buzz when I died, fly between the light (death) and me ○ Trying to imagine the final moment of life

● 1263: (p. 109) “Tell all the truth but tell it slant”

Essay 

Mark Twain:“Fenimore Cooper’s Literary Offences” (331-340)

● Critiques other people’s review of cooper, claiming they must not have read it ● He did 114/115 possible offenses, details 18 of them

○ Repetition, substance, style, mocking and sarcastic tone, physical inaccuracies, inpredictability

○ Repeats “I will tell you because you cannot guess”

○ Lists inconsistencies in speech style and incorrectly used words ● Rejection of romantic fiction

● Accuses cooper of using unrealistic gimmicks (target shot in the same place 3 times, broken twigs, moccasins in same trail, cannon balls, ark would not have fit in stream, the indians never noticed anything helpful...that the couldn’t just climb aboard the boat)

● Switches between dialects

● So upset because literature was more influential then because of limited entertainment

Fiction

Mark Twain: “The War Prayer” (340-342)

● Realism

● Vernacular dialects and colloquialisms, humor to increase sympathy for rogue characters

● Rejected the extravagances and illusions of Romantic fiction

● Satire, criticizing using ridicule, prayer is ironic

● First prayer: not as dark, gruesome, false romantic narrative

● Second prayer: the realities of war

● Dramatization of false romantic narrative

Ambrose Bierce: “Chickamauga” (401-406)

● Graphic descriptionf of injury that would not be found in romanticism ● Slightly romantic at the beginning describing the child as a product of generations of war

● Very inflated language (romantic)

● Child is a deaf mute-unaware of what is going on

○ The juxtaposition to more realistic at the end

Henry James:

● Realism

● Ornate, dense, long descriptive sentences

● International aesthetic from Europe (cosmopolitan fiction=feeling at ease in other countries)

● New character types: industrial workers, rural poor

● Refined mental states and psychological states

● Interior, character thoughts, digging into motives, tedious to read Daisy Miller: A Study (410-449)

● objective cast: distance, politeness

● Subjective: intimate, familiar

● Generation gap: aunt appalled/jealous/intrigued by Daisy’s behavior ○ Time of the woman question

● Mostly about Winterborne coming to conclusions about Daisy

● Daisy irritated readers because of flouting of social codes, held up to ridicule so seemed like ridiculing Americans as a whole, said her language was vulgar (coarse) and repetitive

● Daisy represents danger to the cosmopolitan state of mind

○ Forgetting one’s own place and temperament

○ Stands out in the culture

○ Gets ill from not knowing the customs and dies

○ Winterborne becomes self-conscious of her behavior

● Influenced by painting

● 3rd person limited point of view: daisy is filtered through winerborne’s perspective ● Attempted to portray daisy as attractive, fresh and innocent

● She dies from malaria maybe to suggest she was a martyr

“The Art of Fiction” (961-963)

● If you are always on the lookout to put things in your art, then are you really living?

● The most power comes from being able to guess the unseen from the seen

○ His stories give those backstories to the tiny glimpses we see in others’ lives

● Authorial presence vs. removal

○ Presence: can tell the author is there, mentions themself

■ “At the risk of exciting a somewhat divisive smile on the

reader’s part, I may affirm”

○ Removal: descriptions of the scene

Stephen Crane:

● Example of literary naturalism

○ Aesthetic response to the late 19th century

○ Can be thought of as realism

○ Not a discrete literary movement but more of an emotional reaction ○ Influenced by Darwin, forces beyond our control, humans are victims in the struggle to survive

○ Focused on class and marginalized groups

○ Social determinism rather than free will

○ Author not responsible for what’s happening

○ Realistic attention to detail

○ Characters futilely react to the forces of life

○ Strong prey on the weak

○ Fate determined by bad luck, degenerate heredity, sordid environment, surprising twists of fate

○ Characters serve as case studies to suggest social solutions

○ doesn’t necessarily involve nature

○ Sometimes naturalism accused of reverting to romanticism because for things to happen beyond human control sometimes resort to fantastical happenings

● “The Open Boat” (1048-1064)

○ Emphasizes individual frailties to commend how they eventually band together to survive

○ Aim of objectivity clashes with frequent sense of outrage over social injustice

○ physical , emotional and intellectual responses of people under pressure ○ Nature’s indifference to the fate of humanity

■ Question fate for making them drown after all the hard work ■ Mistakenly believe fate is governed by reason

■ “When it occurs to man that nature does not regard him as important”

■ “Wish to throw bricks at the temple”

■ Strangely nature’s indifference makes them be more responsible for their own actions, more important to impose order on ourselves (existentialism)

○ Difficulty of arriving at moral judgement

○ Need for compassionate collective action

○ Forces of nature: sea, weather, people, exhaustion, physical pain ○ Body and mind progression

■ No food, sleep deprivation, rowing causes back pain and exhaustion

■ Progresses from complaint to a feeling of resignation and mechanistic actions to wanting to drown just for relief

○ The title represents that it is not a closed boat (that one sank), it is open to the elements, but ironic because the men are often closed to each other, not expressing their thoughts to one another, they are confined even though they are in the open sea, and open sky in an open boat

○ Scientific rather than providentially (things happen because of divine intervention)

■ Objective tone and attitude, detachment

○ Shifting viewpoints almost cinematic (at first panoramic view that shows them collectively then zooms in on the individuals)

○ Envy the sea gulls because they are small and should be less than men as animals but are unaffected by the seas

○ Their brotherhood is silent but comforting, out of necessity ■ Don’t have this brotherhood towards the people on the shore who they meet with denial and then anger

○ No dialogue tags because it doesn’t matter who is speaking, it is in vain ○ Everyone lives except the oiler (only character with a name “Billie”) which is ironic because he was the strongest

Charlotte Perkins Gilman:

● “Literature of Argument”

● Naturalism had focused too much on the male experience

● “The Yellow Wall-paper” (844-856)

○ Actually made an impact on physicians

○ Gothic fiction

○ Confusion of reality and fantasy (hallucination)

○ Unreliable and misguided narrators

○ Emphasis on psychological states

○ John is a realist who keeps her imagination in check

■ Actually worsens her by decreasing her ability to express

○ Irony: “John laughs at me but that’s normal in a marriage”

■ Dramatic irony: contrast between the reader’s knowledge and

narrators knowledge “I am glad my case is not serious”

■ Thinks her room was a nursery but is actually an asylum bc of bed nailed to the ground, bars on windows, rings on the walls

○ Wallpaper represents gender roles, being trapped in a pattern

■ Structures that keep women in the home

■ Not designed with fairness, doesn’t make much sense

● “Why I Wrote…” (856)

○ Married at 23, worried marriage would interfere with her writing career, postpartum depression and prescribed rest cure

○ Actually had impact on physicians treating “hysteria”

Kate Chopin:

● “The Story of an Hour”

○ Title reflects how much happens in such a short period of time

○ Mrs. Mallard dies because of “heart disease--the joy that kills”

■ Dramatic irony because heart attack due to shock over her re-loss of freedom

■ Maybe she had to kill off the wife to “punish” her to get published ■ Doesn’t initially go into shock or denial after hearing her husband is dead...goes straight to crying and then celebrating her newfound

freedom

○ Notices details of spring and rebirth

○ Husband was not abusive but she was still oppressed by the institution of marriage

○ Used to dread having a long life but once husband is dead she begins to hope she will have a long life

■ Ironic bc she is about to die

● “The Storm” (542-548) set in southern Louisiana

○ Too scandalous to be published during her lifetime

○ Cheating on her husband is almost a reset button

■ Before she was overbearing on her husband and child but after she is caring and loving to them

■ Perhaps appreciates them more

○ innuendo

■ white bed (purity) looks mysterious

■ her levees flooding

■ Chinaberry tree (rosary) is struck; sacreligious

■ “Flesh knowing for the first time its birthright”=sexual pleasure ■ Calixta is not satisfied with her husband and wants Alcee which is ironic bc Alcee’s wife Clarice is glad he is gone and wishes to

forego their sex life for a while

■ Individual erotic inclination versus constraints placed on desire ■ Women’s sexual pleasure oppressed

Texts Covered and Focus 

·​ Biographical information provided in the NAAL for the following authors ·​ Powerpoints on Blackboard

·​ In-class lectures and discussions

·​ Major characters and their actions/speech/motivations; major plot points ·​ Significant passages discussed in class

·​ As examples of literary realism and/or literary naturalism

“American Literature: 1865-1914”(7-13)

“Realism and Naturalism”(955-956)

Poetry 

Walt Whitman: Song of Myself(Sections 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 11, 15, 32-34, 50-52) ● How he tried to be the poet for america

○ Wanted to have a common presentation to connect with the average person

○ Many levels of language reach a wide audience

○ Abstract vs. concrete

■ Concrete: street talk

■ Abstract: more advanced

○ Pre-civil war

● Free verse

○ No metrical regularity or rhyme

○ Anaphora

○ Initial repetition

○ Epistrophe: terminal repetition

○ Catalogs: rhythmic pattern to call attention to multiplicity of life

○ Vowel sounds never repeated in a line, makes it more musical

○ Open form with varied long and short lines

○ Influenced by opera to experience emotion

● Expansive, gregarious open form fit for the “open road of American life” ● Section 1: (p. 23) creeds and schools in abeyance (arguing for an open mind) ● Section 3: (p. 24) inception=starting point that is on purpose, procreant urge, now is a good time to start, sex, being satisfied with oneself

● Section 6: (p. 26) what is the grass? My disposition, handkerchief of the Lord, a child, hieroglyphic, uncut hair of graves, connection between many people, life itself, a recycling of energy, law of conservation, hope

● Section 8: (p. 28) example of catalog; all lines start with The; timeline of cycle of life-vulnerable baby, teenagers caught having sex, suicide note

● Section 10: (p. 28) wild mountain, hardworking man, interacting cultures, video of Vietnamese couple in restaurant, concrete, colloquial flat normal speech, gun in the corner=willing to use violence to protect guest

● Section 11: (p. 29) isolated from the other verses, connects to others because of the separation of mind and body, out of body experience, voyeuristic (speaker is observing the woman who is in turn observing the men), scene of woman watching the 28 men bathing from her house, masturbating, hidden language because of constraints on female sexuality

● Section 15: (p. 31) catalog of people, “pure contralto” high feminine voice, begins with image of someone singing, “lunatic is carried at last to the asylum, a confirm’d case”, each line is complete containing its own story with deep, complex meaning, there is an extra line that humanizes the lunatic “he will never sleep any more as he did in the cot in his mother’s bed-room”, there is unity in variety, works via juxtaposition, different types of lives show how close people are to one another (ex. Bride separated by prostitute only by drugs, then the president), the end of 15 is “And of these one and all I weave the song of myself”...the thesis of the poem

● Section 32: (p. 44) animals are content with their lives and do not question or complain, horse

● Section 33: (p. 45) out of body experience, very long, catalog “where the…” ● Section 34: (p. 50) Texas, fall of the alamo, tells a terrible, gruesome story in a flat, matter of fact tone

● Section 50: (p. 65) contains dashes that allude to stuttering, attempt to express the inexpressible, maybe it’s the point that he still hasn’t figured “it” out even though he has tried for 49 sections already, what is our purpose in life, american section because looks at individualism and something that is within all of us

● Section 51: (p. 65) addresses the listener, “I am large I contain multitudes” “Do I contradict myself, very well then, I contradict myself”

● Section 52: (p. 66) recognizes he has spoken too long and may be difficult to understand but to keep trying and you will find yourself in the poem somewhere, “I stop somewhere waiting for you”

Emily Dickinson: Poems – #320, 372, 591, 1263

● Tight, elliptical verses: reflect a sense of the psychological interior where meanings are made and unmade

● “Compressed lyric”

● Compression or density if the most salient characteristic

● Vocabulary is highly associative and abstract

● Poems don’t always resolve themselves

● Used familiar forms only to break their rules: nursery rhymes, ballads, church hymns

● Used dashes and syntactical fragments to convey her pursuit of a truth that could best be communicated indirectly

● Used enjambment to force her reader to learn where to pause to collect the sense before reading, often creating dizzying ambiguities

● Focused on the speaker’s response to the situation rather than the situation itself ● Depicted as a death obsessed spinster, never married, lived at home, well read, rejected gender roles and explored sexuality, not published during her lifetime and when she was her work was heavily edited, most of her loved ones died ● 320: (p.97) a certain Slant of light, oppression, death, random capitalization, dashes and short lines

● 372: (p. 100) pain, body frozen and mechanical

● 591: (p. 103) I heard a fly buzz when I died, fly between the light (death) and me ○ Trying to imagine the final moment of life

● 1263: (p. 109) “Tell all the truth but tell it slant”

Essay 

Mark Twain:“Fenimore Cooper’s Literary Offences” (331-340)

● Critiques other people’s review of cooper, claiming they must not have read it ● He did 114/115 possible offenses, details 18 of them

○ Repetition, substance, style, mocking and sarcastic tone, physical inaccuracies, inpredictability

○ Repeats “I will tell you because you cannot guess”

○ Lists inconsistencies in speech style and incorrectly used words ● Rejection of romantic fiction

● Accuses cooper of using unrealistic gimmicks (target shot in the same place 3 times, broken twigs, moccasins in same trail, cannon balls, ark would not have fit in stream, the indians never noticed anything helpful...that the couldn’t just climb aboard the boat)

● Switches between dialects

● So upset because literature was more influential then because of limited entertainment

Fiction

Mark Twain: “The War Prayer” (340-342)

● Realism

● Vernacular dialects and colloquialisms, humor to increase sympathy for rogue characters

● Rejected the extravagances and illusions of Romantic fiction

● Satire, criticizing using ridicule, prayer is ironic

● First prayer: not as dark, gruesome, false romantic narrative

● Second prayer: the realities of war

● Dramatization of false romantic narrative

Ambrose Bierce: “Chickamauga” (401-406)

● Graphic descriptionf of injury that would not be found in romanticism ● Slightly romantic at the beginning describing the child as a product of generations of war

● Very inflated language (romantic)

● Child is a deaf mute-unaware of what is going on

○ The juxtaposition to more realistic at the end

Henry James:

● Realism

● Ornate, dense, long descriptive sentences

● International aesthetic from Europe (cosmopolitan fiction=feeling at ease in other countries)

● New character types: industrial workers, rural poor

● Refined mental states and psychological states

● Interior, character thoughts, digging into motives, tedious to read Daisy Miller: A Study (410-449)

● objective cast: distance, politeness

● Subjective: intimate, familiar

● Generation gap: aunt appalled/jealous/intrigued by Daisy’s behavior ○ Time of the woman question

● Mostly about Winterborne coming to conclusions about Daisy

● Daisy irritated readers because of flouting of social codes, held up to ridicule so seemed like ridiculing Americans as a whole, said her language was vulgar (coarse) and repetitive

● Daisy represents danger to the cosmopolitan state of mind

○ Forgetting one’s own place and temperament

○ Stands out in the culture

○ Gets ill from not knowing the customs and dies

○ Winterborne becomes self-conscious of her behavior

● Influenced by painting

● 3rd person limited point of view: daisy is filtered through winerborne’s perspective ● Attempted to portray daisy as attractive, fresh and innocent

● She dies from malaria maybe to suggest she was a martyr

“The Art of Fiction” (961-963)

● If you are always on the lookout to put things in your art, then are you really living?

● The most power comes from being able to guess the unseen from the seen

○ His stories give those backstories to the tiny glimpses we see in others’ lives

● Authorial presence vs. removal

○ Presence: can tell the author is there, mentions themself

■ “At the risk of exciting a somewhat divisive smile on the

reader’s part, I may affirm”

○ Removal: descriptions of the scene

Stephen Crane:

● Example of literary naturalism

○ Aesthetic response to the late 19th century

○ Can be thought of as realism

○ Not a discrete literary movement but more of an emotional reaction ○ Influenced by Darwin, forces beyond our control, humans are victims in the struggle to survive

○ Focused on class and marginalized groups

○ Social determinism rather than free will

○ Author not responsible for what’s happening

○ Realistic attention to detail

○ Characters futilely react to the forces of life

○ Strong prey on the weak

○ Fate determined by bad luck, degenerate heredity, sordid environment, surprising twists of fate

○ Characters serve as case studies to suggest social solutions

○ doesn’t necessarily involve nature

○ Sometimes naturalism accused of reverting to romanticism because for things to happen beyond human control sometimes resort to fantastical happenings

● “The Open Boat” (1048-1064)

○ Emphasizes individual frailties to commend how they eventually band together to survive

○ Aim of objectivity clashes with frequent sense of outrage over social injustice

○ physical , emotional and intellectual responses of people under pressure ○ Nature’s indifference to the fate of humanity

■ Question fate for making them drown after all the hard work ■ Mistakenly believe fate is governed by reason

■ “When it occurs to man that nature does not regard him as important”

■ “Wish to throw bricks at the temple”

■ Strangely nature’s indifference makes them be more responsible for their own actions, more important to impose order on ourselves (existentialism)

○ Difficulty of arriving at moral judgement

○ Need for compassionate collective action

○ Forces of nature: sea, weather, people, exhaustion, physical pain ○ Body and mind progression

■ No food, sleep deprivation, rowing causes back pain and exhaustion

■ Progresses from complaint to a feeling of resignation and mechanistic actions to wanting to drown just for relief

○ The title represents that it is not a closed boat (that one sank), it is open to the elements, but ironic because the men are often closed to each other, not expressing their thoughts to one another, they are confined even though they are in the open sea, and open sky in an open boat

○ Scientific rather than providentially (things happen because of divine intervention)

■ Objective tone and attitude, detachment

○ Shifting viewpoints almost cinematic (at first panoramic view that shows them collectively then zooms in on the individuals)

○ Envy the sea gulls because they are small and should be less than men as animals but are unaffected by the seas

○ Their brotherhood is silent but comforting, out of necessity ■ Don’t have this brotherhood towards the people on the shore who they meet with denial and then anger

○ No dialogue tags because it doesn’t matter who is speaking, it is in vain ○ Everyone lives except the oiler (only character with a name “Billie”) which is ironic because he was the strongest

Charlotte Perkins Gilman:

● “Literature of Argument”

● Naturalism had focused too much on the male experience

● “The Yellow Wall-paper” (844-856)

○ Actually made an impact on physicians

○ Gothic fiction

○ Confusion of reality and fantasy (hallucination)

○ Unreliable and misguided narrators

○ Emphasis on psychological states

○ John is a realist who keeps her imagination in check

■ Actually worsens her by decreasing her ability to express

○ Irony: “John laughs at me but that’s normal in a marriage”

■ Dramatic irony: contrast between the reader’s knowledge and

narrators knowledge “I am glad my case is not serious”

■ Thinks her room was a nursery but is actually an asylum bc of bed nailed to the ground, bars on windows, rings on the walls

○ Wallpaper represents gender roles, being trapped in a pattern

■ Structures that keep women in the home

■ Not designed with fairness, doesn’t make much sense

● “Why I Wrote…” (856)

○ Married at 23, worried marriage would interfere with her writing career, postpartum depression and prescribed rest cure

○ Actually had impact on physicians treating “hysteria”

Kate Chopin:

● “The Story of an Hour”

○ Title reflects how much happens in such a short period of time

○ Mrs. Mallard dies because of “heart disease--the joy that kills”

■ Dramatic irony because heart attack due to shock over her re-loss of freedom

■ Maybe she had to kill off the wife to “punish” her to get published ■ Doesn’t initially go into shock or denial after hearing her husband is dead...goes straight to crying and then celebrating her newfound

freedom

○ Notices details of spring and rebirth

○ Husband was not abusive but she was still oppressed by the institution of marriage

○ Used to dread having a long life but once husband is dead she begins to hope she will have a long life

■ Ironic bc she is about to die

● “The Storm” (542-548) set in southern Louisiana

○ Too scandalous to be published during her lifetime

○ Cheating on her husband is almost a reset button

■ Before she was overbearing on her husband and child but after she is caring and loving to them

■ Perhaps appreciates them more

○ innuendo

■ white bed (purity) looks mysterious

■ her levees flooding

■ Chinaberry tree (rosary) is struck; sacreligious

■ “Flesh knowing for the first time its birthright”=sexual pleasure ■ Calixta is not satisfied with her husband and wants Alcee which is ironic bc Alcee’s wife Clarice is glad he is gone and wishes to

forego their sex life for a while

■ Individual erotic inclination versus constraints placed on desire ■ Women’s sexual pleasure oppressed

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