Intro to Psychology Week 5 Notes
For Exam 1, study everything.
You’re responsible for all the material
You need to understand the concepts in the chapters
We will only get to chapter 4 on this test (so it will be easier) BUT one test later on will have six chapters as a result.
You CANNOT pass on your current knowledge
You MUST prepare for the exam
That said, you will be asked application questions which tie in more than one concept. 50 multiple choice questions
You must read and understand the question and then make a decision on the best possible answer choice We also discuss several other topics like When was mao zedong’s communist party proclaims the people’s republic of china?
We also discuss several other topics like Gematangi, a vessel containing what?
Use the powerpoints, class notes, Inquizitive, everything.
Don’t get the idea that split brains are helpless (like the book would have you to believe by describing the specific functions of each hemisphere)
Sensation and Perception
Sensation is your detection of some sort of stimuli
Perception is the processing of that information
You can have sensation without perception BUT you cannot have perception without sensation
When you see different things in the same image, sensation doesn’t change but perception does and that costs energy.
Visual sensing of nonsense words can be perceived as something sensible because of neural patterns you have inside
Three ascending notes repeated over and over will be ascended an entire octave by your brain Sensory receptors are the organs that allow you to detect information Don't forget about the age old question of What is preferential looking technique?
We are limited in what we can directly perceive
Transduction is turning something you detect into a signal your brain can work with
All of your sensory organs create transduction based on some sort of physical change (light stimulation is a physical change; these kinds of example tests may be on the exam)
The absolute threshold is the SMALLEST amount of a stimulus that is REQUIRED TO PERCEIVE IT (50% threshold). Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between perception and sensation?
Difference threshold is the minimum difference in a physical stimuli required to detect a difference (50% threshold).
The processing of this leads to perception
Signal detection theory (all or nothing response of sensing something)
Detection of a faint stimulus requires a judgement (all or nothing)
If you have something at a constant level that doesn’t change, you get used to it. You can’t feel your shirt on your back unless someone calls your attention to it.
We see because we have a mechanism that detects light waves
We are able to focus light on our photoreceptors through the cornea, the pupil and the lens working together.
Your photoreceptors are at the back of your retina
This has two purposes:
This prevents over-stimulation and, being close to somatic cells, they can be refreshed regularly. The photoreceptors send signal forward, back into the eye and along the optic nerve.
Rods and Cones
Rods only respond to brightness (amplitude)
They’re most sensitive in darkness We also discuss several other topics like What does the bible say about joshua and caleb?
Cones can detect varying wavelengths (wavelengths we see as color)
The cones are tightly packed in the phobia, providing a 1 degree angle of crystal clear vision (your brain makes you think your entire visual field is clear). Don't forget about the age old question of Why conceptual clarity is essential?
The axons form the bundle of the optic nerve
Whatever’s in the right visual field OF BOTH EYES is sent to the left hemisphere and vice versa We detect frequencies and amplitudes, nothing more.
Short wavelength is blue
Medium wavelength is green
Long wavelength is red
Amplitude is detected as brightness (how vibrant a color is)
You pick up differences in amplitude and wavelength TOGETHER
Helmholtz is where we get the idea of combining three primary (red, yellow, and blue) colors to make different ones
White is a combination of all the wavelengths being reflected
Black is all the wavelengths being absorbed
So, a green shirt absorbs short and long wavelengths and bounces back medium wavelengths. KNOW the wavelength relations
Your retina takes time to refresh so, if the eyes are prevented from moving, a constantly perceived object will disappear
Both are right because we have preferential detection of different colors AND the way things process creates a push-pull effect called the opponent color theory
We use color to find food and determine if food is safe
Bottom-up AND top-down processing are used by us
Color processing is bottom-up
Figure-ground is perception of what color the background is (top-down processing because you can switch it; bottom-up uses particular pieces to assemble the data)
We also use principles (like separating things based on proximity, similarity, closure (closing a triangle), and illusionary contours.
Don’t use the powerpoints exclusively
If the class mean is 72 or higher on the first test, Dr. Gampher will do something stupid for the class.
What you expect to see is what you will see
This is a top down process
You have particular cues
We are very good at sensing depth
We have binocular depth cues (which allow you to see with one eye)
Monocular depth cues are depth with one eye
Binocular depth develops first (3 months)
Monocular depth is responsible for optical illusions being effective and perceiving where something or someone is relative to something else
Binocular depth is important in fine tuning
Movies are a bunch of still pictures put together
We see them as motion when our brains can’t process the individual frames fast enough Dogs can see each individual frame on CRT TVs
Compound eyes (like those dragonflies) will always see the screen flicker because they process flickering so quickly
Each lens has its own photoreceptors and they form a collective image
130 Hz is the flicker frequency
Color, brightness, and shape Constancy are responsible for perceived differences in shapes, colors, and lights.
Parallel processing allows us to process all facets of an image and then hold onto that perception
We detect frequency (which gives us pitch)
We also detect amplitude (which is loudness)
Almost all sounds are broken into multiple frequencies and amplitudes
This gives us timbre
Sound is waves IN A PARTICULAR MEDIUM
You can hear in space because there is matter in space (it would just sound different, like when you’re underwater, because it’s a different medium)
Air waves being conducted into the ear vibrate the ear drum, the bones of the middle ear vibrate the semicircular canals, and the fluid vibrates the hair cells which initiates a chemical change and an action potential
The cochlea prevents reverb (backflow of the fluid)
You can determine frequency and amplitude based on which cells are being stimulated and where they are.
Interaural time difference is which ear gets a sound first based on where it is Interaural level difference is telling how loud that sound is
Depth of sound (sound from above or below you) is determined to be so by how the waves hit the folds of your ear (which affects how you perceive it)
The outer ear is to funnel sound BUT it ALSO gives you differences in where it’s coming from because it blocks part of a wave on any incident trajectory and that affects how you hear it.
Owls have the lowest kill rate of raptors because they frequently run into trees, injuring themselves and starving to death.
Hearing damage comes primarily from things we do ourselves
Smell is olfaction
Taste is gustation
With olfaction, everything gives off a certain amount of chemicals.
Those go into your nasal passages, get caught in a membrane, and picked up The membrane is the Olfactory epithelium
The Olfactory bulb processes smell (IT DOES NOT GO THROUGH THE THALAMUS) We have the ability to distinguish a trillion smells, but we don’t perceive it that way. There’s an emotional component to smell
Amygdala tells us what a smell reminds us of (memory association is how we identify smells) In the brain, you have a lot of things that come together to be processed in one place. We detect 5 tastes (including salt and umami)
We detect energy, acids, bases, proteins, and salts.
Papillae contain your taste buds
Saliva helps break down foods but, more importantly, it’s the mechanism for getting chemicals inside your papillae.
There is variability in taste BUT a lot of this has to do with expectations
It’s also based on what you need (energy, protein, acid, base, or salt).
For us, almost all smell and taste is top-down processing.
The largest organ in your body is skin
You have lots of sensory receptors in your skin
You have pressure receptors and thermal receptors
We have pressure, warmth, cold, and pain.
Pain is typically associated with actual or potential tissue damage
This is a protective mechanism
Nociceptors (a step above the normal receptors) are a class of sensory receptors that, when you activate them, you typically get a pain signal. They activate when the stimulation far exceeds the receptor threshold or the receptors are not responding.
Fast fibers and slow fibers
Fast is sharp pain
Slow is dull, steady pain
Endorphins allow you to endure pain
Neuropathic pain is pain that is related to neurological disfunction
Amputees still feel pain in their amputated space because there’s no receptors to signal (no response is interpreted as a pain signal)
We can control pain by distracting yourself (again, power of attention)
Kinesthesis is where your body is in space (we don’t usually think about this, but we can) Vestibular is a sense of balance (where you are in relation to the ground)
If the fluid is vibrated, it deactivates your vestibular senses and your brain relies on your vision (this is how VR works)
Intro to Psychology Exam 1 Review Notes
GABA – Inhibitory; it inhibits action potentials (it’s a depressant) Valium and alcohol are GABA agonists
Serotonin – responsible for emotional control (lack causes anxiety)
Dopamine – Reward and motor arousal stimulation
Acetylcholine – Motor control and memory
Epinephrine – provides a burst of energy for fight-or-flight responses
Norepinephrine – increase alertness and mental arousal (not motor arousal) Endorphins – pain reduction and euphoria
Glutamate: Excitatory; enhances action potentials (it’s a stimulant); speeds up memory and learning (overclocking can cause loss of memory).
Agonists increase neurotransmitter functioning
Antagonists inhibit neurotransmitter functioning
Dopamine, serotonin, GABA, glutamate, acetylcholine
Page 47 Table 2.1 (KNOW THAT TABLE)
Hormones are distributed through the endocrine system and this is their defining difference from neurotransmitters
Know the parts of neurons and what they do
Dendrites receive information
Cell Body integrates that information and initiates an action potential if necessary Axon conducts the action potential (sodium potassium exchange continues down the axon) The synapse is where the neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft
In action potential, sodium comes in, potassium comes out, and the cell becomes positively charged and that charge is conducted down the axon.
Transmission, reception, and integration
Transmission is passing a neural signal from one neuron to another
Reception is receiving that signal
Integration is interpreting that signal and deciding whether to continue the action potential or stop it
Slow receptors are unmyelinated and fast receptors are myelinated
Parts of the brain and what they do
Medulla: heartrate, respiration, thermal control (life functions)
Pons: sleep, left-right movement, arousal
Cerebellum: survival instincts (including where you are in space)
Page 53 chart KNOW THIS
These are all autonomic systems
Substantia Nigra: Voluntary movements
Thalamus: processes all sensory information EXCEPT smell
Hypothalamus: Regulates everything
Hippocampus: memory formation
Basal Ganglia: motor function and reward
The four lobes:
Occipital controls vision
Parietal controls touch and vestibular/kinesthetic senses (orientation and motor control) Temporal: hearing
Frontal: personality and how you make decisions
Know primary motor cortex is an independent part of the parietal lobe just in case
Consciousness – a state of awareness (arousal) and alertness
It’s the result of brain activity
Dualism is the idea that the mind is separate from the brain
Materialism is the idea that the mind is inseparable from the brain (the processing of the brain allows for the experiences of the mind)
Subliminal perception – information which is processed unconsciously (how hot or cold it is, is it daylight out, etc.)
There are three major types of drugs:
Stimulants: increase neurotransmitter and/or hormone activity (heart rate/blood pressure increase, and energy and behavior increase)
Opiates: reduce pain and provide euphoria
Depressants: reduce energy and activity (activate GABA)
Marijuana – hallucinogen
Morphine – opiate
Codeine – opiate
Cocaine – stimulant
Heroin – opiate
Methamphetamine – stimulant
LSD – hallucinogen
Alcohol and Valium are depressants
Caffeine is a stimulant
Opiates are a drug
In addiction, the body has formed a dependency
Tolerance is the body’s increased resistance to a drug
Withdrawal is anxiety, tension, and cravings for what they have sworn off of.
Psychological schools of thought
Structuralism – understanding the component parts through introspection (inspecting own thought) (Tiechenter and Wundt)
Example of introspection – Mary describes her feelings and thoughts after seeing a picture Functionalism – understanding how parts work together to adapt (James and Darwin) Natural selection and survival of the fittest are proponents of this
Psychoanalytic came next (it’s that idiot Freud’s idea that conscious actions are due to unconscious conflicts of the mind)
Freud studied dreaming to determine this and see how these unconscious thoughts caused psychological disorders
Freudian slips have to do with subliminal perception
Gestalt – the whole is different from the sum of the parts (multiple people seeing something in different ways; how they experience their sensory input) (Wertheimer and Kohler)
Behaviorism – understanding through the study of behavior and how the environment affects behavior (Skinner and Watson)
Humanism – understanding happiness, motivation, positive thoughts (Maslow and Rogers)
Cognitive psychology – understanding of how thought processing affects behavior and personality (Miller and Neisser)
Know functionalism is a response to structuralism and know gestalt is the total opposite of functionalism, but you don’t need to know the chronology (the above list is chronological just in case).
Levels of Analysis
Biological – how physical processes of the body influence behavior
Neurotransmitters, hormones, the structure of your brain, and genes are all good examples of influential factors.
Twin studies are frequent because of study of how genes influence behavior Individual – how a person’s personality affects their behavior
Individual differences, perception, thought processes, etc.
Cultural – how ethnic and religious backgrounds affect behavior
How thoughts, feelings, and actions are similar or different across cultures Social – how interaction affects behavior
How people affect one another
Descriptive – you describe what’s happening without interacting
Observational is a subsection of this
Watching how people behave to classify behaviors (coding behaviors)
Issues are not knowing the motivation for actions, observer bias
Reactivity: acting uncharacteristically in the presence of the investigator Observer bias: only reporting what corresponds with what you expected to happen Errors in observation caused by seeing something other than what you expected cause this Self-reports (questionnaires and surveys)
Self-report bias: answering surveys falsely to preserve your self-image
Interviews (people frequently try to impress)
Case studies: Intense investigations of unique subjects
Virtually impossible to replicate (validity is an issue)
It takes a long time too
Correlational study method – describes how two different variables behave with respect to each other
This only shows the possibility of causality, it CANNOT PROVE IT.
Directionality problem says you don’t know which causes what
The third variable problem is that you don’t know if a third variable is inducing the perceived effect (spurious correlation)
Experimental study method – tests for causality by testing a theory
Independent and dependent variables are used
Confounds are extraneous factors which may influence the outcome of the experiment (control groups minimize this)
Random assignment – getting good individual diversity in groups to minimize predisposition to the effect tested for.
Random sampling – getting a diverse population for a research group to best represent people in general.
Ethical guidelines for psychological study
Privacy/confidentiality – ensures protection of personal identification and sensitive information associated therewith.
Informed consent – brief summary of the study provided to the population Deception – concealing what the study is about initially to preserve accurate results
Perception: how the brain processes things
Interpretation (big factor in the difference between sensation and perception) Sensation – the senses detecting stimuli
Sensations go to your brain (all except smell go through the thalamus) to be processed Sensation threshold
Absolute – minimum amount of stimulus needed
Difference – amount needed to detect a change in stimuli (Weber’s law says noticeable difference is based on the intensity of change; if the original stimulus is less intense, a dramatic change in the affirmative is easier to detect i.e. from talking to screaming vs. from screaming to screaming louder
Perception – feeling based on what is detected
Hit or miss detection
Hit: stimulus is present and person responds
Miss: stimulus is present and person does not respond
False alarm: stimulus is NOT present and person responds
Correct rejection: stimulus is NOT present and person does not respond
Light enters through the cornea and pupil, passes through the lens, and stimulates photoreceptor cells at the back of the eye
The iris is the muscle that determines aperture width (how big your pupil is) Rods detect levels of brightness and darkness (no color involved)
They respond best in low levels of illumination
Cones detect all colors including black and white
They respond best in high levels of illumination
Better at seeing color and fine detail
Bottom up and top down processing
Taking existing information and using it to process new information
This one’s basically a match game with any stimulus you’re presented with Bottom-up
You’re seeing new information and you have to define it and create a new memory and association with the perceived stimuli.
60 questions (mostly application based)
They are statistically weighted so if there’s a question everyone gets wrong, it might be dropped, and the score adjusted accordingly.
There will not be a curve though
Read the textbook