HIST 2111 Midterm Study Guide
Date of Exam: Tuesday, October 2, 2018
Part 1: Terms: For the first part of your exam you will be asked to write 5 paragraph-length responses to the terms given. You will be given 7 of 24 given terms. You will choose 5 of those terms to write about. The answers should draw on the course readings, as well as lectures. Below I have outlined 5 ideas for paragraph responses for 5 of the terms given on the study guide from ELC. Please let me know if you have any questions.
Tips on answering this format of long answer responses:
* Define the term you have chosen: Make sure to answer the where, when, and who of the term * Show awareness of how scholars and historians may have understood the idea in different ways; make the reader aware of the perspective(s) you will be approaching this historical content * Focus on the nuances of the term and time period (define and recognize the characteristics revolving around the term and the time period and investigate how this term might connect or bridge history through a transition of two periods)
* Make sure to close off the response by hitting on 1-2 broader themes of history (In this class specifically, we have been investigating agriculture, environment, gender roles, technology, political systems, culture, sedentary lifestyles, etc…)
* Overall, each answer should be between 5-7 sentences. Try to make it as concise but thorough as possible!
* Feel free to email me any responses you might have practiced and I can help review them for feedback if you want!
1. Silver trade: The early Spanish and English migratory expeditions of the 16th and 17th centuries were concentrated around the extraction of silver and gold from the New World. The first of many attempted English settlements, Jamestown, also had a port known as the “Pirate’s Nest”, the port used for getting silver and gold from the Spanish of the area. Prior to English settlement however, in 1485 China established silver as the main form of currency rather than paper currency. This foreshadows how the Spanish and English quest for silver and gold ended up stringing together East Asia to the New World, a structure for what some historians claim was the First Global Economy. With European powers depending on silver and East Asian trade for economic survival, the trade of silver quickly transferred the global economy and intercontinental trade systems.
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2. C-B-S: CBS Agriculture was an acronym for the “corn, beans, and squash” agriculture developed in early Mississippian culture. These three agricultural products were known as the three sisters of the New World in Native American society. Each product contributed to a mutualistic relationship with the other two and thus made cultivation of these products as well as dependability of the agricultural system much more sustainable. Additionally, with the American Bottom as well as Cahokian Empires, the increase of already large populations demanded high caloric agriculture to support the society. CBS Agriculture helped maintain many early Native American societies, especially these more populated groups, and caused agriculture to grow into a more plant-nurturing and gardening culture. If you want to learn more check out ua 2053
3. Indenture: In the early 1600s, European colonies became major exporters of Tobacco to England and other European countries. Specifically in Virginia, merchants, traders, and settlers were drawn by this expanding economy. Indentured servants were critical to the growth of this economic system as they were employed to work in the New World. They signed contracts binding them to work given that they got to migrate to the Americas. Following their contract, indentured (mostly all white) servants were eventually granted freedom and they then became landowners. With both slaves and indentured servants, the New World economy expanded and thus the first large scale economic system gained it’s footing.
4. La Entrada: Hernando de Soto was one of the first Spanish Invaders of North America. In 1543, he traveled to Mexico in search of precious metals or extractable wealth, neither of which he found. Upon entering Florida, however, he found a profitable land with potential economic success. La Entrada, meaning entrance, was de Soto’s grand transformation of the American south. This transformation included the trading of Native American slaves, which was only the beginning of a historically long period of slave culture. De Soto’s conquest seized once European disease killed him, marking his death as La Salida, meaning exit.
5. The nation-state: Following the Hundred Years’ War, a series of military conflicts between England and France cause increased nationalism between 1337 and 1453. Monarchs began to exert dominance over nobility, and the political system of city-states and landed empires converged to a nation-state format. The European Nation-State was a political structure in which both landed empires and city-states merge to combine the characteristics of a nation state. Characteristics include a monopoly on violence, undisputed legal authority, as well as a direct relationship between the ruler and their subjects. Socially, the nation-state held concessions to representative bodies meaning the nobility were at the basis of the political center. Culturally, nation-states had a shared language and culture (giving rise to public Don't forget about the age old question of ethics midterm exam
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education), a sense of belonging and willingness to die for the state (driving the military force), and an invention of the minority group as a problem in society.
I have outlined a Timeline of all the dates up to this exam that have been discussed in class lectures as well as the weekly reading. These are important dates that you can reference or use to help frame your responses to the test! Don't forget about the age old question of define apophenia
Timeline of Events:
10000 bce : Holocene Era
1050: Cahokia’s “big bang” (this caused the population to grow almost 500%) 1300: Collapse of Cahokia
1325: Tenochtitlán is founded
1325: Crow Creek Massacre
1337-1453: The Hundred Years’ War (series of military conflicts between England and France 1485: China (the wealthiest and largest economy of the time) converts from paper currency to silver currency with the use of the single whip tax
1492: Spanish complete the Reconquista, Christopher Columbus sails west, marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella, Muslim Moors and Iberian Jews are expelled from Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella 1500s: Portuguese arrive to Central and West Africa in search of slaves for the New World 1502: Bartolomé de Las Casas travels to the New World
1513: Juan Ponce de León invades Florida in search of “wealth and slaves”
1516: Protestant Reformation begins in England
1519: Hernán Cortés invades Mexico
1520: Cortés sieges and conquers the Aztecs
1528: Pánfilo de Narváez conquers the Gulf Coast
1540s: Europe heads to North America (using de Soto as a key model for their expeditions) 1543: Hernando de Soto’s expedition to Mexico, beginning his conquest of the whole Southeast 1587: John White lands on Roanoke Island (NC), abandoned due to supply shortage and return to England
1588: The Spanish Armada If you want to learn more check out personal selling notes
1590: John White sails for Roanoke with 4 vessel ships to discover the “Lost Colony” 1606: The Virginia Company is established
1607: Settlers first arrive to Jamestown; Virginia is established
1609-1610: “starving time” in Jamestown (resulting in mass starvation and death)
1610: Santa Fe was established (this was the first permanent European settlement in the Southwest)
1614: The Marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, ending warfare
1617: The first tobacco shipment is sent back to England from Virginia
1619: The House of Burgesses is established by the Virginia Company; Anthony Johnson brought to Virginia by Dutch, a Dutch slave ship sells 20 Africans to the colonists of Virginia marking a beginning to Southern slavery
1620: The first colonies in New England are established; Plymouth Colony established 1621: The Netherlands charter the Dutch West India Company. They also establish colonies in North America, the Caribbean, ad Africa
1622: Powhatan dies, succeeded by Opechancanough
1622: Opechancanough attacks Jamestown (400 dead), results in brutal English retaliation 1625: New Amsterdam is formed
1630-1640: The Great Migration of Puritans to New England
1630: Massachusetts Bay Colony established
1634: Protestant and Catholic settlers arrive in Maryland
1634: Anne Hutchinson arrives in Boston
1636-37: Pequot War/Mystic River Massacre (called for by John Winthrop, English v. Pequot) 1638: Hutchinson banished from the colony by Winthrop
1640s: British colonists in the Caribbean begin to cultivate sugar
1651: The Navigation Act (compels merchants to ship goods directly to England on English ships)
1660s: New laws in English colonies like Virginia and Barbados are enacted making people of African descent enslaved for life (along with many other dehumanizing and constricting laws minimizing freedom of enslaved persons)
1670: Charleston is established
1675-6: King Philip’s War (a “pan-Indian uprising against… New England colonies”) 1676: Bacon’s Rebellion
1688-1689: Glorious Revolution (rebellion against English authorities)
I will update this list as the course continues throughout the semester. By the final exam, this list should include some significant dates to help you put this course in context of everything! :) Good Luck!!!