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AU / Biology / BIO 1030 / In biology, what is sporophyte?

In biology, what is sporophyte?

In biology, what is sporophyte?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: Biology
Course: Organismal Biology
Professor: Debbie folkerts
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Biology
Cost: 50
Name: Biology Exam 2 Study Guide (plants)
Description: This study guide covers chapters 29 and 30 for the upcoming exam! Every phylum and species is explained, as well as plant parts, patterns in life cycles, and reproductive systems.
Uploaded: 09/30/2018
7 Pages 21 Views 5 Unlocks
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Fall 2018 Dr. Finger


In biology, what is sporophyte?



BIOL 1030 EXAM 2- PLANTS

1. MAIN CONCEPTS

A. Plant parts/ generations

i. Sporophyte: 2n multicell “spore producing” generation in life cycle of a plant ii. Sporangia: multicellular spore vessels that make n spores

1. Spore: n cell that develops into multicell organism w/o fusing w another iii. Gametophyte: n multicell generation in life cycle of plant

iv. Gametangia: vessel with gametes, where gametes are made

B. Require water: algae, moss, lycophytes, manilophytes.

C. Germination: plant growth from a seed (sprout → shoot)

2. ARCHAEPLASTIDA SUPERGROUP “ANCIENT PLASTIDS” A. Ancestral algae → Archaeplastida → red/ green algae + plants


Gematangi, vessel containing what?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is preferential looking technique?
We also discuss several other topics like How common is fetal alcohol syndrome?

i. Photosynthesis and storage capabilities  Don't forget about the age old question of What is written in the dead sea scrolls?

ii. Red Algae phylum, and Vidriplastidae Clade [green algae (chlorophytes and  charophytes), embryophytes] and Streptophyta Plantae (Charophytes and  Embryophytes)  

B. Vidriplantae Clade: green algae (chloro/charophytes) & true plants (embryophytes)

i. Embryophytes (Kingdom Plantae): plants with embryos on land ii. Eukaryote shared traits: multicellular, photoautotrophic Don't forget about the age old question of What are the types of data collection?

iii. Protist shared traits: cellulose (made of 1,4 beta glucose)

iv. Apomorphies (unique traits)

1. sporic meiosis, alteration of generations;  


What is charophytes?



a. n spore → n gametophyte → FERTILIZATION → 2n zygote → 2n  sporophyte → MEIOSIS → n spore (repeat)

2. multicell, dependent embryo;  

3. walled spores (made in sporangia)

4. multicell gametangia: f. Archegonia (→ egg) & m. Antheridia (→ sperm) a. gematangia: vessel containing gametes (gametes made) We also discuss several other topics like What is moral skepticism in ethics?

b. egg fertilized in archegonium,

c. microgametophytes:

d. embryonic sporophyte in gametophyte for protection

5. apical meristems: area at tip of shoot where cell division occurs, for  vertical growth and tissue differentiation, covered by leaves

6. cuticle: waxy outer layer, covers epidermis

v. Plant cell structure

1. Central vacuole: water and storage

2. Chloroplasts: photosynthesis, have outer/inter/inner membranes, stroma  fluid, and granums, stacks of thylakoid membranes with lumen inside. a. Pigments for photosynthesis: green chlorophylls (a + B), yellow/  orange carotenoids (xanthophyll and carotenes)

b. Pigments for protection: red anthocyanins

c. Photosynthesis has two steps, harnesses excitd electrons

i. Light Dependent Reactions (water splits → O2 made, light and H+ gradient → ATP) Don't forget about the age old question of What is structural violence­?

ii. Calvin Cycle/ Light Independent Reactions: (CO2 carbon  fixation by RuBiSco, ATP reduction by G3P, regeneration of  G3P into RuBP which accepts CO2,  

vi. Plant Tissue cross-section

1. Cuticle → Upper epidermis → mesophyll (palisade, spongy) → lower  epidermis → stoma, pores that allow gas exchange (has guard cell) C. Plant Groups

i. Charophytes → origin of plants →

ii. Bryophytes (not a clade) → vascularity of plants →

a. Nonvascular, short, seedless, no tissues

b. Life cycle mainly gametophyte (larger body and longer life,  

sporophyte not always present)

i. Spores → thread-like n protonema(ta) → m. and f.  

gametophytes (sperm and egg) → gametangiophore (m.  

antheridium and f. archegonia) → FERTILIZATION →

sporophyte (dependent on gametophyte) → mature  

sporophyte on rhizoid gametophyte (foot, absorbs  

nutrients/ seta, conducts nutrients to capsule/ capsule  

(sporangium) produces spores through peristole)

c. Root-like rhizoids: not roots, no true tissue /leaves for any absorption.  2. Hepatophyta (liverworts)

a. Large thallus (gametophyte, for photosynthesis)

b. Sexual and asexual reproduction (gemmae cups)

i. Sporophyte: gametophyte stack on the bottom (bunch of  leaves), seta stem, and capsule on top

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ii. Gametophyte: leaf shape, w/ thallus + rhizoids on underside iii. Asexual Female Gametophyte

1. Gemmae cups (suction cup shape, 2n sporophyte on the top,  

gemmas in stem, thick thallus underneath, covered w rhizoids

2. Archegonia (looks like palm tree) “head” on this leaf as well

iv. Sexual Male Gametophyte  

1. Antheridia (looks like palm tree)  

c. Sporophyte

i. Seta on top, spores (have embryo from egg and sperm  fertilization) and make rhizoids (gametophytes) look like 0= d. LIFE CYCLE 

i. Peristome in capsule/sporangium on seta of sporophyte/  gametophyte → n spores that germinate → protonema → bud  with apical meristem → gametophyte (m. and f. gametangia) 1. M. gametangia → antheridia → sperm  

2. F. gametangia → archegonia → egg, gets fertilized in  

archegonium → young sporophyte that depends on the  

gametophyte for nutrients

a. Foot → nutrients → seta → capsule/ sporangium (spores)

3. Bryophyta (mosses)

a. 1 cell thick “leaves” arranged around stem-like axis, 1000+ species 4. Anthocerophyta (hornworts)

a. Sporophyte is horn-tapered looking, no setae, only sporangia (which  looks like 3 long leaves arranged on a small bunch (gametophyte) b. 1 chloroplast per cell  

iii. Seedless Vascular → seed →

1. TRACHEOPHYTES, Contain vascular tissue  

2. Independent gametophyte and sporeophyte

3. Require moist environment for reproduction

4. Apomorphies (unique traits)

a. Xylem and phloem

b. Leaves, roots, stems

c. Life cycle with a dominant sporophyte

d. Sporophylls (spore leaves)→ leaves with sporangia → spores → gametophyte (not relied on for nutrition)  

5. 3 Types of Plant Tissue

a. Vascular Tissue: innermost, vessels for water/nutrients, tall plants i. Xylem: water, one way. dead cells. root s → stem and leaves ii. Phloem: sugar + AA’s, two way. sieve plates btwn living cells

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b. Ground Tissue: middle, storage, photosynthesis, support. Contains  the most chloroplasts for photosynthesis.

c. Dermal Tissue: outer, epidermis for protection, prevents water loss i. Cuticle (waxy outer layer secreted by epidermis

ii. Mesophyll (palisade, spongy), stomata pores 4 gas exchange 6. Tissues → ORGANS

a. Roots: anchor plants, absorb water/ minerals/ store carbohydrates b. Stem: leaves and buds, maximize photosynthesis by elongation/  orientation, elevates reproductive structure.  

c. Leaves: attached by nodes to stem, photosynthesis, gas exchange, heat  dissipation, defense.  

i. Microphylls: spine-shaped, one unbranched vein, lycophyte ii. Megaphylls: lots more branched vascular tissue, more  photosynthetic capability.  

7. Homospory: most seedless vascular plants

a. Embryo→ sporangium on chlorophyll → one type of spore → bisexual  gametophyte → makes both sperm (antheridium) and eggs  (archegonium) → FERTILIZATION → 2n zygote → embryo, repeat 8. Heterospory: all seed containing plants

a. n F. gametophyte, archegonium → egg

b. n M. gametophyte, antheridium→ sperm

→ FERTILIZATION → zygote

→ embryo → 2n sporeophyte  

→ TWO PATHS:

c. Megasporangium → MEIOSIS → megaspore → f. gametophyte d. Microsporangium → MEIOSIS → microspore → m. gametophyte 9. Phyla:

a. Lycophytes: not true mosses

i. Homosporous species: club mosses,

ii. Heterosporous species: spike mosses, quillworts

iii. 3 Environment types: epiphytes (attached to tree),  terrestrial, aquatic.  

iv. Microphyll leaves and Strobili: clusters of sporophylls v. Flagellated sperm

b. Monilophytes: more similar to seed plants than lycophytes i. All homosporous: Ferns (whisk ferns), horsetails

ii. Megaphyll leaves, branching roots

iii. Moist environment

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iv. Ferns:  

1. Sporophyte and gametophyte are separate

2. Sori: spores on frond (whole leaf)/ leaves

3. Structure: frond (whole leaf) composed of blade with many  

individual pinna leaflets, and stalk/ axis. The base is made of a  

Rhizome with a root on the bottom and a fiddlehead crozier  

frond swirl on the top.  

4. FERN LIFE CYCLE

a. N spore → gametophyte → Rhizoid with antheridium (sperm)  

and archegonium (egg) → FERTILIZATION → 2n zygote →

young leaf-looking sporophyte with gametophyte and roots on  

the base → mature sporophyte with a full fern structure. Zoom  

in on a pinna leaflet and find a sori (spore on leaf) that  

develops into a sporangium → MEIOSIS → n spore

iv. Seeded plants: Gymnosperms → flowering → Angiosperms 1. Don’t need water to disperse (more speciation for dry climates) 2. Reduced gametophyte (microscopic, in ovulate cones), depends on  sporophyte (spores not released, seed disperses instead)

a. Ovulate cones: have fertilizable ovules (2n integument surrounding  2n megasporangium surrounding n megaspore covered in spore wall)  and release an n pollen grain.

1. Ovule fertilization by sperm from m. gametophyte, creating a  

pollen tube at the entrance and fusing the egg and sperm nucleus  in the n megaspore.

2. Integument develops into seed coat, which covers spore wall and  then an n food supply for the 2n embryo (new sporophyte)  

developing inside, making a SEED (embryonic plant  

surrounded by an outer protective coat, contains nutrients)

3. Macrophyll leaves

4. Heterosporous

5. Seed development (for a normal bean)

i. Germination: sprouting and plant growth

Plumule → shoot (hypo & epicotyl, separated by cotyledons) b. A radicle on the groove of the bean develops into a root, and the bean  part opens and exposes 2 cotydelon leaves inside, which grow  upwards as the plant, supported by a hypocotyl stem.  

Cotyledon → 1st leaves

c. The plant grows above the cotydelon leaves by the epicotyl,  developing foliage leaves. Eventually the cotydelon leaves fall off. v. Gymnosperms: “naked seed” seed protected by pine cone scale, not fruit

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a. Strobilus pine cone: sporophyll → pine cone scale: sporangium, 2  leaves (wings) inside.

2. Phylum Cycadophyta:

a. palm-like leaves (not real palm; that produces fruit!)

b. Evergreen, Large cones, flagellated sperm

c. Dioecious: reproductive organs on separate plants (female and male),  for angio and gymnosperms.  

3. Phylum Gingkophyta:

a. Gingko Bilboa is the only surviving species (pollutant tolerant) b. Flagellated sperm

c. Dioecious

4. Phylum Gnetophyta:

a. 3 genera: Gnetum, Ephedia, Welwitschia

b. Vessel elements

c. Sperm not flagellated

5. Phylum Coniferophyta:  

a. Evergreens

b. 2n sporeophyte: females cones on top, male cones on the bottom c. Monoecious: male and female reproductive structures on same plant i. Male gametophyte (POLLEN grain) has “wings/ air sacs” w/  prothalli cells, tube cells, & regenerative cells between wings d. No flagellated sperm

e. Male gametophyte: has wings/ air sacs

f. Conifer Life Cycle:  

i. Plant with ovulate cone on the top → ovule → 2n  

megarsporangia with 2n megasporocyte inside

ii. Pollen cone on the bottom → 2n microsporangia → n pollen  grains that go into megasporocyte

iii. Megasporangium covered by integument → MEIOSIS → surviving n megaspore with f gametophyte (Archegonium)  inside → pollen tube opening allows for sperm to enter next  to egg → FERTILIZATION → food reserves around 2n new  sporophyte embryo covered by 2n seed coat → seeds grow  into seedling → plant with ovulate cone on top and pollen  cone on the bottom

g. Types of Conifers:  

i. Bristlecone pine: oldest, 1000s of years

1. Bristles for dry climates, thicccck base

ii. Coastal Redwood: tallest on the planet

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1. 300+ meters, owl-shaped leaves

iii. Longleaf pine:  

1. along coastal plain of SE united states

2. Used to cover 60 million acres but has declined 80% in 100 years  due to excessive logging. They also require burning

3. Require regular burning so that less than 1% of old growth  

(mean age of trees is 150-200 years, >50 cm) virgin (never been  

harvested) forest remains.

4. Similar but not interchangeable species: Slash and Loblolly,  

which grow faster, have no development stage and produce  

much denser forests (not good)  

5. Soil preference: soft, sandy loams on upland hills (specific  

porosity for nutrients)

6. Longleaf Pine Savannah: forest of these pines

a. Spatial structure: widely spaced, open canopy for sun filtration  

to understory (grasses, forbes, shrubs)

b. Assemblage: groups of phylo-related organisms

i. Fiber optic mimosa, maybuds, orange milkweed…

ii. Gopher Tortoise: keystone species (causes diversity),  

specialized to longleaf pine and maintains a symbiotic  

relationship with it (tortoise burrows and houses  

different animals, helps germinate seeds for diversity of  

tree/ tree provides structure for the tortoise to live)

iv. Bald Cypress:  

1. coastal areas, slender leaves, BIG roots

2. deciduous (only type of deciduous tree in this area)  

a. orange (carotenoids), red (anthocyanin), fall off → bald

3. cypress knees: use unknown, maybe gas exchange or support

vi. Angiosperms: flowering plants (25,000 species)

1. Only one phylum: Anthophyta

2. Monoecious and dioecious

3. Reproductive structures: flowers and fruits

4. Whorl: circular arrangement of 3+ organs around a central axis, multiple  modified leaves at same node (branch off point of stem)

a. Petals

b. Sepals (leaves below flower)

c. Carpels (single → simple pistil)

d. Stamens (around pistil, p shaped)

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