Key terms for Chapter 6-8
Human Anatomy and Physiology
∙ Skeletal System- organ system with tissues that grow and change through life.
-Supporting connective tissue: cartilage and bone ∙ Cartilage- semirigid (flexible)
-cell: condroblasts and condrocrytes
-condroblasts produce matrix and chondrocytes are mature condroblasts in a lacunae
∙ Perichondrium- dense irregular tissue and stem cells for cartilage growth
∙ Cartilage supports soft tissues, gliding surface where bones meet, precursor model for bone growth
-Hyaline cartilage- glassy, most common, smooths joint surfaces, covers articular ends of lung bones
-Fibrocartilage- parallel fibers in matrix, no perichondrium, absorbs shock, resists compression
-Elastic cartilage- elastic fibers around lacunae, maintains shape
∙ Periosteum- dense irregular tissue covering
∙ Compact bone- arranged in cylindrical osteons of concentric lamellae
∙ Spongy bone- house hematopoiesis cells that generate ∙ Bone- support, project, movement, hematopoiesis storage of mineral and energy reserves
∙ Articular cartilage- thin layer of hyaline cartilage ∙ Osteoprogenitor cells- produce more stem cells or osteoblasts
∙ Osteoblasts- form bone matrix (secrete as organic osteoid) ∙ Osteocytes- reside in lacunae
∙ Osteoclasts-large multinuclear cells that dissolve bone matrix
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∙ Ossification- formation of bone
-patterns: intramembranous- flat bones of the skull, some facial bones, mandible, and central portion of clavicle -endochondral-produces majority of bones in the body
∙ Vitamins are needed for normal bone growth and maintenance
∙ Fractures- break in bones
∙ Skeletal system: axial- skull, vertebral column thoracic cage. Appendicular- shoulder and hip bones
∙ Cranial bones- 8 bones that close the brain
∙ Facial bones-14 bones that form the face, form part of the orbital and nasal, support teeth, muscles for expression and chewing
∙ Lacrimal bone- lacrimal groove provides a passageway for the nasolacrimal Don't forget about the age old question of What is elizabeth cady stanton best known for?
∙ Nasal bone- form the bridge of nose often fractures by blows to the nose
∙ Sinuses- resonating chambers for the voice, mucous lining humidifies and warms inhaled air, lightens skull
∙ Nasal complex- bones and cartilages forming the nasal cavities and sinuses around them
∙ Vertebral column- 24 vertebras
- You eat breakfast at 7am, lunch at 12 noon, dinner at 5pm ∙ Appendicular skeleton- bones of the limbs and the girdles of bones that attach limbs to axial skeleton
∙ Pectoral girdle- articulates with the trunk and supports the upper limbs: clavicles and scapulae
∙ Glenoid cavity- articulates with head of other features (for muscle and ligament attachment) We also discuss several other topics like What is the function of glycolysis?
∙ Ilium- largest of three fused coxal bones
∙ True pelvis- bony basin inferior to pelvic brim containing pelvic organs
∙ False pelvis- superior to pelvic brim bound by ilia laterally and abdominal wall
∙ Pelvic intet- superior entrance to true pelvis
∙ Pelvic outlet- exit of true pelvis, defined by coccyx
∙ Leg is made of tibia and fibula- tibia is medial to fibula and is connected by interosseous membrane If you want to learn more check out How the alleles and traits interact?
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