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ALBANY / OTHER / APSY 333 / What is the Hypothesis?

# What is the Hypothesis? Description

##### Description: All of class notes and topics from the study guide that will be on the exam.
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Research Strategies

## What is the Hypothesis?

● Scientific approach

○ Hypothesis: a proposition made based on limited evidence to attempt

further investigation on the topic.

● Common Research Topics

■ Incidence rates: extent to which new cases of a disorder

appear over a specific time period

■ Prevalence rates: all cases, whether new or previously

existing, that are observed during a specified time of period

(more or less common)

■ Risk Factor: a variable that precedes an outcome of interest

and increases chance negative outcome will occur (pg. 70)

■ Protective factor: a positive variable that precedes an

outcome of interest and decreases chances negative outcome

will occur

■ Correlated variables: variables associated at a particular point in time with no clear proof that one proceeds the other (Pearson  product: higher the number- stronger the relationship, positive

## What are the Incidence rates?

or negative- direction)

● Methods of Studying Behavior (pg. 67)

○ Standardization: a set of norms is specified for a measurement  procedure so that it can be used consistently across different  We also discuss several other topics like What lures new firms to enter industry?

assessments

○ Reliability: consistency of measure, either across raters or time ○ Validity: extent to which the method actually measures the construct

of interest

■ Internal Validity: refers to the extent to which the explanation  is judged to be correct or sound. Effects observed in a study are  due to the manipulation of the independent variable and not

some other factor.

■ External Validity: addresses generalizability, the extent to  which the results of an investigation apply to other populations

and situations.

● True experimental: research has maximum control over the independent  variable, subjects are randomly assigned, and possible sources of bias are

## What are the Prevalence rates?

We also discuss several other topics like What are all chemical reactions in the body catalyzed by?

controlled

○ True Experiment: Abecedarian Project, Ramey & Campbell 1948 ■ IV: Educational program

■ DV: Developmental or intellectual test

● Correlation studies: only examine relationships among variables-causality

cannot be determined

● Research Designs (pg. 74-75)

○ Common examples are the A-B-A-B *(reversal) design and the multiple If you want to learn more check out What can cause bone deformation?

baseline design (A-baseline B-intervention)

○ Time Frames in Research (Pg.76)

■ Cross-sectional Studies: individuals at different ages or

stages of development

■ Longitudinal Studies: same individuals are studied at different

ages or stages in the development

■ Accelerated Longitudinal Studies: a combination of

longitudinal and cross-sectional approaches

Understanding Abnormal Child Psychology

● Features that distinguish child and adolescent disorders ○ Often not clear whose “problem” it is

■ Children do not refer themselves to mental health treatment

(usually because of a parent or teacher)

○ Failure to show expected development progress

■ Language development, social developmental goals, academic

goals, self-regulation

○ Many problems behaviors are not entirely abnormal

○ Interventions intended to promote further development ■ Try to get a child into normal and further development We also discuss several other topics like What are the syndromes related to sex chromosome abnormalities?

● Historical Views of Child Psychopathology

○ Jean-Marc Itard (19th Century)

■ Advanced the belief that children should be treated with  We also discuss several other topics like what is the listing of all possible out outcomes?

kindness and compassion. (Victor- Wild boy of Aveyron: one of

the first attempts to work with a special needs child)

● Mental Hygiene and Child Guidance Movement (pg. 10-11) ○ Mental Hygiene Movement

■ Increase understanding, improve treatment, prevent disorders ○ Child Guidance Movement If you want to learn more check out What is syndicated data?

■ 1896 UPenn Lightner Witmer (set up first child psychology clinic

in the US).

■ 1909 Juvenile Psychopathic Institute, Interdisciplinary approach

(a psychologist and psychiatrist set it up)

● Defining Psychological Disorders (pg. 3)

○ A pattern of behavioral, cognitive, or physical symptoms, that is  associated with one or more of distress, disability and increased risk

for further suffering or harm

○ Importance of relationships: family, peer, siblings

○ Labels: describe behavior, not the child (stigma)

● Competence

○ Must consider not only the degree of maladaptive behavior but also

children’s competence

■ Ability to adapt in the environment and achieve normal

development

○ Development tasks: performance relative to same-age peers Developmental Influences

○ Adaptational failure: failure to master or progress in accomplishing  developmental milestones. Differ from children their own age on some

aspect of normal development

○ Pathways of Development (pg.24)

■ Reversal of maladaptation: start out poorly, end up doing well ■ Decline of adaptation: start out well, end up poorly

■ Temporal maladaptation: start out well, temporary poor phase

but end up well

○ Multifinality: similar early experiences lead to different outcomes (pg.

25)

○ Equifinality: different factors lead to a similar outcome

■ The strength of the child, strength of the family, strength of the

school/community.

■ Related to resilience

● Managing to avoid negative outcomes and/or the ability to

achieve positive outcomes

● Displaying sustained successful ability under stress

● Showing recovery from trauma

○ Risk factors

■ Variables that precede a negative outcome and increase the

chances that the outcome will occur

■ Typically involved acute, stressful situations, as well as chronic

■ Known risk factors include: community violence and disaster,  divorce/family break-up, poverty, homelessness, parental

○ Resilience

■ The ability to avoid negative outcomes despite being at risk for

psychopathology

■ Associated with strong self-confidence, coping skills, ability to  avoid risky situations, ability to fight off or recover from

misfortune

Biological Influences

● Structures of the brain (pg. 38-39)

○ Cerebral hemispheres: sensory processing, monitor control, and

higher mental functioning

○ Limbic system: regulates emotional experiences

■ Involved in disordered behavior (norepinephrine, serotonin,

dopamine, acetylcholine GABA)

○ Abnormal Development

■ Prenatal: excessive medication, unusual delivery, anoxia (lack

of oxygen)

■ Postnatal: accident, illness, malnutrition, accidental poisoning

○ Nervous system functioning and biochemistry

■ Neurons: vary in shape, size, and chemistry but all have a cell

body, dendrites, and axon

■ Neurotransmitters: when the impulse reaches the end of the

axon

● Dopamine: attention, motivation, pleasure, and reward

● Serotonin: obsession and compulsion

● Also Acetylcholine and GABA

○ Molecular Genetics

■ Discover the genes associated with a disorder. Strategies for

finding genes

● Linkage analysis: location of the defective gene

(specific chromosome). Huntington's disease chromosome

4

● Association analysis: tests whether a particular form of

a gene (an allele) is associated with a trait or disorder in

the population. DRD4 and DAT4 are associated with ADHD

○ Behavioral Genetic Research (pg. 43)

■ 3 major strategies used to asses heritability

● Family: relatives of an individual with disorder examined

● Twin: comparison of identical twin resemblance to

fraternal twin resemblance

● Adoption: evaluate the relative contributions of genetics

and environment

■ Results suggest that heritability estimates from behavioral

disorders rarely exceed 50%. Provides evidence for the

importance of environmental influence.

Classification, Assessment, Treatment

● The Decision Making Process

○ Idiographic: detailed understanding of the child and family as a

unique entity

○ Nomothetic: emphasizes more general inferences that apply to broad

groups of individuals

● Development Consideration

○ Age, gender, and culture

■ More commonly reported among males: attention-deficit/  hyperactivity disorder, childhood conduct disorder, intellectual  disability, autism spectrum disorder, language disorder, specific

learning disorder, enuresis

■ More commonly reported among females: anxiety

disorders, adolescent depression, eating disorders, sexual abuse ■ Equally reported among males and females: adolescent

conduct disorder, childhood depression, feeding disorder,

physical abuse and neglect

■ School refusal in a 13-year-old. Gender difference in rates and  expression of childhood disorders. Shyness and oversensitivity in

Western vs. Eastern cultures.

● Purpose of Assessment

○ Clinical description: summarizes child’s unique behaviors, thoughts,

and feelings that make up psychological disorders

○ Diagnosis:refers to assigning a category of a classification

system to an individual

○ Prognosis: generating predictions regarding future behaviors ● Assessing Disorders

○ Clinical interviews: developmental and family history (Structured or

unstructured interviews)

○ Behavioral assessment: frequently made in the child’s natural  environment, although situations are sometimes created in clinic or

laboratory setting to approximate naturally occuring interactions.  ○ Checklist: described in our discussion of classification. Checklist

scores clearly discriminated between the clinic and nonreferred

children regarding both behavior problems and social competencies ○ Rating scales: a general rating scale may thus help a clinician judge

the child’s adjustment relative to norms for referred and nonpreferred

populations.

○ Intelligence and educational testing: these tests are a central  defining feature for disorders such as intellectual disability and  learning disabilities, but it may also contribute to and be affected by a

wide array of behavioral problems.

○ Projective testing: these tests are less commonly used today, a large part because of debates regarding lack of empirical norms, reliability,  and validity. Projective tests were derived from the psychoanalytic  notion of projection as a defense mechanism: one way the ego deals  with unacceptable impulses is to project them onto some external

object.

● Classification and Diagnosis

○ Categorical: a discrete grouping, for example, anxiety disorder; into

which an individual’s symptoms judged to fit or not to fit.

○ Dimensional: an attribute is and can occur to various degrees. For  example, a child may exhibit high, moderate, or low levels of anxiety.

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