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Study Guide #1
Lectures & Videos
Criminology: The study of the etiology of crime and the characteristics of the criminal. Victimology: The study of the victim from a socialstructural way of viewing crime and the law and the criminal and the victim.
Justice for All Act: (April 2006) enacted to protect crime victims’ rights. Eliminates the substantial backlog of DNA samples collected from crime scenes and convicted offenders. Tangible costs: Medical expenses, courts, law enforcements and correctional facilities expenses Intangible costs: Pain, suffering and quality of life
Uniform Crime Reports (UCR): Provides some of the most commonly cited crime statistics in the United States and is concerned with: forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary and motor vehicle theft.
Don't forget about the age old question of What is chiral?
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS): A series of surveys, before was known as (NCS). Has been collecting data on personal and household victimization.
National IncidentBased Reporting Systems (NIBRS): A more detailed version of the Uniform Crime Reporting Program.
Classical criminology: A view that people have free will and that appropriate and timely punishment will deter crime.
Victimbased theories: Based on a variety of factors such as: biological, sociological, psychological, demographic, and psychiatric.
Mendelsohn’s six victim types:
1. Completely innocent victims
2. Victims with minor guilt
3. Voluntary Victims
4. Victims guiltier that the offender
5. Victims who alone are guilty
6. Imaginary Victims
Fattah’s theory: sough to classify victims according to their level of participation in the crime. Zur’s theory: It is also important when evaluating the degree of responsibility in a given situation that the following parameters be assessed: ethnicity [minorities are at a graters risk for victimization], gender [women at greater risk than men in some personal risks such as rape], socioeconomic status, physical attribute, mental status, familial background and cultural values. Von Hentig’s theory: Believed that victims were responsible for their victimization. Schafer’s theory: Believed crimes are the results of multiple factors as well as that victims contributed through their acts. We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of an icon?
Schafer’s theory: Implies that the victim has something to do with his or her own victimization, Routine activities theory
Stockholm syndrome: Dramatic and unexpected realignment of affections to the positive bond between hostage and captor and to the feelings of the distrust and hostility on the part of the victim toward authority.
Ecological theories: Not strictly a theory of victimology. Seeks to understand human experience and behavior within a “person in environment” framework. Individuals are influenced by family, peers and cultural affiliations.
Primary victimization: Affects the targeted or personalized victims.
Secondary victimization: Affects impersonal victims, such as commercial establishments, churches, schools and public transportation.
Tertiary victimization: Diffuse and extends to the community at large.
Crime Victims’ Rights Act:
1. To be reasonably protected from the accused
2. To reasonable, accurate, and timely notice of proceedings Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of introspection?
3. To not be excluded from any such public proceedings
4. To be reasonably heard
5. To confer with an attorney from the government in the case If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between sensation and perception?
6. To full and timely restitution as provided by law
7. To be free from unreasonable delay
Restitution: Money a judge orders an offender to pay to the victim. (Part of the offenders sentence as well as based on the offender’s ability to pay.) Don't forget about the age old question of What is the inability to get everything we want due to a finite amount of resources?
Compensation: Refers to funds paid by the state to ameliorate the personal costs of crime. DOES NOT DEPEND ON WHETHER THE CASE IS CHARGED OR IF THE OFFENDER IS FOUND GUILTY!
Crime Victims Fund: Established through VOCA in 1984. Supported by money collected through criminal fines, forfeited bail bonds, penalties and special assessments. (FUNDS COME ENTIRELY FROM OFFENDERS AND NOT FROM TAXPAYERS) Victims can apply to Don't forget about the age old question of What is the middle ear?
cover crime related costs such as: medical costs, funeral costs, mental health counselors or lost wages. Maximum awards: $10,000 $25,000, depending on state.
Eligibility for compensation: Amount of compensation awarded is limited and depends on the category of the crime. (Primary, secondary, tertiary)
Second assault: Post assault experiences, consists of a series of uncomfortable experiences after their victimization.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD):
Restorative justice: A system of criminal justice that focuses on the rehabilitation through reconciliation with victims and the community.
Retributive justice: A system of criminal justice based on the punishment of offenders rather than on rehabilitation.
Distributive justice: is an approach to justice that focuses on restoring what is good, and necessarily focuses on the needs of victims and offenders.
Criminal law: Concerned with actions that are harmful to society in which prosecution is pursued by the state, not the individual.
Civil law: The system of law concerned with private relations between members of a community.
Victim impact statements: A statement given by the victim(s) that details how the crime has affected him or her.
Typologies of Aggression
Fearbased aggression: Root of most aggression is fear.
Irritable aggression: Lose selfcontrol and become impulsive, on the other hand they become depressed.
Predatory aggression: Natural survivalrelated behavior that sometimes alarms us. Maleonmale aggression: Can be due to learning and genetic factor.
Maternal aggression: Not aggression towards offspring, aggression in order to protect offspring Territorial aggression: Protective aggression may be exhibited toward people that approach the property.
Spillover effect: Act in similar ways in similar situations.