Resource Access: social/economic resources unequally distributed; people who occupy privileged positions have access to more desirable positions. Inequality of condition: Disparities in resources, power, prestige that people/groups have
Inequality of opportunity: Disparities in access to improve resources. Winner-take-all market: More rewards become concentrated in fewer hands. 1970- 2007: typical size of single family grew by 50% while typical wage stood still. Luck plays important role.
Winner-take-all society: New tech and market institutions provide growing leverage for talents of ablest person. In all groups, incomes are largely stagnant for all top earners. “Levels” geography/time, eases coordination, allows for more competition across turf. Hacker & Pierson Politics: Political economy-a perspective that sees modern capitalism/modern electoral democracies deeply connected. Ex: business leaders, joining labor unions. Policy change: changing laws, passing new regulations, removing existing regulations. Policy drift: Not enacting policy change to keep pace w/economic, market, & social tech. Paradigm: A general image of reality. Questions, “how shall we interpret what we find?” We have theories b/c we understand how complex reality is. Conflict: focuses on group problems. Order: functions in society/systems. Critical: The way groups come together. Uncritical: Inequality is inevitable: distrust of human nature, soc should not change society. Substructure: The material and economic base where people make stuff. Superstructure: The rest of social life (political beliefs, religion, culture). Bourgeoisie: The group that owns the means of production. Proletariat: Group that works for owners and gets dominated by them. Conflict occurs b/c bourg. Are driven by profit. To get profit, bourg. Pay prol. This causes large difference. Alienation: Nature of capitalist production disconnects worker from each other, what they create themselves. History as change: Marx saw as fundamental to human history. Arise from contradictions in relationships/economies. Future holds many outcomes (Marx). Saw conflict originating from single source-economic class domination. Weber (order-critical): Believed that important conflicts could orig. from a variety of different groups or indiv. Interests. Conflict is uni-multi dimensional. Believed that domination and human conflict will not end. Class: People’s life chances are affected by economic interests from possession of goods/opportunity of income. Owner vs. Non-owner dimension: skill creates a gradient in many levels. Status: honor and prestige linked to specific style of life that restrict social interaction. Party: Groups aimed towards acquisition of social power, regardless of content. David & Moore (order-uncritical): Society is like an organism. Inequality is not inherently bad. Process that helps maintain a healthy, functioning society. Scarcity: Only a limited # of jobs are very important and only a limited # of people are talented enough to do them. Inequality provides a system to fill the most imp. Jobs w/most qualified people. Double Consciousness (Dubois): The sense of always looking at one’s self through eyes of others. Dynamic selectivity: As students advance in their educational careers, association b/t social origins and unobserved determinants declines. Labor Market Meritocracy: College grads work in sectors/firms w/more meritocratic selection, where origins count for less. Cognitive skills: Involve intellectual effort. Noncognitive skills: “soft skills” related to motivation/integrity and interpersonal interaction. Education and Tech: Imp. For inequality b/c of opportunity, increase the decrease in inequality, reinforce pre-existing power structures. Reardon: Focused on widening academic achievement gap. Socioeconomic status of a child’s parents is one of the strongest predictors of child’s
If you want to learn more check out What cells are autorhythmic?
Don't forget about the age old question of How does the mesosystem affect child development?
Don't forget about the age old question of Will the persistent avoidance of situations that a person fears trigger another panic attack?
Don't forget about the age old question of What makes a social problem?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are metric multipliers?
If you want to learn more check out What is a simple definition of sustainability?
academic achievement. Current difference b/t high/low income students equiv. to 3.75-7.5 years of learning in middle/high school. Believes inequality growth, investment of child dev. Changed in fam background, and residential segregation contributes to this inequality. Torche: Mobility; lifts the U-shape pattern in mobility across education. Heckman: Focused on core concepts for crafting sound social policy. Brain dev. And skill formation is outcome of interaction of genetics and ind. Experience. Mastery of economically relevant skills follow hierchal rules. Cognitive, linguistic, social, and emotional competencies are independent. Need to aid with people who are at risk of being left out of a cog. Demanding economy. Early learning unleashes self-reinforcing motivation. Schools do little do bend arch of inequality, are primarily treadmills of inequality. Focuses on cog. Non-cog. Dev.