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Virginia Tech - GEOS 1034 - Class Notes - Week 4

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Virginia Tech - GEOS 1034 - Class Notes - Week 4

School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: Geoscience
Course: Geoscience
Professor: Ying Zhou
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Name: Earthquake Review
Description: These notes cover a little bit of the test and also specific earthquakes and different effects of earthquakes.
Uploaded: 09/26/2018
This preview shows pages 1 - 2 of a 6 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image Earthquakes and Landslides are heavily linked natural hazards Earthquakes can trigger landslides In mountainous regions, landslides during or after earthquakes are extremely  common Occurred in Wenchuan Earthquake Fire is linked with earthquakes Shaking from earthquakes and displacement can: Break electrical power lines Rupture gas lines Damage firefighting equipment Damage streets, roads, bridges Break water mains Damage home appliances San Francisco burned due to 1906 earthquake- water mains broken, gas lines were  rupturing, firefighters couldn't get to points in SF Hygo-Ken Nanbu earthquake M6.9 (1995) Disease outbreaks are sometimes associated with large earthquakes Loss of sanitation Loss of housing Disruption of public health services Ruptured sewer and water lines that cause water to become contaminated How to combat these issues: Live in earthquake resistant areas/structures Corner studs § Stock up on water and food Portable restroom capabilities Review for Exam 1 Place specifically on a subduction zone where earthquake occurs: on interface  between 2 plates- MEGATHRUST 87,000 perished in Wenchuan earthquake If house is built on loose sediment is more likely to feel shaking Factors that cause greater intensity of earthquake shaking by buildings and  people:  Location to earthquake epicenter Magnitude of earthquake Where the structure is built (loose sediment Mercalli scale: amount of shaking felt by buildings and people 1811-1812 earthquakes- New Madrid earthquakes Biggest magnitude earthquakes are the most deadly: FALSE What tool do we use to figure out slip deficit- how big or where another  earthquake occurs? GPS We can use earthquake histories to determine probability of an earthquake  occurring at a particular time and particular place There are a number of activities/observations made before earthquakes: Shaking Gravity change Water table rose/fell before an earthquake Lights Abnormal animal behavior Dogs that barked Foreshocks and aftershocks are NOT earthquakes Hazards are associated with earthquakes: Landslides Fire Disease Structural issues, fault rupture Gravity measurements of surface deformation DOES NOT predict how active a  fault will be No accurate precursors Once initial shaking occurs, you have to get out of tall building- P waves What makes earthquakes especially destructive? Proximity to earthquake Poorly built structures Strong shaking How can you keep a building from shaking in an earthquake? Diagonal beams provide resistance to shearing that often causes buildings  to collapse Shearing- one beam gets shorter and one gets longer § Put in corner studs to improve stability In sediment, put pilings down into bedrock to stabilize Isolation system Building with rubber laminations to steel shim plates to allow the  building to withstand shearing § Inertial damping systems Allows building to sway around weighted material § Test Review: 9/12 Heat collisions made the young earth hot enough to melt its interior, allowing  heavy minerals (iron and nickel) to Sink to the inner earth a. 1. The sinking of heavier minerals led the Earth's interior to differentiate into a  _____, ______, and ______that then froze in place as the Earth cooled Core, mantle, crust a. 2. The Earth's inner core is under too much _____ to be liquid Pressure a. 3. Place tectonics: cold strong _____ float over warm weak _____ Lithosphere, asthenosphere a. 4. Tectonic plates slide past each other in 3 different ways Convergent, divergent, transform, subduction a. 5. Plate tectonics is driven by mantle convection (tractions), forces from gpe and  Slab pull a. 6. Age of continental crust: ____ are the oldest, coldest parts of Earth's outer rigid  shell Craton a. 7. Most earthquakes occur during _____ interface Wadati-benioff a. What occurs here is a mega-thrust b. 8. Could plate tectonics have influenced evolution? Yes a. 9. The earth's magnetic field arises from _________ Convection in the OUTER core; dynamo effect a. 10. Magnetic field arises from complex motion associated with convection within the  outer core called ____ Dynamo effect a. 11. What does this evidence (alternating lava flow) tell us about the Earth?  Magnetic pole reversal a. 12. Is there any evidence that mass extinctions will occur if we lose our magnetic  field? No a. 13. What happens at a mid-oceanic ridge? Divergent plate boundary in E Africa a. New oceanic crust is forming b. 14. Why do we need 4 satellites to get a position? To get longitude, latitude, time and height a. 15. Diamonds come from a rare type of volcanic eruption that brought them up from  great depths at great speed. What depths? Between 100 and 250 km a. 16. What is the main ingredient in the formation of Geodes? Water a. 17. Why are some of the largest earthquakes not the most deadly? Population of area a. Structure of buildings b. 18. Two processes describe the earthquake cycle: Elastic rebound theory: the crust deforms elastically (storing energy), then  rebounds (like a ball) a. Strike-slip behavior: a fault remains locked while energy builds, then slips  suddenly b. 19. Stick-slip behavior occurs because of friction: rough spots along the fault called  _____ prevent the fault from sliding until they're broken Asperities a. 20. 3 types of faults arise from 3 types of stress states: Normal fault: extensional a. Compressional b. Sheer stress c. 21. In addition to surface waves, earthquakes cause ___ that travel through the  interior of the earth Body waves a. 22. 2 types of body waves: P waves a. S waves b. Travel through interior of earth c. Can be used to locate an earthquake d. 23. 2 types of surface waves: Love waves a. Rayleigh waves b. Stronger  c. Travel along crust d. 24. Reconstruction of plate motions starting from 180 million years ago (the breakup  of supercontinent ____) Pangea a. 25. Mercalli scale- how people and buildings perceive shaking 26. Sediments in the Santa Rosa Basin greatly magnified the amplitude and duration  of shaking during the 1906 earthquake. What was the main reason? Loose sediments that weren't compacted together a. 27. Why do geoscientists use GPS? To measure surface movements a. 28. How do we know the Earth is not hollow? Lab experiments Show that rocks are too weak at high temperatures and  pressures in Earth a. Passage of seismic waves show no voids b. Magnitude of our gravity requires dense solid interior c. No physics to build without hollow planet  d. 29. Why is the seismic hazard high in central US? Large earthquakes in 1811 and 1812  a. 30. Seismic waves can be used to study the Earth's ____ Interior a. 31. 1976 Tangshan and 2010 Haiti earthquakes were amongst deadliest earthquakes  in past century Wenchuan a. Once surface waves arrive, poorly constructed buildings fall fast b. 32. Earthquake magnitude is logarithmic scale: for every whole # increase in  magnitude, the amplitude of shaking goes up by a factor of 10 33. In the real world Faults are generally steadily loaded a. Earthquakes don't occur at same stress level b. Earthquakes are not same magnitude and are NOT predictable c. We can use past earthquakes to estimate probability of future earthquakes d. 34. What do you do during an earthquake? If indoors in a well engineered building Stay indoors i. Drop to the ground; take cover under a table ii. Stay away from glass and anything that could fall iii. Use a doorway for shelter only if you know it's a strongly supported,  loadbearing doorway iv. DO NOT use elevators v. a. If indoors in a poorly constructed building Get out of building as fast as possible i. b. If outdoors Stay outdoors, move away from buildings i. c. Get off bridges that have potential to sway d. Shut down heavy machinery e. Stop surgeries f. 35. Diagonal beams provide resistance to SHEARING that often cause buildings to  collapse  36. Buildings can fall over due to  Liquefaction  a. 37. Approaching to reducing swaying of buildings: Diagonal beams provide resistance to shearing that often causes buildings  to collapse Shearing- one beam gets shorter and one gets longer i. a. Put in corner studs to improve stability b. In sediment, put pilings down into bedrock to stabilize c. Isolation system Building with rubber laminations to steel shim plates to allow the  building to withstand shearing i. d. Inertial damping systems Allows building to sway around weighted material i. e. 38. Earthquake early warning system Seismic waves travel slower than speed of light, we can detect earthquake  and communicate warning ahead of shaking a. 39. Forced resonance: when the ____ of external forces matches the natural ____ of a  structure Frequency, frequency a. 40. Week 4 (9/10, 9/12, 9/14) Monday, September 10, 2018 12:26 PM
background image Earthquakes and Landslides are heavily linked natural hazards Earthquakes can trigger landslides In mountainous regions, landslides during or after earthquakes are extremely  common Occurred in Wenchuan Earthquake Fire is linked with earthquakes Shaking from earthquakes and displacement can: Break electrical power lines Rupture gas lines Damage firefighting equipment Damage streets, roads, bridges Break water mains Damage home appliances San Francisco burned due to 1906 earthquake- water mains broken, gas lines were  rupturing, firefighters couldn't get to points in SF Hygo-Ken Nanbu earthquake M6.9 (1995) Disease outbreaks are sometimes associated with large earthquakes Loss of sanitation Loss of housing Disruption of public health services Ruptured sewer and water lines that cause water to become contaminated How to combat these issues: Live in earthquake resistant areas/structures Corner studs § Stock up on water and food Portable restroom capabilities Review for Exam 1 Place specifically on a subduction zone where earthquake occurs: on interface  between 2 plates- MEGATHRUST 87,000 perished in Wenchuan earthquake If house is built on loose sediment is more likely to feel shaking Factors that cause greater intensity of earthquake shaking by buildings and  people:  Location to earthquake epicenter Magnitude of earthquake Where the structure is built (loose sediment Mercalli scale: amount of shaking felt by buildings and people 1811-1812 earthquakes- New Madrid earthquakes Biggest magnitude earthquakes are the most deadly: FALSE What tool do we use to figure out slip deficit- how big or where another  earthquake occurs? GPS We can use earthquake histories to determine probability of an earthquake  occurring at a particular time and particular place There are a number of activities/observations made before earthquakes: Shaking Gravity change Water table rose/fell before an earthquake Lights Abnormal animal behavior Dogs that barked Foreshocks and aftershocks are NOT earthquakes Hazards are associated with earthquakes: Landslides Fire Disease Structural issues, fault rupture Gravity measurements of surface deformation DOES NOT predict how active a  fault will be No accurate precursors Once initial shaking occurs, you have to get out of tall building- P waves What makes earthquakes especially destructive? Proximity to earthquake Poorly built structures Strong shaking How can you keep a building from shaking in an earthquake? Diagonal beams provide resistance to shearing that often causes buildings  to collapse Shearing- one beam gets shorter and one gets longer § Put in corner studs to improve stability In sediment, put pilings down into bedrock to stabilize Isolation system Building with rubber laminations to steel shim plates to allow the  building to withstand shearing § Inertial damping systems Allows building to sway around weighted material § Test Review: 9/12 Heat collisions made the young earth hot enough to melt its interior, allowing  heavy minerals (iron and nickel) to Sink to the inner earth a. 1. The sinking of heavier minerals led the Earth's interior to differentiate into a  _____, ______, and ______that then froze in place as the Earth cooled Core, mantle, crust a. 2. The Earth's inner core is under too much _____ to be liquid Pressure a. 3. Place tectonics: cold strong _____ float over warm weak _____ Lithosphere, asthenosphere a. 4. Tectonic plates slide past each other in 3 different ways Convergent, divergent, transform, subduction a. 5. Plate tectonics is driven by mantle convection (tractions), forces from gpe and  Slab pull a. 6. Age of continental crust: ____ are the oldest, coldest parts of Earth's outer rigid  shell Craton a. 7. Most earthquakes occur during _____ interface Wadati-benioff a. What occurs here is a mega-thrust b. 8. Could plate tectonics have influenced evolution? Yes a. 9. The earth's magnetic field arises from _________ Convection in the OUTER core; dynamo effect a. 10. Magnetic field arises from complex motion associated with convection within the  outer core called ____ Dynamo effect a. 11. What does this evidence (alternating lava flow) tell us about the Earth?  Magnetic pole reversal a. 12. Is there any evidence that mass extinctions will occur if we lose our magnetic  field? No a. 13. What happens at a mid-oceanic ridge? Divergent plate boundary in E Africa a. New oceanic crust is forming b. 14. Why do we need 4 satellites to get a position? To get longitude, latitude, time and height a. 15. Diamonds come from a rare type of volcanic eruption that brought them up from  great depths at great speed. What depths? Between 100 and 250 km a. 16. What is the main ingredient in the formation of Geodes? Water a. 17. Why are some of the largest earthquakes not the most deadly? Population of area a. Structure of buildings b. 18. Two processes describe the earthquake cycle: Elastic rebound theory: the crust deforms elastically (storing energy), then  rebounds (like a ball) a. Strike-slip behavior: a fault remains locked while energy builds, then slips  suddenly b. 19. Stick-slip behavior occurs because of friction: rough spots along the fault called  _____ prevent the fault from sliding until they're broken Asperities a. 20. 3 types of faults arise from 3 types of stress states: Normal fault: extensional a. Compressional b. Sheer stress c. 21. In addition to surface waves, earthquakes cause ___ that travel through the  interior of the earth Body waves a. 22. 2 types of body waves: P waves a. S waves b. Travel through interior of earth c. Can be used to locate an earthquake d. 23. 2 types of surface waves: Love waves a. Rayleigh waves b. Stronger  c. Travel along crust d. 24. Reconstruction of plate motions starting from 180 million years ago (the breakup  of supercontinent ____) Pangea a. 25. Mercalli scale- how people and buildings perceive shaking 26. Sediments in the Santa Rosa Basin greatly magnified the amplitude and duration  of shaking during the 1906 earthquake. What was the main reason? Loose sediments that weren't compacted together a. 27. Why do geoscientists use GPS? To measure surface movements a. 28. How do we know the Earth is not hollow? Lab experiments Show that rocks are too weak at high temperatures and  pressures in Earth a. Passage of seismic waves show no voids b. Magnitude of our gravity requires dense solid interior c. No physics to build without hollow planet  d. 29. Why is the seismic hazard high in central US? Large earthquakes in 1811 and 1812  a. 30. Seismic waves can be used to study the Earth's ____ Interior a. 31. 1976 Tangshan and 2010 Haiti earthquakes were amongst deadliest earthquakes  in past century Wenchuan a. Once surface waves arrive, poorly constructed buildings fall fast b. 32. Earthquake magnitude is logarithmic scale: for every whole # increase in  magnitude, the amplitude of shaking goes up by a factor of 10 33. In the real world Faults are generally steadily loaded a. Earthquakes don't occur at same stress level b. Earthquakes are not same magnitude and are NOT predictable c. We can use past earthquakes to estimate probability of future earthquakes d. 34. What do you do during an earthquake? If indoors in a well engineered building Stay indoors i. Drop to the ground; take cover under a table ii. Stay away from glass and anything that could fall iii. Use a doorway for shelter only if you know it's a strongly supported,  loadbearing doorway iv. DO NOT use elevators v. a. If indoors in a poorly constructed building Get out of building as fast as possible i. b. If outdoors Stay outdoors, move away from buildings i. c. Get off bridges that have potential to sway d. Shut down heavy machinery e. Stop surgeries f. 35. Diagonal beams provide resistance to SHEARING that often cause buildings to  collapse  36. Buildings can fall over due to  Liquefaction  a. 37. Approaching to reducing swaying of buildings: Diagonal beams provide resistance to shearing that often causes buildings  to collapse Shearing- one beam gets shorter and one gets longer i. a. Put in corner studs to improve stability b. In sediment, put pilings down into bedrock to stabilize c. Isolation system Building with rubber laminations to steel shim plates to allow the  building to withstand shearing i. d. Inertial damping systems Allows building to sway around weighted material i. e. 38. Earthquake early warning system Seismic waves travel slower than speed of light, we can detect earthquake  and communicate warning ahead of shaking a. 39. Forced resonance: when the ____ of external forces matches the natural ____ of a  structure Frequency, frequency a. 40. Week 4 (9/10, 9/12, 9/14) Monday, September 10, 2018 12:26 PM

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School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: Geoscience
Course: Geoscience
Professor: Ying Zhou
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Name: Earthquake Review
Description: These notes cover a little bit of the test and also specific earthquakes and different effects of earthquakes.
Uploaded: 09/26/2018
6 Pages 79 Views 63 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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