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UIUC / Sociology / SOC 373 / What are the 3 different types of inequality?

What are the 3 different types of inequality?

What are the 3 different types of inequality?

Description

School: University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Department: Sociology
Course: Social Stratification
Professor: Cragoe
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Note sheet for first exam
Description: These notes cover materials from week 1-5 that will appear on the exam.
Uploaded: 09/26/2018
2 Pages 42 Views 2 Unlocks
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Resource Access: social/economic resources unequally distributed; people who  occupy privileged positions have access to more desirable positions.  Inequality of condition: Disparities in resources, power, prestige that people/groups  have


What are the 3 different types of inequality?



Inequality of opportunity: Disparities in access to improve resources. Winner-take-all market: More rewards become concentrated in fewer hands. 1970- 2007: typical size of single family grew by 50% while typical wage stood still. Luck  plays important role.

Winner-take-all society: New tech and market institutions provide growing leverage  for talents of ablest person. In all groups, incomes are largely stagnant for all top  earners. “Levels” geography/time, eases coordination, allows for more competition  across turf. Hacker & Pierson Politics: Political economy-a perspective that sees  modern capitalism/modern electoral democracies deeply connected. Ex: business  leaders, joining labor unions. Policy change: changing laws, passing new  regulations, removing existing regulations. Policy drift: Not enacting policy change  to keep pace w/economic, market, & social tech. Paradigm: A general image of  reality. Questions, “how shall we interpret what we find?” We have theories b/c we  understand how complex reality is. Conflict: focuses on group problems. Order:  functions in society/systems. Critical: The way groups come together. Uncritical:  Inequality is inevitable: distrust of human nature, soc should not change society.  Substructure: The material and economic base where people make stuff.  Superstructure: The rest of social life (political beliefs, religion, culture). Bourgeoisie: The group that owns the means of production. Proletariat: Group that works for  owners and gets dominated by them. Conflict occurs b/c bourg. Are driven by profit.  To get profit, bourg. Pay prol. This causes large difference. Alienation: Nature of  capitalist production disconnects worker from each other, what they create  themselves. History as change: Marx saw as fundamental to human history. Arise  from contradictions in relationships/economies. Future holds many outcomes (Marx). Saw conflict originating from single source-economic class domination. Weber (order-critical): Believed that important conflicts could orig. from a variety of  different groups or indiv. Interests. Conflict is uni-multi dimensional. Believed that  domination and human conflict will not end. Class: People’s life chances are affected by economic interests from possession of goods/opportunity of income. Owner vs.  Non-owner dimension: skill creates a gradient in many levels. Status: honor and  prestige linked to specific style of life that restrict social interaction. Party: Groups  aimed towards acquisition of social power, regardless of content. David & Moore (order-uncritical): Society is like an organism. Inequality is not inherently bad.  Process that helps maintain a healthy, functioning society. Scarcity: Only a limited # of jobs are very important and only a limited # of people are talented enough to do  them. Inequality provides a system to fill the most imp. Jobs w/most qualified  people. Double Consciousness (Dubois): The sense of always looking at one’s self  through eyes of others. Dynamic selectivity: As students advance in their  educational careers, association b/t social origins and unobserved determinants  declines. Labor Market Meritocracy: College grads work in sectors/firms w/more  meritocratic selection, where origins count for less. Cognitive skills: Involve  intellectual effort. Noncognitive skills: “soft skills” related to motivation/integrity  and interpersonal interaction. Education and Tech: Imp. For inequality b/c of  opportunity, increase the decrease in inequality, reinforce pre-existing power  structures. Reardon: Focused on widening academic achievement gap.  Socioeconomic status of a child’s parents is one of the strongest predictors of child’s


How does the superstructure influence the base?




What is winner take all market?



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academic achievement. Current difference b/t high/low income students equiv. to  3.75-7.5 years of learning in middle/high school. Believes inequality growth,  investment of child dev. Changed in fam background, and residential segregation  contributes to this inequality. Torche: Mobility; lifts the U-shape pattern in mobility  across education. Heckman: Focused on core concepts for crafting sound social  policy. Brain dev. And skill formation is outcome of interaction of genetics and ind.  Experience. Mastery of economically relevant skills follow hierchal rules. Cognitive,  linguistic, social, and emotional competencies are independent. Need to aid with  people who are at risk of being left out of a cog. Demanding economy. Early learning unleashes self-reinforcing motivation. Schools do little do bend arch of inequality,  are primarily treadmills of inequality. Focuses on cog. Non-cog. Dev.

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