Key terms for Chapter 6-8
Human Anatomy and Physiology
∙ Skeletal System- organ system with tissues that grow and change through life.
-Supporting connective tissue: cartilage and bone ∙ Cartilage- semirigid (flexible)
-cell: condroblasts and condrocrytes
-condroblasts produce matrix and chondrocytes are mature condroblasts in a lacunae
∙ Perichondrium- dense irregular tissue and stem cells for cartilage growth
∙ Cartilage supports soft tissues, gliding surface where bones meet, precursor model for bone growth
-Hyaline cartilage- glassy, most common, smooths joint surfaces, covers articular ends of lung bones
-Fibrocartilage- parallel fibers in matrix, no perichondrium, absorbs shock, resists compression
-Elastic cartilage- elastic fibers around lacunae, maintains shape
∙ Periosteum- dense irregular tissue covering
∙ Compact bone- arranged in cylindrical osteons of concentric lamellae
∙ Spongy bone- house hematopoiesis cells that generate ∙ Bone- support, project, movement, hematopoiesis storage of mineral and energy reserves
∙ Articular cartilage- thin layer of hyaline cartilage ∙ Osteoprogenitor cells- produce more stem cells or osteoblasts
∙ Osteoblasts- form bone matrix (secrete as organic osteoid) ∙ Osteocytes- reside in lacunae
∙ Osteoclasts-large multinuclear cells that dissolve bone matrix
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∙ Ossification- formation of bone
-patterns: intramembranous- flat bones of the skull, some facial bones, mandible, and central portion of clavicle -endochondral-produces majority of bones in the body
∙ Vitamins are needed for normal bone growth and maintenance
∙ Fractures- break in bones
∙ Skeletal system: axial- skull, vertebral column thoracic cage. Appendicular- shoulder and hip bones
∙ Cranial bones- 8 bones that close the brain
∙ Facial bones-14 bones that form the face, form part of the orbital and nasal, support teeth, muscles for expression and chewing
∙ Lacrimal bone- lacrimal groove provides a passageway for the nasolacrimal
∙ Nasal bone- form the bridge of nose often fractures by blows to the nose
∙ Sinuses- resonating chambers for the voice, mucous lining humidifies and warms inhaled air, lightens skull
∙ Nasal complex- bones and cartilages forming the nasal cavities and sinuses around them
∙ Vertebral column- 24 vertebras
- You eat breakfast at 7am, lunch at 12 noon, dinner at 5pm ∙ Appendicular skeleton- bones of the limbs and the girdles of bones that attach limbs to axial skeleton Don't forget about the age old question of What needs need to be satisfied before moving to less necessary wants or desires?
Don't forget about the age old question of Where does the krebs cycle occur?
Don't forget about the age old question of What did the 1907 gentlemen's agreement do?
∙ Pectoral girdle- articulates with the trunk and supports the upper limbs: clavicles and scapulae
∙ Glenoid cavity- articulates with head of other features (for muscle and ligament attachment)
∙ Ilium- largest of three fused coxal bones
∙ True pelvis- bony basin inferior to pelvic brim containing pelvic organs
∙ False pelvis- superior to pelvic brim bound by ilia laterally and abdominal wall We also discuss several other topics like How to diagram a double heterozygote cross?
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∙ Pelvic intet- superior entrance to true pelvis
∙ Pelvic outlet- exit of true pelvis, defined by coccyx
∙ Leg is made of tibia and fibula- tibia is medial to fibula and is connected by interosseous membrane