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TULANE / Psychology / PSYC 3200 / The brain is made up of how many cells?

The brain is made up of how many cells?

The brain is made up of how many cells?

Description

School: Tulane University
Department: Psychology
Course: Educational Psychology
Professor: Sarah grey
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: educationalpsychology, development, intelligence, progression, Identity, personality, Aggression, and temperament
Cost: 50
Name: Educational Psych Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Covering everything that we have read and discussed since the first day of class
Uploaded: 09/27/2018
13 Pages 53 Views 2 Unlocks
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Teaching as Evidence-Based Practice


The brain is made up of how many cells?



Evidence Based Practice 

• Instructional methods based on research

o Validity/effectiveness of True/False tests?

• Applying education psychology

o Nature of learning

o Motivating students to learn

o Assessment of student progress

o General developmental trends (developmentally appropriate practices) o Individual diversity

Understanding and Interpreting Research Findings 

• Quantitative 

• Numerical data

• Descriptive Studies


What are the stages of cognitive development?



• A census is a description of the way things are

• Correlational Studies

• Used for prediction  

• Experimental Studies

• Quasi-experimental Studies

• Qualitative 

• Non-numerical data

▪ Interview responses

▪ Observations

▪ Case studies

• In-depth look at certain characteristics or behaviors

• Essentially descriptive

▪ “How things are”

▪ Case studies  

• Mixed Method Studies


Why students drop out?



• Combine elements from qualitative and quantitative research

• Seek to understand both how things are and why they might be that way Collecting Data and Drawing Conclusions

Assessing Student Achievement 

• Collecting data about student learning Don't forget about the age old question of What will be used for the sampling frame?

• Formal measures

o i.e. tests, quizzes If you want to learn more check out What are the consequences of floating-point systems?
Don't forget about the age old question of Whose livelihood most threatened by the increase # of chinese immigrant workers?

• Informal measures

o i.e. comments, habits, questions, body language, work habits, interactions  with friends

Action Research 

• Systematic Study in one’s own school

o Step 1: identify area of focus

o Step 2: collect data

o Step 3: analyze & interpret

o Step 4: create an action plan for how to use your new data

Developing as a Teacher 

Growing as a Professional If you want to learn more check out The rate at which an organism consumes oxygen while at rest with an empty stomach under normal temperature and moisture conditions. what is it?

• Keep up to date on research findings and new innovations in education • Learn as much as you can about your subject

• Learn as much as you can about specific strategies for teaching your particular  subject matter

• Learn as much as you can about the culture(s) of the community in which you are  teaching

• Continually reflect and critically examine your assumptions, inferences, and  practices

• Communicate and collaborate with colleagues We also discuss several other topics like How do we gain and lose water?

• Believe that you can make a difference in students’ lives (self-efficacy) Human/Cognitive/Linguistic Development

Development We also discuss several other topics like What is the most basic microeconomic unit?

• General Principles

o Development occurs in spurts and plateaus

o Heredity and environment interact

▪ Maturation: genetically programmed aspects of development

Environmental Influence: Bio-ecological Systems Theory 

• Brofenbrenner’s theory 

• “Layers” of environment affect development

o Family

o Neighborhood/community

o State/province and country

▪ Self

▪ Microsystem (immediate environment)

▪ Mesosystem (connections between systems)

▪ Exosystem (indirect environment)

▪ Macrosystem (social and cultural values)

▪ Chronosystem (changes over time)

The Role of the Brain

The Brain is Made of Several Trillion Cells

• Neurons

o Communicate across synapses via release of neurotransmitters

• Cells are grouped for special functions

o Glial cells: Enhance the functioning of neurons 

▪ They “keep the brain going”

▪ They create the myelin sheaths that cover the axons, speeding along  the movement of information throughout the brain

• Multiple sclerosis is one disease in which the deteriorating  

myelin sheath is a key symptom

The Brain and Learning 

• All parts of the brain are specialized and work in harmony  

• Learning involves changes in neurons, glial cells, and synapses

• Changes in the brain enable development of thought processes

o Synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning (axon and dendrite pruning) o Myelination (key for brain development)

• The brain is adaptable throughout life

o Neural Plasticity 

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Jean Piaget, Swiss psychologist & biologist 

• Became more of a child psychologist when he began to study his own children • He noticed age-related similarities in problem-solving strengths and weaknesses o Systematic study via clinical interview methods  

• Basic Assumption

o Children are active, motivated learners

o Children construct knowledge from experience

• Children build on their existing or prior knowledge

o Assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration 

1. The schema of a dog trying to fit a cow, leads to accommodation and  then equilibrium

2. Assimilation: new knowledge fitting into a pre-existing understanding 3. Accommodation: new knowledge which does not yet fit must be  accommodated, this leads to disequilibrium

4. Your schema must be adjusted with accommodation of new  

knowledge

5. After accommodation and understanding is reached, so is equilibrium

Stages of Cognitive Development 

• Piaget proposed that children move through four “stages” 

o Hierarchically organized and qualitatively different stages

• Sensorimotor Stage ~Birth-2 years

o Begins with reflexes and sensorimotor schemes (putting things in one’s  mouth) at birth

o Object permanence ~8 months

o Symbolic representation ~24 months

• Preoperational Stage ~2-7 years

o Limited mental manipulation (operations inside one’s head)

▪ Preoperational egocentrism

▪ Centration/lack of centration

• Centration: focusing on a singular characteristic

• Concrete Operations Stage ~7-12 years

o Some mental manipulation & logical thought

▪ Can conserve

▪ Can reverse operations

• Allows for the teaching of mathematics

o Difficulty with abstract and counterfactual ideas

• Formal Operations Stage (not necessarily occurring in every culture, not universally  reached) ~12+ years

o Abstract and scientific reasoning, hypothetical ideas, contrary-to-fact ideas o Idealism  

▪ Formal operational egocentrism

• The adolescent that thinks they are super cool and invincible  

and have it “figured out”

• Spotlight effect

Critiquing Piaget 

• Research supports sequences

• Research does not support ages

• Piaget claimed 8 months was the age for object permanence, though some believe it is  earlier than that

• Knowledge, experience, and culture affect reasoning abilities

• Cognitive development may not be universally stage-like

• Culture plays an important role

Vygotsky’s Theory

Lev Vygotsky’s Theory (1896-1934) 

• Examined children performing tasks with adults

Sociocultural Theory 

• Adults convey cultural interpretations through informal interactions and formal  schooling

• Every culture passes along physical cognitive tools

• Role of language and its importance in the passing on of information o Thought and language become increasingly interdependent 

▪ Language and thought are separate at birth

▪ Self-talk (a child talking to themselves to help them do something  around young elementary age)

▪ Inner speech (though being internalized when you’re older)

• Zone of Proximal Development

o Challenging tasks promote cognitive growth

o What is known ???? things unknown but are possible with adult guidance  (ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT) ???? what isn’t known

o In the zone of proximal development, the experienced help the inexperienced  in a process called scaffolding

o Scaffolding: a guided learning experience where the learner is not given  everything, but helped by others to figure it out

Critiquing Vygotsky 

• The theory has been difficult to test and either verify or disprove • Principles may not be universal to all cultures

Language Development

• Children use what they hear to construct their own understanding of language o Phonology: understanding different sounds 

o Semantics 

o Syntax: grammatical rules that govern the rules of sentences 

▪ Cat in the hat isn’t the same at hat in the cat 

o Pragmatics: rules that govern language in a social context 

▪ Tone, taking turns in conversation, sarcasm 

o Metalinguistic awareness: recognizing the figurative nature of words ▪ Nonliteral meaning of proverbs

• “It’s raining cats and dogs”

• Amelia Bedelia

▪ Symbolism in poems and literature

o Diversity

▪ Cultural differences in pronunciations, accents

Personality and Social Development

Personality Development 

• Factors influencing personality

o Biological

▪ Temperament

o Environmental

▪ Family dynamics

▪ Cultural expectations and socializations

• Temperament

o Easy 40% of children

o Slow-to-warm up 15%

o Difficult 10%

• Family Dynamics

o Early attachment

▪ Secure

▪ Insecure/resistant

▪ Insecure/avoidant

▪ Disorganized/disoriented

• Parenting Styles 

o Authoritative: High responsiveness, high demandingness

o Permissive: High responsiveness, low demandingness

o Rejecting/Neglecting: Low responsiveness, low demandingness o Authoritarian: Low responsiveness, high demandingness

• Cultural Expectations & Socialization

o Children learn behaviors and belief systems of the cultural or social group of  which they are a part

o Cultures shock occurs when these value systems conflict

• Personality Traits: “The Big 5”

o OCEAN

o O.penness C.onscientiousness E.xtraversion A.greeableness N.euroticism

Sense of Self 

• Aspects of Sense of Self

o Self-concept: Who am I?

o Self-esteem: Am I good enough?

• Factors Influencing Sense of Self

o Previous performance

▪ Self-efficacy based on success and failure

o Behaviors of others

▪ Comparison of self with peers

▪ Others’ expectations and feedback

o Group memberships and achievements

Developmental Progression 

• Childhood

• Children describe themselves in terms of physical, concrete characteristics  • Positive sense of self, high self-efficacy  

• Increasing awareness of strengths and weaknesses

• Early adolescence

• Describe themselves with abstract traits  

• Self-esteem often drops, especially in girls

• Personal fable/Spotlight effect (“Everyone is looking at me!”)

• Late adolescence

• Gradual increase in self-esteem  

• Development of multifaceted sense of self, identity

o Identify w/ glee club, football, play an instrument, be an introvert or  extrovert

Erikson: Stages of Psychosocial Development

• In each stage of life, there is a crisis one must overcome to properly develop  psychosocially. If a person does not reach the right-side milestones, trust, autonomy,  etc., they will be left with the issues of mistrust, shame and doubt, etc. • Trust vs. mistrust (infancy)  

• Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (toddler)  

• Initiative vs. guilt (preschool)  

• Industry vs. inferiority (elementary school)  

• Identity vs. role confusion (adolescence)

James Marcia’s Identity Status 

2 factors to describe all 4 Identity Styles: exploration and commitment • Foreclosure: High commitment, low exploration

• Achievement: High commitment, high exploration

• Diffusion: Low commitment, low exploration, “I don’t care, I dunno” • Moratorium: Low commitment, high exploration, changes majors 3-4 times

Diversity in Development 

• Gender: tends to reflect stereotypes

o Boys may have higher self-esteem

• Culture and ethnicity

o Group vs. individual identity  

o Ethnic identity

• Brain development  

o Related to risk-taking, pleasure-seeking, impulse control 

Moral and Prosocial Behavior 

• Prosocial behavior

o Giving blood, doing things that help others and not yourself

• Morality  

o The social rules of morality

Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development 

• The Heinz Dilemma 

o A man’s wife is going to die if she doesn’t get an unreasonably high-priced  drug to save her. He gets half the money and asks the owner of the drug if he  could pay him later and he says no. Should he a) not steal the drug, b) steal the  drug and accept the prison sentence, c) steal the drug and not go to prison  because it would be unfair.

o If you chose A: the pre-conventional stage

o If you chose B: the conventional stage

o If you chose C: the post-conventional stage

o Post-conventional: an awareness of the purpose of rules and of the fact that  they are not/should not be black-and-white.

Group Differences

- Consistently observed differences (averages) between groups

- There is more variability within groups than between them

Cultural and Ethnic Differences/Navigating Different Cultures 

• Culture and ethnicity can overlap, but don’t have to, and can both vary in  innumerable ways

• Acculturation: the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems  from blending between cultures

• Cultural mismatch: two people meet, one bows and one puts a hand out to shake • Culture shock

Examples of Diversity 

• Talkativeness and verbal assertiveness

• Eye contact, some cultures it shows respect, some it shows dominance • Personal space

• Responding to questions

• Public vs. private performance

o You may be extremely out going at home, yet quiet in school

• Cooperation vs. competition/collectivist vs. individualistic

• Family relationships and expectations

o Some permissive, some authoritative etc.

o Different shapes of family

▪ Extended family, single parents, divorced, same-sex etc.

• Conceptions of time: when an American says 12(ish) it may be different from  someone else saying 12.

• Worldviews

o In children’s books, some cultures dress animals in the books like humans,  some cultures like the Native Americans never did this.

Gender Differences

The Origins of Gender Differences 

• Hereditary factors  

o Hormones

o Brain differences  

• Environmental factors  

o Cultural beliefs and expectations influence development of gender schemas 

Physical Activity & Motor Skills 

• Girls

• Better fine motor skills before puberty

• Boys

o Predisposed to be more active

o Biological advantage in height and strength

Cognitive & Academic Abilities 

• Similar on tests of general intelligence

• Girls 

• Better at some verbal tasks 

• Higher grades in school 

• Boys 

• Better at visual-spatial tasks & mathematical problem solving 

Motivation in Academic Activities 

• Girls  

• More engaged

• More motivated to do well in school and go to college

• Boys

• More willing to take academic challenges and risks

• Less concerned about failure

Sense of Self 

• Self-worth similar until puberty

• Consistent with stereotypes

• Boys overestimate abilities; girls underestimate

Peer Relationships & Interpersonal Understandings

Role of Peers 

• Arena for learning & practicing social, physical, and cognitive skills  • Provide companionship & emotional support

o Especially when relationships with parents become distant

• Can influence behavior  

o Peer influence can be good and bad (“contagion”)  

o Self-socialization also occurs

▪ Pressure to adapt to what your friends do/are good at

Sociometric Status (Coie & Dodge) 

2 factors to describe all 4 Levels of Sociometric Status: Least and Most Liked as voted by  a surveyed student body

• Popular: High most liked, low least liked

• Controversial: High most liked, high least liked

• Rejected: Low most liked, high least liked

• Neglected: Low most liked, high least liked

• Middle is considered “average”

Social Cognition 

• Emotional Intelligence  

• Perspective-taking skills  

o May be partly “prewired”:  

▪ Mirror neurons 

o Develop along with theory of mind

• Testing Children’s Theory of Mind (understand TofM concept fully)  o The Smarties task

o Most 3-year-olds answer wrong

o The Sally-Anne task (false-belief)

• Social Information Processing

o Paying attention to relevant behaviors in social settings  

o Interpreting others’ actions  

o Identifying social goals

• Aggression

o Actions intended to harm others  

o Physical  

o Psychological  

▪ Relational

o Aggression may be  

▪ Proactive  

▪ Reactive  

▪ Targeted consistently toward particular individuals 

• Factors Influencing Aggression

o Genetic predisposition  

o Poor perspective-taking skills  

o Misinterpretation of social cues  

▪ Hostile attribution bias  

o Self-serving goals  

o Ineffective social problem-solving strategies  

o Beliefs about appropriateness and effectiveness of aggression

Interpersonal Behaviors 

• Girls

o More likely to engage in nonphysical aggression, such as cyber bullying o More intimate friendships  

o More cooperative, affiliative

o Closer attention to emotions, nonverbal cues

• Boys  

• More physically aggressive, especially unprovoked  

• Larger playgroups  

• More competitive

Classroom Behaviors 

• Boys

o More likely to misbehave  

o More participatory  

• Girls  

o Less likely to volunteer answers & ask questions  

o More likely to lead in same-sex groups than in mixed groups

Career Aspirations 

• Boys historically more ambitious

o but girls today are also ambitious  

• Both boys & girls tend toward stereotypical goals

Socioeconomic Differences

Socioeconomic status (SES) 

• Income

• Parents’ occupations

• Parents’ education levels

Challenges of Poverty (keep in mind Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs) • Poor nutrition and health  

o Hurts brain development (myelin sheath), hurts education

• Inadequate housing and frequent moves

• Exposure to toxins  

• Unhealthy social environments

o Safety  

• Emotional stress (toxic stress)

o Toxic stress, unlike regular stress, is bad for brain development ▪ Prefrontal cortex is less developed leading to poor impulse control etc. • Gaps in knowledge

o Uneducated parents ???? struggle to scaffold 

• Lower quality schools

o Less expensive residential areas often lead to less well-funded  

schools/programs

o Low quality books, classrooms, teachers

o Large class sizes

Fostering Resilience 

• Protective factors

o Caring relationships (parents, coach, uncle, pastor, neighbor, sister) o High positive expectations (people that show they believe in the child’s  potential, regardless of their circumstances)

o Opportunities for participation

Students at Risk

Characteristics of Students at Risk 

• History of academic failure

• Emotional and behavioral problem

• Lack of psychological attachment to school

• Increasing disengagement with school

Why Students Drop Out 

• Little family or peer encouragement

• Extenuating life circumstances (family death, teen pregnancy)

• Dissatisfaction of school

• Pessimism about their ability

• Lack of teacher support

Creating Inclusive and Engaging Classroom Environments 

• Identify your own cultural lens and biases

• Identify students at risk as early as possible

• Encourage and facilitate identification with school

• Work hard to break down stereotypes  

o Girls AREN’T bad at math, boys are just better on average, though many girls  are very good at math

• Use curriculum materials that represent in counter-stereotypical behaviors • Monitor yourself to see whether you are unintentionally treating students in ways that  limit learning opportunities

When White Men Can’t Do Math 

• Stereotype threat

Individual Differences and Special Education Needs

Key Definitions 

• Individual differences  

• Students with special needs

o Differentiated instruction i.e. textbooks in braille

INTELLIGENCE:

Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory 

• Single pervasive reasoning ability (g)

• Multiple specific factors comprise g

Cattell-Horn Theory of Intelligence 

• Fluid intelligence

o Capacity to think logically and solve problems in novel situations,  independent of acquired knowledge

• Crystallized intelligence

o “Peripatetic” (traveling from place to place)

• Fluid + crystallized = g

Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of Cognitive Abilities 

• Carroll broke it down into 3 strata

1. g

2. Broad

3. Narrow

Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences 

1. Music smart (musical)

2. Body smart (bodily-kinesthetic)

3. People smart (interpersonal)

4. Word smart (verbal-linguistic)

5. Logic smart (logical-mathematical)

6. Nature smart (naturalistic)

7. Self smart (intrapersonal)

8. Picture smart (visual-spatial)

Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory 

1. Intelligences

a. Analytical

b. Creative

c. Practical

• 3 interrelated relevant factors:

o Environmental context can influence your types of intelligence o Relevance to Prior experiences also can  

o Cognitive processes can as well

Measuring Intelligence 

• Intelligence tests

o IQ score, based on everyone else that has taken the test

IQ and School Achievement 

• Children with higher IQ scores

o Higher course grades

o Higher scores on achievement tests

o Complete more years of education

• Nature VS Nurture

COGNITIVE STYLES AND DISPOSITIONS: Do learning styles exist?

Research on Learning Styles 

• Learning styles are basically just preferences

• No empirical evidence

• All students have differences in ability, interest and background knowledge - There is no evidence to support a logical/creative and left/right split in the brain

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