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UT / Science / CSD 308 / What is the deafness in society?

What is the deafness in society?

What is the deafness in society?

Description

School: University of Texas at Austin
Department: Science
Course: Perspectives of Deafness
Professor: Bernstein
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: communication, Science, Deafness, SignLanguage, Culture, and hearing
Cost: 50
Name: Perspectives of Deafness Exam 1
Description: This study guide follow the published study guide along with input from my personal notes. The study guide will be updated up until the exam date.
Uploaded: 09/29/2018
11 Pages 10 Views 5 Unlocks
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Exam 1 Study Guide


What is the deafness in society?



Deafness in Society

Major problems or important facets of deafness:

∙ Negativity from others

∙ Isolation

∙ Community bonds

Recent Trends

∙ Shift to cultural model

∙ Deafness as a cultural difference, not defect

∙ Sign language recognized as a real language

∙ Portrayed differently on television

∙ Technology to help deaf people connect

What caused changes?

∙ 1960s civil rights movement

∙ Study of sign language

Definitions

∙ Hard of Hearing- Hearing impaired" is offensive to a lot of people ∙ Deaf - the sense of hearing is non-functional for ordinary communication, with or  without the use of an assistive listening device


What is the ranges of hearing loss?



∙ Congenital - deaf before the child has been able to fully engage in spoken language ∙ Adventitious - deaf after about 3 years old

Causes and Characteristics of Deafness Don't forget about the age old question of What is endorphins?

Anatomy

∙ Outer ear

∙ Middle ear

o Tiny bones

∙ Inner ear If you want to learn more check out A good theory is what?

o Cochlea

o Hair cells

o Auditory nerve

∙ Conductive (Type of Deafness)

o Impeding conduction of sound energy in the hearing mechanism

o Often temporary, can be permanent

o Problems getting sound from outside world in the ear


What is the middle ear?



o “Mechanical problem”

o Ottis media

▪ Fluid secretions is middle ear prevents bones from oscillating

▪ Middle-ear infection

▪ Common in children

o Ostoclerosis

▪ One of bones broken, can be replaced

Causes

Degree of Loss

Audiogram

∙ Frequency and Hearing Level Chart

∙ Represent at different frequencies how much a person can hear compared to normal  hearing

∙ Uses pure tone

∙ Deviations recorded

∙ Decibel

∙ Level 0 is normal

Sensitivity and Discrimination (Clarity)

∙ Sensitivity

o Sensitivity always a problem in sensorineural losses

o Can try to correct sensitivity If you want to learn more check out Gematangi, a vessel containing what?

o Conductive losses

∙ Clarity

o Distortion of signal that goes up to brain

o Less residual hearing

o Difficult to fix distortion

Ranges of Hearing Loss

∙ Profound hearing loss We also discuss several other topics like What is preferential looking technique?

o Person cannot hear speech

∙ Pure Tone Average

o Normal hearing: 0-15 dB

o Mild: 26-40 dB

o Moderate: 41-70 dB

o Severe: 71-90 dB

o Profound: 91-120 dB

∙ With hearing aid, you could make the signals coming in stronger by making the sounds  louder

o Won’t make sounds more clear

Psychology and Deafness

“Personality” of the Deaf

∙ Church created list of descriptions about deaf personalities based on studies done by  psychologists

o Some things Church found:

▪ Hypersensitive

▪ Unable to express themselves

▪ Introvert  

▪ Easily discouraged  

▪ Socially retarded Don't forget about the age old question of How common is fetal alcohol syndrome?

▪ Conceited

▪ Better adjusted over time

▪ Poorly adjusted over time

o Views

▪ Bogus because of testing issues

∙ Have to read

∙ Modality

o Some people can use language but cannot read/write

∙ Many deaf people not fluent in English

▪ Examiners do not understand

∙ No experience, perspective

▪ Some valid generalizations

∙ Shared experiences

∙ Group tendencies

∙ Ecological view

o Behavior is a function of the person and the situation

∙ Levine

o Deaf people are psychologically normal human beings striving to adjust to  subnormal environmental input and abnormal environmental pressures

o A normal reaction to unusual circumstances may appear to be abnormal by usual  standards

o A deaf person is a normal deaf person, not a normal hearing person

∙ Prominent features of deaf people

o Stigma

▪ Marked as “other” We also discuss several other topics like What is written in the dead sea scrolls?

o Master status

▪ Becomes a person’s identity

o Spread

▪ Stereotyping

o Scrutinization

▪ Member of majority or another group tries to look for validation on  his/her prejudgment

Deaf Cultural Community

∙ Do not generalize

o Not every deaf person sings

∙ Shared experiences

o Communities give rise to cultures

∙ Culture

o Shared ideas and behaviors

▪ Distinct

▪ Learned

▪ Provide a template for personal and social interaction

o Set of learned behaviors of a group of people with its own language, values,  behavior

∙ Community

o Made of members of different cultures

o Group of people share common goals

o Geographic boundedness

o Freedom to organize social life and responsibilities of members

∙ Padden’s Goals of the Deaf Community

o Acceptance of Deaf people

o Respect of Deaf culture

o Encourage and respect sign language

Exam 1 Study Guide

Deafness in Society

Educational Environments

∙ Oral schools (emphasize speech)

∙ Residential Schools (use ASL)

∙ Mainstream

Family influences

∙ CODA (Child of Deaf Adult)

∙ Hearing parents, cochlear implant

Deaf Community and Culture

∙ Sign Language

Language Development

∙ No matter what language, it is important for a child to start to communicate/be exposed  to communication early on

Work

∙ Discrimination

Major problems or important facets of deafness:

∙ Negativity from others

∙ Isolation

∙ Community bonds

Recent Trends

∙ Shift to cultural model

∙ Deafness as a cultural difference, not defect

∙ Sign language recognized as a real language

∙ Portrayed differently on television

∙ Technology to help deaf people connect

∙ Disabilities Act

What caused changes?

∙ 1960s civil rights movement

∙ Study of sign language

Definitions

∙ Hard of Hearing- Hearing impaired" is offensive to a lot of people, implies defieciency ∙ deaf - the sense of hearing is non-functional for ordinary communication, with or  without the use of an assistive listening device

o If you can communicate with a hearing aid, you are not deaf

∙ Deaf (uppercase D)- cultural

∙ Congenital (Prelinguistic) - deaf before the child has been able to fully engage in spoken  language

∙ Adventitious (Acquired) - deaf after about 3 years old, have already acquired spoken  language

Causes and Characteristics of Deafness

Anatomy

∙ Outer ear (Auricle)

o First point of contact between individual and sound

o Auditory Canal

∙ Middle ear

o Ear drum (tympanic membrane)

▪ Acoustical energy to mechanical energy

o Tiny bones (ossicles)

▪ Between ear drum and oval window (window to inner ear)

▪ Hammer (malleus)

▪ Anvil (incus)

▪ Stirrup (stapes)

▪ Vibrate and send sound through oval window

o Eustachian tube

▪ Between middle ear and back of throat

▪ Controls air pressure in middle ear

∙ Inner ear

o Cochlea

▪ Main sensory organ

▪ Snail shaped

▪ Contains fluid in ducts

▪ Base is high frequency

▪ Apex is low frequency

▪ Tiny hair cells convert mechanical energy to electrical impulses

o Semicircular canals

▪ Control balance

o Auditory nerve

▪ To the brain

∙ Conductive (Type of Deafness)

o Impeding conduction of sound energy in the hearing mechanism

o Often temporary, can be permanent

o Problems getting sound from outside world in the ear

o “Mechanical problem”

o Ottis media

▪ Fluid secretions is middle ear prevents bones from oscillating

▪ Middle-ear infection

▪ Common in children

o Ostoclerosis

▪ One of bones broken, can be replaced

Causes

∙ Prelingual

o Premature birth, complications

▪ Reduced oxygen to brain

o Heredity

o Maternal rubella

o Congenital cytomegalovirus

o Unknown causes

∙ Heredity

o 150-175 types of genetic deafness

o Recessive trait

∙ Postlingual

o Meningitis

o Ottis Media

∙ Adults

o Loud noise

o Presbycusis

▪ Aging

o Ototoxic Drugs

▪ Drugs that treat cancer, HIV infections can affect hearing

Degree of Loss

Audiogram

∙ Frequency and Hearing Level Chart

∙ Represent at different frequencies how much a person can hear compared to normal  hearing

∙ Uses pure tone

∙ Deviations recorded

∙ Decibel

∙ Level 0 is normal

Sensitivity and Discrimination (Clarity)

∙ Sensitivity

o Sensitivity always a problem in sensorineural losses

o Can try to correct sensitivity

o Conductive losses

∙ Clarity

o Distortion of signal that goes up to brain

o Less residual hearing

o Difficult to fix distortion

Ranges of Hearing Loss

∙ Profound hearing loss

o Person cannot hear speech

∙ Pure Tone Average

o Normal hearing: 0-15 dB

o Slight: 15-25 dB

o Mild: 26-40 dB

o Moderate: 41-70 dB

o Severe: 71-90 dB

o Profound: 91-120 dB

∙ With hearing aid, you could make the signals coming in stronger by making the sounds  louder

o Won’t make sounds more clear

Psychology and Deafness

“Personality” of the Deaf

∙ Church created list of descriptions about deaf personalities based on studies done by  psychologists

o Some things Church found:

▪ Hypersensitive

▪ Unable to express themselves

▪ Introvert  

▪ Easily discouraged  

▪ Socially retarded

▪ Conceited

▪ Better adjusted over time

▪ Poorly adjusted over time

o Views

▪ Bogus because of testing issues

∙ Have to read

∙ Modality

o Some people can use language but cannot read/write

∙ Many deaf people not fluent in English

▪ Examiners do not understand

∙ No experience, perspective

▪ Some valid generalizations

∙ Shared experiences

∙ Group tendencies

∙ Ecological view

o Behavior is a function of the person and the situation

∙ Levine

o Deaf people are psychologically normal human beings striving to adjust to  subnormal environmental input and abnormal environmental pressures

o A normal reaction to unusual circumstances may appear to be abnormal by usual  standards

o A deaf person is a normal deaf person, not a normal hearing person

∙ Prominent features of deaf people

o Stigma

▪ Marked as “other”

o Master status

▪ Stigma trait becomes a person’s identity

▪ Don’t look at the individual

o Spread

▪ Stereotyping

o Scrutinization

▪ Member of majority or another group tries to look for validation on  

his/her prejudgment

Deaf Cultural Community

∙ Do not generalize

o Not every deaf person sings

∙ Shared experiences

o Communities give rise to cultures

o Paranoia

o Communication difficulties with hearing

o Hearing testing

o Discrimination

o Having to explain oneself  

∙ Deaf organizations

o Teach Deaf traditions

o Culture is learned

o Socialize with other Deaf people

∙ Culture

o Shared ideas and behaviors

▪ Distinct

▪ Learned

▪ Provide a template for personal and social interaction

o Set of learned behaviors of a group of people with its own language, values,  behavior

∙ Community

o Made of members of different cultures

o Group of people share common goals

o Geographic boundedness

o Freedom to organize social life and responsibilities of members

∙ Padden’s Goals of the Deaf Community

o Acceptance of Deaf people

o Respect of Deaf culture

o Encourage and respect sign language

Sign Language and Sign Communication

∙ Myths about ASL

o Universality

o Concrete

o Ungrammatical

o Iconic

o Early definition of language required that it be vocal

∙ Structural characteristics

o Classifiers (handshapes to represent objects)

o Orientation (of palm/hand)

o Location

o Movement

o When storytelling, person can take place of character

∙ Languages in General

o Phonology (sounds, smallest unit)

o Syntax (order)

o Semantics (meaning)

o Morphology (words)

o Pragmatics (interaction)

∙ Parallels between spoken and signed language linguistic structure o Words to represent things

o Hands and arms are like phonology, everything else is syntax (face, 3d space) ∙ Channels of ASL discourse

o All work in unison

o In spoken language, words leave rapidly

∙ ASL Phonolgy

o Stoke

▪ Cherology- like phonology

▪ Analog grammar

o Approach ASL as a natural human language; don’t assign new rules to study it o Phonology is a basic unit, not just sound

Deaf Adults, Community, Culture

∙ Nash & Nash Model

o Conceptual, no units

o Based on what drives a person

o A person does not land somewhere specifically on the map

o Spots can create conflict – try hard to fit in or fear of exposure

o Majority of Deaf lie in middle-bottom of chart (little Hearing world) ∙ General idea

o Identities are always there but one takes over at certain times

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