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School: University of Alabama at Birmingham
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Bridgett kennedy
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Intro to Psychology and Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Intro to Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide WITH ANSWER KEY
Description: This is a comprehensive study guide for Exam 1. This version fixed a few mistakes I found in the original.
Uploaded: 09/29/2018
35 Pages 27 Views 13 Unlocks
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Intro to Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide (Answer Key at the end)


What psychology principle does Thorndike’s Law of effect establish?



1. Which of the following best describes Psychology as a whole? a. The study social interaction

b. The study how the brain functions

c. The study of human behavior

d. The study of environmental influence on humans

2. What psychology principle does Thorndike’s Law of effect establish? a. Reflex reaction

b. Positive reinforcement

c. Negative reinforcement

d. Both B&C

e. All of the above

3. What is the best predictor of future behavior?

a. Present behavior

b. Past behavior

c. Both A&B

d. None of the above

4. Which of the following is not a step of the scientific method? a. Report results

b. Analyze the data

c. Focus on a theory

d. State a hypothesis

e. None of the above

5. Which of the following is not a subdivision of psychology? a. Cognitive Psychology


What is the primary contributor to runner’s high?



b. Connective Psychology

c. Cultural Psychology

d. Individual Psychology

e. None of the above

6. What psychological school of thought is associated with the belief that  development and behavior is stimulated by a compulsion to improve quality  of life?

a. Behaviorism

b. Structuralism

c. Humanism

d. Functionalism

e. None of the above

7. What psychological school of thought is associated with the belief that  psychology should only study observable events?

a. Cognitive psychology

b. Behaviorism

c. Gestalt

d. Psychoanalytic

e. None of the above

8. What psychological school of thought is associated with the belief that  psychology should focus on how adaptation has affected survival? a. Structuralism

b. Functionalism

c. Humanism


What part of the hindbrain is responsible for survival instincts?



d. Behaviorism

e. None of the above

9. What psychological school of thought is associated with the belief that  psychology should examine the separated components of experiences? a. Gestalt

b. Humanism

c. Structuralism

d. Psychoanalytic

e. None of the above

10. What psychological school of thought is associated with the belief that  conflicts in the unconscious mind affect behavior? Don't forget about the age old question of fibrons

a. Humanism

b. Behaviorism

c. Cognitive psychology

d. Psychoanalytic

e. None of the above

11. What psychological school of thought is associated with the belief that  behavior is influenced by thoughts, memories, and intellect? a. Psychoanalytic We also discuss several other topics like in regard to viewers’ shared belief systems, how can movies deemed “controversial” or “provocative” be popular with audiences?

b. Functionalism

c. Humanism

d. Cognitive psychology

e. None of the above

12. What psychological school of thought is associated with the belief that  experiences should be analyzed as a whole rather than the sum of the parts? a. Structuralism

b. Behaviorism

c. Gestalt

d. Humanism

e. None of the above

13. Which of the following is not an inquiry of individual psychology? a. How someone responds to compliments If you want to learn more check out chem 222 uiuc

b. How visualization affects recall

c. How visitors affect hospital patients

d. All of the above

e. None of the above

14. Which of the following is an inquiry of social psychology? a. How ethnicity affects perception of gender

b. How music affects learning

c. How status affects interaction

d. All of the above

e. None of the above

15. Which of the following is not an inquiry of biological psychology? a. How hormone levels affect a newborn’s neural development b. How reading aloud can affect a child’s prenatal neural development c. How vitamin intake affects a newborn’s overall development d. How reading aloud affects a newborn’s language development

16. Which of the following are inquiries of cultural psychology? a. How ethnicity affects family valuesIf you want to learn more check out wrt150
Don't forget about the age old question of asoc exam 2019

b. How family religion affects personality Don't forget about the age old question of hedonism osu

c. How location influences personality

d. All of the above

e. None of the above

17. Which of the following is not a practice which is approved of in  psychological research?

a. Informed consent

b. Confidentiality

c. Risk assessment

d. Deception

e. None of the above

18. Which of the following neurotransmitters provide(s) feelings of happiness  (reward in some texts)?

a. Dopamine

b. GABA

c. Glutamate

d. Endorphins

e. A&C

f. A&D

g. All of the above

19. Mary is suffering from depression. Which neurotransmitter(s) might  contribute to this?

a. GABA

b. Serotonin

c. Dopamine

d. A&C

e. B&C

20. John is suffering from muscle tremors. Which neurotransmitter(s) might  contribute to this?

a. Dopamine

b. Acetylcholine

c. Glutamate

d. A&B

e. All of the above

21. What is the primary contributor to “runner’s high”?

a. Dopamine

b. Endorphins

c. Serotonin

d. Glutamate

e. None of the above

22. Jim claims alcoholism has rid him of anxiety disorder. What  neurotransmitter is most likely causing this?

a. Serotonin

b. Dopamine

c. Glutamate

d. GABA

e. None of the above

23. Francis has crippling anxiety issues. Her doctor prescribed Valium as  treatment. What neurotransmitter is being stimulated?

a. Dopamine

b. Serotonin

c. GABA

d. Norepinephrine

24. Jennifer was in a car accident and has since had trouble forming new  memories. What part of the brain was damaged in the accident? a. Amygdala

b. Hippocampus

c. Hypothalamus

d. Pineal gland

e. None of the above

25. James has trouble sleeping at night. What part(s) of the brain may be  malfunctioning?

a. Hypothalamus

b. Thalamus

c. Pineal gland

d. A&B

e. A&C

26. Michael is wearing a red shirt. Which of the following is true? a. Long wavelengths are absorbed

b. Short wavelengths are reflected

c. Medium and short wavelengths are absorbed

d. Medium and long wavelengths are reflected

27. In an action potential, what happens?

a. Sodium leaves the cell

b. Potassium enters the cell

c. The cell becomes positively charged

d. All of the above

e. None of the above

28. What structure of the midbrain controls voluntary movement? a. Basal Ganglia

b. Primary motor cortex

c. Substantia Nigra

d. Cerebellum

e. None of the above

29. What part of the hindbrain is responsible for survival instincts? a. Medulla

b. Pons

c. Cerebellum

d. Substantia Nigra

e. None of the above

30. Which of the following is Marijuana?

a. Stimulant

b. Depressant

c. Opiate

d. Hallucinogen

31. Which of the following is Morphine?

a. Stimulant

b. Depressant

c. Opiate

d. Hallucinogen

32. Which of the following is Cocaine? a. Stimulant

b. Depressant

c. Opiate

d. Hallucinogen

33. Which of the following is Heroine? a. Stimulant

b. Depressant

c. Opiate

d. Hallucinogen

34. Which of the following is Codeine? a. Stimulant

b. Depressant

c. Opiate

d. Hallucinogen

35. Which of the following is LSD? a. Stimulant

b. Depressant

c. Opiate

d. Hallucinogen

36. Which of the following is Methamphetamine?

a. Stimulant

b. Depressant

c. Opiate

d. Hallucinogen

37. Which of the following is alcohol?

a. Stimulant

b. Depressant

c. Opiate

d. Hallucinogen

38. Which of the following is caffeine?

a. Stimulant

b. Depressant

c. Opiate

d. Hallucinogen

39. Which of the following does not have a dedicated detection area on the  tongue?

a. Sweet

b. Sour

c. Salty

d. Bitter

e. Umami

f. None of the above

40. In sensory perception, which of the following is a “false alarm”? a. Stimulus present and person does not respond

b. Stimulus not present and person responds

c. Stimulus present and person responds

d. Stimulus not present and person does not respond

41. Photoreceptor “rods” detect black and white and determine brightness (T/F) 42. Absolute threshold is the maximum transmittable intensity of sensory  information (T/F)

43. Top-down processing occurs when something is examined for the first time  (T/F)

44. Figure-ground (perception of background color) is bottom-up processing  (T/F)

45. Perception is detecting a sensory stimulus (T/F)

46. Simultaneous firing of neurons reinforces behavior (T/F) 47. Materialism is the idea that the mind and brain are separate (T/F) 48. Stimulants alter the perception of reality (T/F)

49. The right visual field of the right eye is sent to the left hemisphere, while  the right visual field of the left eye is sent to the right hemisphere. (T/F) 50. Sensation is feeling based on detected stimuli (T/F)

51. A blue shirt absorbs short and medium wavelengths and reflects long  wavelengths. (T/F)

52. In an observational research study, an experiment is performed to test for  correlation (T/F)

53. Depressants reduce pain and provide euphoria (T/F)

54. Opiates increase energy and behavior (T/F)

55. Subliminal perception is ignoring consciously processed information (T/F) 56. Myelin is present in slow receptors (T/F)

57. A green shirt absorbs long and short wavelengths and reflects medium  wavelengths. (T/F)

58. The cell body directly receives neural signals (T/F)

59. Integration is the reception of neural signals (T/F)

60. Transmission is the initiation of an action potential (T/F) 61. Acetylcholine contributes to motor control exclusively (T/F) 62. The frontal lobe contains the primary motor cortex (T/F) 63. The temporal lobe processes vestibular senses (T/F)

64. The occipital lobe processes kinesthetic senses (T/F)

65. Epinephrine provides long-term increased energy levels (T/F) 66. Norepinephrine increases motor arousal (T/F)

67. GABA is an excitatory neurotransmitter (T/F)

68. Neurotransmitters are distributed through the endocrine system (T/F) 69. Antagonists increase neurotransmitter activity (T/F)

70. James and Darwin founded structuralism (T/F)

71. Freud founded psychoanalysis (T/F)

72. Miller and Neisser founded Behaviorism (T/F)

73. Wertheimer and Kohler founded Gestalt (T/F)

74. Skinner and Watson found Humanism (T/F)

75. Miller and Neisser founded Cognitive Psychology (T/F)

76. Research participants in a study attempting to alter habitual behaviors show  improvement over the course of the study but revert back to their original  behaviors when the study is over. What is this caused by?

a. Thorndike’s law

b. Reactivity

c. Both of these

d. Neither of these

ANSWER KEY 

1. Which of the following best describes Psychology as a whole? a. The study social interaction

b. The study how the brain functions

c. The study of human behavior 

d. The study of environmental influence on humans

2. What psychology principle does Thorndike’s Law of effect establish? a. Reflex reaction

b. Positive reinforcement

c. Negative reinforcement

d. Both B&C 

e. All of the above

3. What is the best predictor of future behavior?

a. Present behavior

b. Past behavior 

c. Both A&B

d. None of the above

4. Which of the following is not a step of the scientific method? a. Report results

b. Analyze the data

c. Focus on a theory

d. State a hypothesis

e. None of the above 

5. Which of the following is not a subdivision of psychology? a. Cognitive Psychology

b. Connective Psychology 

c. Cultural Psychology

d. Individual Psychology

e. None of the above

6. What psychological school of thought is associated with the belief that  development and behavior is stimulated by a compulsion to improve quality  of life?

a. Behaviorism

b. Structuralism

c. Humanism 

d. Functionalism

e. None of the above

7. What psychological school of thought is associated with the belief that  psychology should only study observable events?

a. Cognitive psychology

b. Behaviorism 

c. Gestalt

d. Psychoanalytic

e. None of the above

8. What psychological school of thought is associated with the belief that  psychology should focus on how adaptation has affected survival? a. Structuralism

b. Functionalism 

c. Humanism

d. Behaviorism

e. None of the above  

9. What psychological school of thought is associated with the belief that  psychology should examine the separated components of experiences? a. Gestalt

b. Humanism

c. Structuralism 

d. Psychoanalytic

e. None of the above

10. What psychological school of thought is associated with the belief that  conflicts in the unconscious mind affect behavior?

a. Humanism

b. Behaviorism

c. Cognitive psychology

d. Psychoanalytic 

e. None of the above

11. What psychological school of thought is associated with the belief that  behavior is influenced by thoughts, memories, and intellect? a. Psychoanalytic

b. Functionalism

c. Humanism

d. Cognitive psychology 

e. None of the above

12. What psychological school of thought is associated with the belief that  experiences should be analyzed as a whole rather than the sum of the parts? a. Structuralism

b. Behaviorism

c. Gestalt 

d. Humanism

e. None of the above

13. Which of the following is not an inquiry of individual psychology?

a. How someone responds to compliments

b. How visualization affects recall

c. How visitors affect hospital patients 

d. All of the above

e. None of the above

14. Which of the following is an inquiry of social psychology? a. How ethnicity affects perception of gender

b. How music affects learning

c. How status affects interaction 

d. All of the above

e. None of the above

15. Which of the following is not an inquiry of biological psychology? a. How hormone levels affect a newborn’s neural development b. How reading aloud can affect a child’s prenatal neural development c. How vitamin intake affects a newborn’s overall development d. How reading aloud affects a newborn’s language development 

16. Which of the following are inquiries of cultural psychology? a. How ethnicity affects family values

b. How family religion affects personality

c. How location influences personality

d. All of the above 

e. None of the above

17. Which of the following is not a practice which is approved of in  psychological research?

a. Informed consent

b. Confidentiality

c. Risk assessment

d. Deception

e. None of the above 

Deception may be used if full awareness of a study’s intent may alter the  results. It is required that participants be informed of the true reason for the  study when it has been completed.

18. Which of the following neurotransmitters provide(s) feelings of happiness  (reward in some texts)?

a. Dopamine

b. GABA

c. Glutamate

d. Endorphins

e. A&C

f. A&D

g. All of the above

Glutamate, although excitatory doesn’t play a heavy in emotion. It primarily  speeds up learning and memory. GABA is a depressant; it decreases neural  activity.

19. Mary is suffering from depression. Which neurotransmitter(s) might  contribute to this?

a. GABA

b. Serotonin

c. Dopamine

d. A&C

e. B&C 

GABA is a critical inhibitory neurotransmitter, a depressant; it is mainly  effective at treating anxiety disorders. High amounts of GABA would remove  the energy to function, but not necessarily the will (when you get drunk  enough, you pass out whether you want to or not). In contrast, lack of  serotonin and dopamine can produce sad moods and loss of motivation  respectively.

20. John is suffering from muscle tremors. Which neurotransmitter(s) might  contribute to this?

a. Dopamine

b. Acetylcholine

c. Glutamate

d. A&B

e. All of the above 

Low levels of Dopamine are associated with muscle tremors (Parkinson’s).  High levels of acetylcholine or glutamate could produce muscle tremors due to  increased neural excitation and acetylcholine’s critical role in muscle  coordination.

21. What is the primary contributor to “runner’s high”?

a. Dopamine

b. Endorphins 

c. Serotonin

d. Glutamate

e. None of the above

Endorphins suppress the pain of extended exercise (and any pain for a brief  period) and replace it with euphoria.

22. Jim claims alcoholism has rid him of anxiety disorder. What  neurotransmitter is most likely causing this?

a. Serotonin

b. Dopamine

c. Glutamate

d. GABA 

e. None of the above

23. Francis has crippling anxiety issues. Her doctor prescribed Valium as  treatment. What neurotransmitter is being stimulated?

a. Dopamine

b. Serotonin

c. GABA 

d. Norepinephrine

Alcohol and Valium are GABA agonists and frequently used to treat anxiety  disorders due GABA’s reducing overall neural activity.

24. Jennifer was in a car accident and has since had trouble forming new  memories. What part of the brain was damaged in the accident? a. Amygdala

b. Hippocampus 

c. Hypothalamus

d. Pineal gland

e. None of the above

The hippocampus is essential in forming new memories. Failing only to  remember the accident could also indicate damage to the hippocampus.

25. James has trouble sleeping at night. What part(s) of the brain may be  malfunctioning?

a. Hypothalamus

b. Thalamus

c. Pineal gland

d. A&B

e. A&C 

Both the Hypothalamus and the Pineal gland (as well as the pituitary gland)  help regulate sleep. The Pineal gland releases melatonin in the presence of  darkness or when otherwise told it’s time to sleep. The Thalamus is the gate  that all sensory inputs pass through EXCEPT SMELL.

26. Michael is wearing a red shirt. Which of the following is true? a. Long wavelengths are absorbed

b. Short wavelengths are reflected

c. Medium and short wavelengths are absorbed 

d. Medium and long wavelengths are reflected

Red has a long wavelength, green has a medium wavelength, and blue has a  short wavelength. If the only wavelength reflected (visible) is long, the color is  red.

27. In an action potential, what happens?

a. Sodium leaves the cell

b. Potassium enters the cell

c. The cell becomes positively charged 

d. All of the above

e. None of the above

Sodium enters the cell while potassium leaves, creating a positive charge  which is then conducted down the axon.

28. What structure of the midbrain controls voluntary movement? a. Basal Ganglia

b. Primary motor cortex

c. Substantia Nigra 

d. Cerebellum

e. None of the above

The Substantia Nigra is the only midbrain structure we’re concerned with in  this class. The Basal Ganglia and primary motor cortex both contribute to  controlling voluntary movement, both they’re also both in the forebrain. The  Cerebellum is a hindbrain structure which, as far as motion is concerned,  handles spatial awareness (where you are in space).

29. What part of the hindbrain is responsible for survival instincts? a. Medulla

b. Pons

c. Cerebellum 

d. Substantia Nigra

e. None of the above

The Cerebellum’s spatial awareness also tells you when predators or  resources are nearby.

30. Which of the following is Marijuana?

a. Stimulant

b. Depressant

c. Opiate

d. Hallucinogen 

31. Which of the following is Morphine?

a. Stimulant

b. Depressant

c. Opiate 

d. Hallucinogen

32. Which of the following is Cocaine?

a. Stimulant 

b. Depressant

c. Opiate

d. Hallucinogen

33. Which of the following is Heroine? a. Stimulant

b. Depressant

c. Opiate 

d. Hallucinogen

34. Which of the following is Codeine? a. Stimulant

b. Depressant

c. Opiate 

d. Hallucinogen

35. Which of the following is LSD?

a. Stimulant

b. Depressant

c. Opiate

d. Hallucinogen 

36. Which of the following is Methamphetamine? a. Stimulant 

b. Depressant

c. Opiate

d. Hallucinogen

37. Which of the following is alcohol?

a. Stimulant

b. Depressant 

c. Opiate

d. Hallucinogen

38. Which of the following is caffeine?

a. Stimulant 

b. Depressant

c. Opiate

d. Hallucinogen

39. Which of the following does not have a dedicated detection area on the  tongue?

a. Sweet

b. Sour

c. Salty

d. Bitter

e. Umami

f. None of the above 

Umami is the savoriness of meat.

40. In sensory perception, which of the following is a “false alarm”? a. Stimulus present and person does not respond

b. Stimulus not present and person responds 

c. Stimulus present and person responds

d. Stimulus not present and person does not respond

A is a “miss”, B is a “false alarm”, C is a “hit”, and D is a “correct rejection” 41. Photoreceptor “rods” detect black and white and determine brightness (T/F) Rods detect brightness exclusively by light intensity. They work best in  darkness.

42. Absolute threshold is the maximum transmittable intensity of sensory  information (T/F)

Absolute threshold is the minimum stimulatory intensity necessary for the  senses to detect it.

43. Top-down processing occurs when something is examined for the first time  (T/F)

This is bottom-up processing; top-down uses existing information to create an  association. Bottom-up is creating a new memory.

44. Figure-ground (perception of background color) is bottom-up processing  (T/F)

This is top-down processing because we switch the background color based on  the shape we identify (which comes from our previous experiences). Color  processing, however, is bottom-up processing because the information is  assembled from particular pieces (the wavelengths seen).

45. Perception is detecting a sensory stimulus (T/F)

This is sensation.

46. Simultaneous firing of neurons reinforces behavior (T/F)

47. Materialism is the idea that the mind and brain are separate (T/F) This is dualism.

48. Stimulants alter the perception of reality (T/F)

Hallucinogens alter the perception of reality, stimulants increase activity,  depressants decrease activity, and opiates suppress pain and provide  euphoria.

49. The right visual field of the right eye is sent to the left hemisphere, while  the right visual field of the left eye is sent to the right hemisphere. (T/F) The right visual field of both eyes is sent to the left hemisphere and the left  visual field of both eyes is sent to the right hemisphere.

50. Sensation is feeling based on detected stimuli (T/F)

This is perception.

51. A blue shirt absorbs short and medium wavelengths and reflects long  wavelengths. (T/F)

A blue shirt reflects short wavelengths and absorbs medium and long  wavelengths.

52. In an observational research study, an experiment is performed to test for  correlation (T/F)

Correlational studies and experimental studies are themselves forms of  research study. An observational study simply observes and reports natural  behavior. This is why it is a subsection of descriptive research studies. 53. Depressants reduce pain and provide euphoria (T/F)

Opiates do this.

54. Opiates increase energy and behavior (T/F)

Stimulants do this.

55. Subliminal perception is ignoring consciously processed information (T/F) Subliminal perception is the unconscious processing of information 56. Myelin is present in slow receptors (T/F)

Myelin is present in fast receptors because it speeds up neural transmission.  Fast pain receptors provide brief sharp pain, while slow pain receptors  provide dull, enduring pain.

57. A green shirt absorbs long and short wavelengths and reflects medium  wavelengths. (T/F)

This is true. Green reflects medium wavelengths.

58. The cell body directly receives neural signals (T/F)

The dendrites receive neural signals and transmit them to the cell body. 59. Integration is the reception of neural signals (T/F)

Integration is the interpretation of neural signals by the cell body 60. Transmission is the initiation of an action potential (T/F)

Transmission is the passing of a neural signal from one neuron to another 61. Acetylcholine contributes to motor control exclusively (T/F) Acetylcholine is also important in the formation of memories 62. The frontal lobe contains the primary motor cortex (T/F)

The primary motor cortex is a component of the parietal lobe 63. The temporal lobe processes vestibular senses (T/F)

Although the vestibular system is in the inner ear, its information is processed  by the parietal lobe because it handles vestibular and kinesthetic senses. 64. The occipital lobe processes kinesthetic senses (T/F)

The parietal lobe does this.

65. Epinephrine provides long-term increased energy levels (T/F)

Formerly called adrenaline, epinephrine provides a short burst of energy for  fight-or-flight response.

66. Norepinephrine increases motor arousal (T/F)

Norepinephrine increases alertness and awareness (mental arousal). 67. GABA is an excitatory neurotransmitter (T/F)

GABA is a depressant; it inhibits neural activity. Glutamate is an excitatory  neurotransmitter (stimulant).

68. Neurotransmitters are distributed through the endocrine system (T/F) This is the defining difference between hormones and neurotransmitters. 69. Antagonists increase neurotransmitter activity (T/F)

Agonists increase neurotransmitter activity.

70. James and Darwin founded structuralism (T/F)

Wundt and Titchener founded structuralism. James and Darwin founded  functionalism.

71. Freud founded psychoanalysis (T/F)

72. Miller and Neisser founded Behaviorism (T/F)

Skinner and Watson founded behaviorism

73. Wertheimer and Kohler founded Gestalt (T/F)

Despite its namesake, Wertheimer and Kohler did most of the work currently  accepted in Gestalt.

74. Skinner and Watson found Humanism (T/F)

Maslow and Rogers founded Humanism

75. Miller and Neisser founded Cognitive Psychology (T/F)

76. Research participants in a study attempting to alter habitual behaviors show  improvement over the course of the study but revert back to their original  behaviors when the study is over. What is this caused by?

a. Thorndike’s law 

b. Reactivity

c. Both of these

d. Neither of these

This last one is likely more difficult than what will be on the test, but I  included it for your benefit. Thorndike’s law, the only close-to-absolute  certainty in psychology, establishes behavioral reinforcement (habit forming).  Therefore, reactivity (the name of this phenomenon) is ultimately caused by  Thorndike’s law.

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