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UGA / Psychology / PSYC 3230 / Will the persistent avoidance of situations that a person fears trigge

Will the persistent avoidance of situations that a person fears trigge

Will the persistent avoidance of situations that a person fears trigge


School: University of Georgia
Department: Psychology
Course: Psychopathology
Professor: Cyterski
Term: Fall 2018
Cost: 50
Name: PSYC Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This is the study guide for the second exam of the semester.
Uploaded: 09/27/2018
9 Pages 95 Views 7 Unlocks

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PSYC Exam 2 Study Guide 

Is the persistent avoidance of situations that a person fears will trigger another panic attack?


• The anxiety disorders category has been subdivided into 3 categories:  o anxiety disorders


o post-traumatic stress disorders

Key aspects of Anxiety:  

• Anxiety is aversive*  

• Anxiety is disruptive

• It has emotional, cognitive, physiological, and behavioral aspects, and these areas affect  each other.

Shuttle box example. 


• Fear – focused on present.

• Anxiety – focused on the future.

How do you develop phobias?


• Simple/ specific phobias: 

o Fear/anxiety of object/situation that leads to escape or avoidance.

o Irrational  

o 5 types: 

1.) Animal/insect/critters Don't forget about the age old question of What are the things to be considered in collecting data?

2.) Natural environment 

3.) Situational 

4.) Blood-Injury-Injections (B-I-I): 

▪ Has different type of response from people.  

5.) Other 

o Facts: 

▪ Females are more likely to have phobias than males.

What did freud believe about phobias?

Don't forget about the age old question of What cells are autorhythmic?

▪ 12.5% of people have a phobia

▪ Genetic  

• How do you develop phobias?: 

1. Direct experience: 

• classical conditioning.  

• O-H-Mower’s 2 factor theory: 

o Classical conditioning and negative reinforcement.

o Ex: the shuttle box.  

2. Indirect experience: Don't forget about the age old question of What is a simple definition of sustainability?
We also discuss several other topics like What is forced choice method of performance appraisal?

• Modeling

• Information transmission 

3. Seligman: preparedness theory of phobias: we have fears because our ancestors had  them and they are biologically hardwired in us.

4. Barlow’s triple vulnerability: 

1.) Biological vulnerability 

2.) Generalize psychological vulnerability 

3.) Specific psychological vulnerability  

• Treatment for phobias: 

o Exposure and response prevention.  

1.) Real world exposure: build hierarchy of fear and then expose them in the real world. 2.) systematic desensitization: build hierarchy of fear, teach relaxation, expose them by  imagination.  If you want to learn more check out What role does psychology play in criminal justice?

3.) flooding: exposing them to highest point of fear.

4.) modeling: vicarious exposure  

Panic attacks, panic disorders, agoraphobia: 

• Panic attacks: 

o It is categorized as an abrupt surge of intense fear/discomfort that peaks within  minutes.  

o Symptoms: hyperventilating, shaking, dizziness, fright, racing negative thoughts,  thinking that you are dying or things are never going to end. It may feel like  things are not real and you may feel numb. There’s a sense of losing control,  impeding doom/danger, and they fell like they need to escape.  

o Can be expected or unexpected.

• Panic disorder: Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three major changes that take place during the onset of adolescence?

o Have to have recurrent unexpected panic attacks followed by at least a 1 month  period of persistent concern about having another panic attack.  

o The frequency of panic attacks varies  

o Physiological conditions: mitral valve prolapse. The symptoms look similar to a  panic attack but have a different diagnosis. Beta-blocker drugs can treat this. o Facts about panic disorders: 

▪ They are more common in women (2-5 times) than men.  

▪ ~1.5-3.5% of the population may have a panic disorder.  

▪ Late adolescence to mid 30s  

▪ It is usually chronic and fluctuates

▪ Genetic  

• Agoraphobia: 

o When it begins it is usually within the first year of experiencing panic attacks.  o Anxiety about being in 2 or more places/situations from which escape may be  difficult or help might not be available in the event of having a panic  

attack/panic-like symptom.  

o It can spread to different locations due to the common stimuli of thoughts  concerning fear.

o Treatment: 

▪ Exposure and response prevention.  

▪ This procedure works for 75-80% of people.  

• Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD):  

o Excessive worry and anxiety occurring more days than not or at least 6 months  about a number of events and activities.  

o Symptoms: chronic muscle tension, agitated mentally, irritable, difficulty  sleeping. Don’t tolerate uncertainty well.  

o Facts: 4% prevalence. Tends to be a lifelong condition – 5-10% of people have  this.  

Continuation of generalized anxiety disorder: 

• They turn non-stressful events into stressful events.  

• They don’t feel like they have control.  

• Worry about a bunch of little things to not worry about big thing.

• Treatment:  

o Acceptance-based:  

▪ Become more in the present.  

▪ Sort of an exposure and response prevention idea.  

Acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder: 

o ASD: 

▪ Extreme stress reaction between 3 days to a month after the trauma.  ▪ If it is 1-2 days, then there is no diagnosis and the client is considered  “normal”.  

▪ After one month and symptoms persist then ASD develops into PTSD. ▪ People do not have to start with ASD to develop PTSD; the PTSD can be  late onset.  

• Symptoms: 

o Characteristic pattern of anxiety, intrusive symptoms (reexperiencing),  avoidance.

• Five things for diagnosis: 

1. Exposure to a trauma 

2. Intrusive symptoms 

3. Persistent avoidance 

4. Negative mood 

5. Hyperarousal/hypervigilance 

• Predisposing factors: 

o Being female.  

o Early separation from parents.

o Genetics.

o Having preexisting disorders.

o Tendency to take responsibility for events

o Emotion focused vs. problem focused coping

o Inversely correlated to your level of commitment

o No social support or sense of control.

o History of childhood trauma will increase the likelihood of PTSD developing for a  new trauma.

• Facts:  

o 60% of people who has ASD develop PTSD.  

o Prevalence: life time rate = 7%, 19% for combat veterans.

o Females PTSD mostly for sexual trauma.  

• Therapy:  

o Exposure and response prevention.

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): 

• Recurrent obsessions and compulsions that are extreme and time consuming or that  cause marked distress/impairment.  

• Comorbidity: 

o Major depression and other anxiety disorders.  

o 35-50% with turrets syndrome have OCD.  

• Facts: 

o Lifetime prevalence of 2.5%.  

o Children and adolescence have can it and this is often where the disorder begins.  o The onset is gradual.  

o For most it is chronic but fluctuating.

• Treatment: 

o Exposure and response prevention.  

• Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD): 

o A type of OCD that involves an obsession with checking.  

o Preoccupation with an imagined or exaggerated defect in appearance that is  either not observable or appears minor to others.  

o Steven Hayes article: 

▪ Pg. 1154: Experiential avoidance (EA): the phenomenon that occurs when  a person is unwilling to remain in contact with particular private  

experiences (bodily sensations, emotions, thought, memories, or  

behavioral predispositions) and take steps to alter their form or  

frequency of these events and the contexts that occasion them.

▪ Pg. 1163: EA working examples. He wants us to check this page of the  article out on our own and be familiar with it.  

Mood Disorders and suicide: 

• Diagnostic categories: 

o Major depressive disorder (MDD): 

▪ Guidelines:

• Five symptoms of depression present during the same two-week period and at least one of the symptoms is either depressed  

mood or decrease in interest/pleasure of activities.

▪ Symptoms: 

• Depressed mood most of the day nearly every day.

• Loss of interest/pleasure in all/almost all activities. Things aren’t  as enjoyable.

• Weight fluctuations either increasing or decreasing.

• Sleep changes either increasing or decreasing. Not getting out of  bed or can’t fall asleep.

• Changes in motor activities increasing or decreasing. 

• Fatigues or loss of energy nearly every day.

• Feeling of worthlessness or excessive/inappropriate/unnecessary  guilt.

• Diminished ability to concentrate or indecisive nearly every day.  • Recurrent thought of death or suicidal ideation.  

▪ Facts: 

• Comorbid with a lot of disorder, mainly anxiety and physiological  disorders.  

• Variable course, some clustered, some separated by years.  

• The more episodes, the more prone you are to have more.  

• Genetic  

o Persistent depressive disorder (PDD): 

▪ Chronically low mood that’s present most days or more days than not for  2 years.  

▪ 2 terms fit here: 

• MDD for 2 years becomes PDD (a newer term).

• Dysthymia = chronic low mood that doesn’t meet criteria for MDD  (an older term).

o Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: 

▪ Severe form of premenstrual mood change that affect 3-8% of women. o Disruptive mood regulation disorder: 

▪ Recurrent temper outbursts that occur 3 or more times per week.  ▪ Diagnosis should not be made before age 6 or after age 18.

▪ Has to be present for at least 12 months.

▪ Symptoms have to be present before age 10.

o Bipolar I Disorder: 

▪ Manic episode: 

• Distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated,  

expansive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently  

increased goal-oriented activity or energy lasting at least one  


He wants us to read Hayes article – especially the last paragraph, first column.

Part B of manic episodes:  

• During the period of mood disturbance, three or more of the following symptoms must  be present:  

o 1.) Inflated self-esteem/grandiosity.  

o 2.) Decreased need for sleep.  

o 3.) More talkative than usual or feels a pressure to keep talking.  

o 4.) Flight of ideas or feeling like thoughts are racing.

o 5.) Distractibility.  

• Symptoms: 

o Increase in goal directed activity or motor agitation.  

o Excessive involvement of pleasurable activities that have high potential for  painful consequences.  

• Treatment/medication: 

o Lithium carbonate.  

• Problems:  

o You have to find a good range with the medication.

o People are not adherent to it

• Largely biologically driven.

Bipolar I disorder: 

• Manic episodes are present

• There’s the occurrence of one or more manic episodes and it may be preceded or  followed by a hypomanic or depressive episode

o Hypomanic is mania, but not as extreme. Its typically less intense, but just a  shorter duration. 4 days long usually.

Bipolar II disorder: 

• Hypomanic and at least one lifetime MDD episode.

Cyclothymic disorder:  

• For the past 2 years there have been numerous periods of manic/hypomanic symptoms  that didn’t meet criteria for hypomanic and depressive symptoms do not meet criteria  for MDD.  

• Symptoms have to be present at least half of the time during the 2 years and there can’t  be an absence of the symptoms for longer than 2 months during the 2 years.  • Chronic and less intense than bipolar disorder.  

Facts (aimed toward bipolar I): 

• Lifetime prevalence 1%, much less frequent than MDD.

• Age of onset: 18-20 years old.

• Frequency of episode varies and could be yearly or multiple times per year.

o Rapid cycling  

• Episodes of manic are shorter than the ones seen in MDD and they tend to come on and  end more abruptly than seen in MDD.

• 4-24% more likely to have it if you have a 1st relative with it.

Depression theorists/psychological/behavioral therapies: 

• For these you want to know the person, their theory, the application of the theory, and  the therapy used.  

• Ferster: 

o Theory: 

▪ Disrupted systems for obtaining reinforcement  

▪ Something happens that interrupts your behavioral repertoire that  

results in a behavioral deficit that can lead to purposelessness and  


o Application: 

▪ Ex: when the last kid of the family goes off to college, parents can often  feel purposelessness. To solve this feeling they get new friends.  

o Treatment: to find something new to start. Ex: a hobby, job, dating. You want it  to be positive and desirable.

• Seligman: 

o Theory: 

▪ Learned helplessness theory.

▪ Learning that you have no control over the aversive events in their life o Application: 

▪ He worked with dogs, put them in a cage and shocked them. There was  nothing that the dog could do. It would eventually lay down and  

give/take the shock.  

▪ This is training learned helplessness.  

▪ Displaying it would be whenever they do have a choice, they think that  they don’t.  

o Causes: 

▪ Work abuse/hostile work environment, any abuse, repeated academic  failures.

o Treatment:  

▪ Shaping – having controlled response, things to overcome/control the  situation.  

• Ex: skill training, modeling, support.  

▪ If you never had control in the first place, you are less likely to displayed  controlled behavior. If you started off with controlled behavior, this acts  as an immunization.

• Having a history of making controlled responses in aversive  

situations “immunizes” someone against learned helplessness

o Attributional reformulation of the learned helplessness theory: 

▪ 3 sets of these attributions: 

• How you assign causality for why something occurred.

1.) Internal vs. external:  

▪ Me/not me

▪ Is it something about me vs. not me.  

2.) Stable vs. unstable:

▪ Time

▪ It’s always going to be this way vs. things will  


3.) Global vs. specific:

▪ Scope

▪ It’s this way in all areas of life vs. it’s this way in this  

area of life

• The first column will lead to depression more than the second  


• Depressed people think like the first column, and non-depressed  

people think like the second column.

o Therapy: 

▪ You want to push the person toward the right set of attributions.

• Rehm: 

o Theory: 

▪ Self-control theory of depression

▪ 3 parts: 

• Self-monitoring: 

o Problem for depressed people: 

▪ They focus on the negative/not positive.  

▪ They tend to think about short term and not long

term consequences.  

▪ Ex: They will spend money instead of saving it.

o Solutions: 

▪ Attend to the positive = positive tracking

▪ Attend to the long-term consequences

▪ Self-evaluations: 

o Problem: 

▪ Set themselves to a high criterion for  

reinforcement. An unattainable goal.

o Solution: 

▪ Set obtainable goals.

• Self-reinforcement: 

o Problem:  

▪ Too little self-reinforcement, too much self


o Solution: 

▪ Increase self-reinforcement

▪ Decreased self-punishment.

▪ A lot of this is how we talk to ourselves.

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