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University of Memphis - PHIL 1102-006 - Unit 2 PHIL Study Guide -

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University of Memphis - PHIL 1102-006 - Unit 2 PHIL Study Guide -

School: University of Memphis
Department: Philosophy
Course: Intro to Ethics
Professor: James Zubko
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: philosophy and Law and ethics
Name: Unit 2 PHIL Study Guide
Description: This is the study guide for Philosophy. It covers Kant, Ethics, Bentham, and Mill.
Uploaded: 09/27/2018
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background image Morgan Brunson
PHIL UNIT 2 STUDY GUIDE
NOVEMBER 1, 2018
Ethics   ● What is  deontological or duty­based ethics? an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves ● What is  consequentialist ethics? opposed to the rightness or wrongness of the consequences of those actions  ● What is  virtue ethics? person rather than action based: it looks at the  virtue or moral character of the person carrying  out an action ● What does the term  universal mean? Universal is what particular things have in common, namely characteristics or qualities. Ex: 
humanity
● What does it mean when something is objective? Subjective? Give an example of each Objective refers to objects and events in the world that anyone can, in principle, observe. 
Subjective refers to feelings and experiences that depend on the individual's own particular 
viewpoint and traits.
● Know what  “agent” means agency is the capacity of an entity (a person or other entity, human or any living being in general, 
or soul­consciousness in religion) to act in any given environment.
● Who were Kant, Bentham and Mill? What did each of them write? Kant­ GROUNDING FOR THE METAPHYSICS OF MORALS­ was a German  philosopher   who is a central figure in  modern philosophy . [18]  In his doctrine of  transcendental idealism , he  argued that  space time  and  causation  are mere  sensibilities ; " things­in­themselves " exist, but  their nature is unknowable. (deontological)
Bentham­ THE PRINCIPLE OF MORALS AND LEGISLATION­ He is primarily known today 
for his moral 
philosophy, especially his principle of utilitarianism, which evaluates actions based  upon their consequences.
Mill­ UTILITARIANISM­ 
Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in  opposition to unlimited state and social control. Mill was a proponent of  utilitarianism, an  ethical theory developed by his predecessor Jeremy Bentham.   Kant, Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals
 
● What kind of ethics is Kant’s ethics an example of? Deontological ethics ● What is the  goodwill and why is it important for Kant’s ethics? it is morally important to act on moral principles, and also to achieve the good results one aims at.
... Kant thinks of badness of will not as the exercise of a capacity but as the failure to exercise 
one's inner freedom – which is the capacity to act according to principles of reason
● What is the  categorical imperative (CI)? an unconditional moral obligation that is binding in all circumstances and is not dependent on a 
background image Morgan Brunson
PHIL UNIT 2 STUDY GUIDE
NOVEMBER 1, 2018
person's purpose ● What is the  humanity formulation of the CI? Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of
any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end
● What is the  kingdom of ends formulation of the CI? those capable of moral deliberation who must choose to act by laws that imply an absolute 
necessity
● What is a  maxim for Kant? A subjective state that guides action ● What is a  duty? Give an example something Kant would consider a duty. An obligatory action­ being honest and having integrity ● What is  negative freedom? What is positive freedom?  Negative freedom is freedom from external restraint on one's actions Positive freedom is the possession of the capacity to act upon one's free will ● What is an objection to Kant’s view that we have a duty not to lie? Keep in mind the example of  the potential murderer chasing someone who asks to hide in your house.
Sometimes you have to lie to protect someone and or yourself.
● Be able to discuss one of the examples that Kant gives in §1 of the Grounding and discuss  whether or not the action in the scenario is done according to duty or from duty ● What does the term  “autonomy” mean? Be able to discuss why it is important for Kant Autonomy is the ability to give oneself a law­ 
idea that is generally understood to refer to the capacity to be one's own person, to live one's life 
according to reasons and motives that are taken as one's own and not the product of manipulative 
or distorting external forces
  Jeremy Bentham, The Principles of Morals and Legislation
 
● According to Bentham, what is the foundation of all morality? The foundation of morality is the Greater Good, decisions should be based on which action that 
provides the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people.
● What is “ utility” for him? that property in any object, whereby it tends to produce benefit, advantage, pleasure, good, or 
happiness...or...to prevent the happening of mischief, pain, evil, or unhappiness
● What is the “ principle of utility?”  actions or behaviors are right in so far as they promote happiness or pleasure, wrong as they tend 
to produce unhappiness or pain

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School: University of Memphis
Department: Philosophy
Course: Intro to Ethics
Professor: James Zubko
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: philosophy and Law and ethics
Name: Unit 2 PHIL Study Guide
Description: This is the study guide for Philosophy. It covers Kant, Ethics, Bentham, and Mill.
Uploaded: 09/27/2018
3 Pages 55 Views 44 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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