Components of writing paragraph for ID: (vocabulary words included in the upcoming midterm) - Defines term- strong beginning
- Locates it in place and time
- Show awareness/ sophisticated focus on how scholars have interpreted phenomenon in different ways
- Focuses on nuances: a hingepoint - a bridge between two points to tie them together - Revising themes (broader significances) and typing those back to main points
1. Paleo diets
- A paleo diet was the diet of a person who lived during the Paleolithic era (more commonly referred to as the Old Stone Age) that took place in Africa roughly ranging from 2.6 million years ago to 12,000 years ago.
- As the people were nomads and hunter-gatherers most often following the migration of their prey, the diet consisted of meat hunted from stone age mammals, as well as a variety of fruits and vegetables gathered around varying regions.
- The ability to hunt large mammals and gather food more efficiently was due to the development of more sophisticated stone tools constructed from rocks and organic material (bones). This new development of early technology through use of tools was a result of the evolution of Homo sapiens and their expanding brains and changing bodies, with features such as smaller teeth.
- This evolution and the use of more efficient tools enabled for people to successfully gather food, group together, and begin to stay in one place for a longer period of time.
2. Silver trade
- The silver trade was a network of trade between Spain and China during the 16th to 18th CE, when China’s high demand for silver as it’s currency fostered trade with the Spanish, who provided the silver mined from the Americas in exchange for Chinese commodities.
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- This trade was significant in that it represented the First Global Economy, stringing together trade between East Asia, the Americas, and Europe.
- It also spurred economic changes and political transformations of European nations, in which countries that had been under the power of the Spanish sought to free themselves, and led to more European expansionist attempts in the colonization of the Americas in an attempt to profit and trade like the Spanish. Don't forget about the age old question of Antoine lavoisier is a father of?
3. C-B-S (Corn, Beans, Squash)
- CBS stands for corn, beans, and squash, which was the diet of the Native Americans that resulted from the Medieval warm period in 950 CE to 1250 CE, when there was stability of weather and warmer climates.
- The Natives incorporated the method of intercropping: farming plants together in one region of land. This cultivation demonstrated the Natives’ knowledge of the benefits of planting CBS together, in that beans provided legumes (nitrogen) back into the soil, and the squash prevented growth of weeds by blocking sunlight.
- The use of CBS led to efficient farming along riverbanks and provided a smooth transition from shifting hunter-gatherers to living in full fledged settlements, which led to more stability and population growth of a tribe.
- This eventually led to the development of more sophisticated cultures and community lives that began to incorporate beliefs of a religion centered around the cosmos and nature. We also discuss several other topics like Are shelter and sculpture the same?
- This also signaled the beginning of hierarchy, in which there were elites located in the center of the settlements.
4. Trading factories
- Trading factories are a term that refers to the creation of prisons, barricades, and walls on ships that contain slave captives during the Middle Passage in the 1600s and all throughout the Transatlantic slave trade from the 17th to 18th CE.
- The slave ship itself represented a factory in which the products being made were slaves; throughout the voyage to the Caribbeans and Americas, Africans underwent the process of being forced to accept their new identities and enslavement.
- The slave ship itself represented three qualities: a factory (the making of a slave), a prison (indicating institution of power), and a war machine (heavily armored, the making of young European men into rough soldiers).
- With the trading and creation of slaves came new factors of captivity and ways to display power, as well as surrounding social effects on young European men being exposed to the dealings of slavery for the first time.
- Indenture was a form of servitude throughout the migration of European peasants and common people to the Americas shortly following the settlement of Jamestown in 1607.
- It consisted of a contract of 7 years of labor in exchange for land. The migration resulted partly from overpopulation in England and the failure of economic expectations of people who desired to own land. We also discuss several other topics like Chemical reactions involve the breaking and forming of what?
- It was also a technique for acquiring more laborers in the Americas, in addition to slaves.
- This form of servitude was significant in that it was available for only Europeans and White people, indicating that conditions weren’t as bad for indentured servants compared to slaves.
- Those who completed labor and were cheated of free land could return home to Europe and warn others, whereas slaves could never return to Africa.Don't forget about the age old question of What is the electromotive force?
6. La entrada
- La entrada was a Spanish term used during Spanish colonization of North America in the 15th CE, meaning “entrance, an an expedition organized for trade, raid, exploration, and conquest.”
- It suggested the idea that times will drastically change after the grand moment of successful colonization. This was a fantastical belief held by the Spanish, who continued to look back on their failed expeditions in the early 15th CE.
- The main profits and desires of colonization were gold, slaves, and civilizations to overthrow/exploit.
- Failures of colonization eventually led to Exits/failures, in which Europeans no longer have the means and power to conquer large populations of Natives. - A significance of La entrada was that it provided the first contact of Native Americans to European diseases, such as smallpox, malaria, and yellow fever, that wiped out and weakened many Native populations, particularly the young and the old. This was harmful for Natives as the young were potential leaders and the old possessed knowledge.
7. The nation state
- A nation state consists of a ruling order in which a group of people maintain an identity, has bounded territories, and controls their own government. Nation states began to become more prominent in the 1600s throughout Europe as a result of political and religious conflicts, known as the Renaissance/ Reformation. The establishment of nation states split people while forming significant alliances with others. This often results from the demand for independence and the protests performed by common people in regards to having religious freedom, etc. If you want to learn more check out What are some examples of social policies?
8. Colonial fantasies
- Colonial fantasies were illusions experienced by Europeans and their dreams of expanding their empires through the conquests of large, distant lands. Such conquests date back to as far as the 15th CE, when the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortes conquered the Aztec empire and profited from the empire’s wealth and gold. These fantasies represent the desire of European nations in acquiring wealth, conquering lands from others, and profiting from trade.
9. Pequot war
- Pequot war was between the Pequot tribe and the English colonists in Massachusetts bay colony during 1637-1638, and resulted in the mass murder and wipe out of the Pequots.
- It was an indication for the struggle of control over the fur and wampum trade between the Pequot and English. In the start, Pequots establish themselves as
middle men between natives and the Dutch, as well as get involved in fur trade and weapons. After the Pequots were attacked and weakened by Native enemies, the Europeans abandoned them and traded with other tribes for lower prices, resulting in increased isolation of Pequots.
- With the death of a englishman, the English use that as an excuse to brutally massacre the Pequots, known as the Mystic River Massacre.
- This signaled the start of European abuse and massacres of Native groups, often killing men and enslaving women and children.
- This was significant in beginning ethnic group cleansing, in which the Pequots were entirely wiped out. Another significant aspect was it signaled the transition of relationship between Europeans and Natives from peaceful to the
establishment of clear boundaries.
10. Triangle trade
- The triangle trade was a network system of trade established throughout the 16th and 17th CE between Europe, Africa, and the Americas.
- Europeans would bring guns, horses, and other commodities to Africa in exchange for slaves, in which they would transport to North America to provide labor, and then export the commodities and products back to Europe.
- This indicated a more increasingly connected economies and trade network system between large countries. It also rapidly increased the use and purchase of Africans as slaves.
- Domestication indicates the changes in wild plants and animals from wild form due to human interference, resulting in the new breed to have a biological dependence on the harvesters.This occurred shortly after the climate change from 20,000 to 6,400 BC of when afterwards there was the Holocene: a consistent climatic regime that enabled later full fledged agricultural societies.
- The beginning of domestication allowed for the start of quasi-agriculture, the in between phase of going from gatherer/hunter societies to full fledged agricultural societies. This began practices of tending to gardens and nurturing plants as a food source.
- Domestication was significant in that it led to the first occurrence of famine, which resulted from the dependence on one or two crops as main food sources. - It also resulted in the beginning of more laborious work loads involving farming, which eventually led to the formation of hierarchical societies, in which common people would perform the labor while elites reaped the profits.
- Such ways also was the first indication of resource exhaustion and negative impacts on ecological systems.
12. Gun slave cycle
- The gun slave cycle was the component of the Transatlantic slave trade between Europe, Caribbeans, and West Africa in the 15th CE to 18th CE.
- As Europeans began to colonize North America and the Caribbeans, they needed a mass form of labor supply. The first attempt of labor involved the use of Natives as slaves, who died out in the end from strenuous labor and European diseases.
- As Europeans arrived along the coasts of West Africa, they set up trading posts and traded guns and horses to African tribes in exchange for slaves.
- As the European demand for slaves increased, it affected African people in which there was more warfare and enslaving of enemy tribes using the guns and horses provided by the Europeans, in order to gain more guns and horses.
- Reconquista represents a series of reconquests by Spain in 1492 over regaining control of the Iberian Peninsula from Muslim rule and removing people of Muslim and Jewish descent.
- This led to the removal of many wealthy Jewish merchants and contributed to the emergence of more Christian merchants with the purpose of strengthening Spain’s military arms.
- The reconquista was significant in that it represented a rehearsal for colonization by Spain and it’s spread of authority into other areas. The event appeared to be a nostalgic act in which it recreated the glory and lost success that Spain failed to experience during its attempted conquests of North America in the past.
- Powhatan was the powerful leader of several tribes that were located in the area of which the English later settled down and established the colony of Jamestown in 1607.
- He was effective in peacefully dealing and negotiating with the English upon their arrival, and helped the colonists by having food delivered to them. His negotiations with the English allowed for trade in which he obtained weapons to defeat enemies and increase his power.
- The component that sets him apart from other chiefs was his power and strategic thinking of which helped maintain his authority over his tribes and peace between his Native people and the English colonists.
- One method of achieving peace was through setting up a diplomatic stage of where his daugher, Pocahontas, saved John Smith, the leader of the English, who was captured and endangered of being killed by Powhatan’s men. This
event was meant to indicate that Powhatan had incorporated the English under his authority.
- Another significant event was the marriage between Pocahontas and an English colonist named John Rolfe, which established another period of peace, and was also another indication that Powhatan had superiority over the English and their king.
- Improvement was the English notion of urbanization, in which uncultivated fields, forested lands, mountain ranges, and wilderness were considered as uncivilized and needed to be improved by converting them into farmland and ranches consisting of crops and domesticated animals.
- This referred to the English belief that people (in this case the Natives) who didn’t harvest crops or own domesticated animals needed to be improved themselves. - This was the mindset of the English as they arrived to North America in the 1600s and came into contact with the Natives.
- This belief allowed for the English to ignore Native ownership of North American lands, as well as disregard Native agricultural techniques and view the Natives as uncivilized people.
16. Anne Hutchinson
- Anne Hutchinson was a woman who became influential in the Massachusetts Bay Colony upon her arrival in 1634 to 1638.
- She carried a lot of authority with her role as a midwife, which enabled her to influence the women population in the colony, which increased her power and spiritual leadership.
- Her claims of having direct revelations from God and being a saved one was significant in challenging the authority and beliefs of the Puritan male religious authorities, who eventually banished her from the colony.
- Life in the colony during 1634 consisted of people reading their bibles, worshipping, and fearing authorities and religious events. In response to this lifestyle, her beliefs were significant in that they stated worshippers could be saved through a direct revelation from God, which suggested it wasn’t necessary to pray and read the bible all day.
- Her beliefs were a significant threat to the male authorities, as they held the colony under their control by having people devote their lives to reading the bible.
17. Atlantic Creoles
- Atlantic Creoles were an early generation of Africans in the 1600s who were directly from the coast of Africa.
- They were the offspring of a European and an African, and held prominent roles in society as diplomatic, elite, and educated cultural brokers representing the middle ground between the European and African societies.
- Although they were also drawn into the slave trade, their form of slavery was different from an uneducated African captive. Often times they were able to purchase their own freedom and own land and slaves.
- Their contrasting way of life from other Africans eventually led to more prominent forms and regulations of slavery, in which there began discrimination and injustice of Africans by stripping away their rights and restricting their activities and way of life.
- The African status was determined to be officially inferior to Europeans and Whites, leading to racial presence overruling religious aspects.
- It’s significance was that it resulted in the social and legal process of creating the modern African slave, where unjust laws and regulations became multigeneration and unchangeable.
18. Plantation Revolution
- Plantation revolution was the formation and expansion of plantations as a result of the success and profits gained from the development of Sugar Plantations in the 1600s. This led to profitable trade connections between Europe, West Africa, and North America.
- As the plantations spread and dominated nearly all farming lands, people in the Caribbean depended on food and supplies from the North American colonies for daily survival, which provided the colonies with a purpose and a sense of importance.
- The revolution was significant in that it required the use of mass slave labor, which rapidly increased the demand for slaves and eventually led to the popularity of the Transatlantic slave trade.
- These economic transitions lead toward the beginning of clear regulations of slavery as well as racial hierarchy. Plantations were significant in representing the first modern institutions of which enforced mass industrial labor and the use of costly technology.
19. Colonial hogs
- Colonial hogs were originally domesticated pigs brought over from Europe into the New World (North America) in the 1630s.
- They began to represent a conflict between the English and the Natives, as the English would allow their hogs and livestock to roam freely throughout open fields of which were most often Native lands. The hogs would breed rapidly and trample and consume food from Native gardens, diminishing their food supplies.
- The English regarded the lands as “free ranges,” which was land that could be shared and used by all.
- During the population growth and migration of people in England, common farming lands had been closed off and turned into private property of wealthy Englishmen.
- By allowing their hogs and livestock to freely roam the fields in America, this was significant in representing the desired English notion of once again having a common lands that could be shared by all the people.
- This notion itself contradicted the English notion of “Improvement,” which suggested that Natives were savages because they didn’t understand the concept of private property, whereas the English did.
20. Queen Nzinga
- Queen Nzinga was a prominent African queen of the Mbundu people in the 1630s who resisted the influence and power of the Portuguese and the expanding slave trade in Central Africa.
- She successfully portrayed her power by attending diplomatic meetings and establishing her royal equality with the Portugal crown, by later on converting to Christianity.
- She was strategic in allying with former rivals to start a thirty year war with the Portuguese, and successfully resisted their control over her kingdom. By doing so, she saved her people from being made into slaves and sold to the Europeans.
- However, even though she resisted being significantly involved in the slave trade, she also acquired slaves for her kingdom. This shows that even the most influential African leaders who resisted the slave trade were still affected in some way.
- The Tlaxcalans were an influential Native group in the 1500s located in East Central Mexico. They were known to be fierce mortal enemies of the Aztec Empire, and were essential in helping Hernando Cortes in conquering and bringing the downfall of the Aztec empire. The alliance between the Tlaxcalans and Cortes was essential in that Cortes was provided with massive forces of loyal, fierce Native soldiers who were united by their hatred of the Aztecs. Afterwards, the Tlaxcalans realized the dangers and overwhelming power of the Spanish too late and were also defeated and conquered by the Spanish.
22. The ecological Indian
- The ecological Indian represents the Europeans’ negative discriminative view and stereotype of Native Americans described in a series of compliments, in which Natives were regarded as ecological beings who were directly a part of nature, making them appear less than human beings.
- This turned out to be entirely false when considering large Native civilizations, such as Cahokia, that resulted in resource exhaustion and deforestation, which were similar characteristics of European expansion.
- This particular view of Native Americans as peaceful, resourceful people who existed in harmony with nature was first determined by the arrival of the Europeans, and has continued to be believed today by most people.
23. Sugar plantations
- Sugar plantations became prominent in the Caribbean islands, most noticeably the Barbados, around the 1600s.
- It was significant in that the profits earned from trading the commodity of sugar to European nations (most noticeably England) signaled the start of the Plantation revolution, which was the formation and expansion of plantations through the mass use of slave labor, which ultimately boosted the Transatlantic slave trade.
- The success of sugar plantations represented a significant economic transition that showed the start of clear regulations of slavery and ideas of racial hierarchy that would exist until the very end.
- The use of costly technology to process the sugar led to the first industrial working class, which consisted of slaves and was known as industrial pace gang labor.
- As the plantations spread and dominated nearly all farming lands, people in the Caribbean depended on food and supplies from the North American colonies for daily survival, which provided the colonies with a purpose and a sense of importance, allowing for trade and connections to flourish.