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ASU / Anthropology (Social and Behavioral) / ASB 222 / What is archaeological fieldwork?

What is archaeological fieldwork?

What is archaeological fieldwork?

Description

School: Arizona State University
Department: Anthropology (Social and Behavioral)
Course: Buried Cities and Lost Tribes
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: archeology, Archaeology, and Fieldwork
Cost: 25
Name: Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Fall 2018, Week 3
Description: These notes go over the basics of fieldwork; what it is, how it works, various methods, and some examples of sites you can look up for more info.
Uploaded: 10/01/2018
1 Pages 42 Views 4 Unlocks
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10/1/2018 OneNote Online


What is archaeological fieldwork?



fieldwork

Wednesday, August 29, 2018 12:31 PM

Archeological fieldwork

• Survey

• Excavation

Surveying- record information that's at the surface (mostly finding sites, they aren't rare) • Garbage builds up, even old timey garbage, some stuff was never even lost, many discoveries are found by accident

Excavation- record information from sub-surface

Survey focuses on special perspective, excavation focuses on temporal perspective. Most archeological sites have been discovered through systematic means

I. Systematic discovery

a. Documentary sources

i. L'Anse aux Meadows, newfoundland Canada, discovered from saga Eric the Red ii. The city of Troy, Heinrich Schliemann discovered using the Iliad and Odysseys, Hissarlik


What does excavate mean?



Don't forget about the age old question of How do we find the certainty equivalent?

b. Ground survey

i. Taking walks, looking for sites, just travelling and being while explora-Dora-ing. ii. Important because you want to know about site distribution, for info and planning for resources.

iii. Ground survey can tend to be unsystematic. However, ground survey can be systematic survey, you divide the land up into sections.

c. Aerial survey

i. Remote sensing technology, most of the time uses pictures from other things, forest ranger maps for instance

ii. e.g. the vanished roman harbor town of Altium

iii. Lidar (laser and radar), load it on an airplane fly it up use it like echolocation, passes easily through vegetation.

II. Excavation

a. Not looting because they intensely document everything that they find.


What is systematic discovery?



b. Uses cartesian plane (space would be x and y, on the same horizontal plane and same time; z would be time and is on a vertical excavation.) Vertical; Crepeele, Manitoba; Horizontal; Pincevent, France, Pompeii.

c. Stratigraphy- the layers, the cultural context and format of a site. If you want to learn more check out Where did the idea of where the world first started come from?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is an amphipathic molecule?
If you want to learn more check out What does the rhombencephalon develop into?

d. Law of Superposition: each layer of sediment is younger than the layer beneath it. e. Deciding where to dig?

i. Use nonintrusive methods allow you to detect subsurface material without digging; ground penetrating radar

ii. Test pit- dig a very quick, small hole, just to see if there is something there. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 5 levels of maslow hierarchy of needs?
If you want to learn more check out Are monopolies good for society?

f. Set up a grid system

i. Abc by 123. Basically, using meters. To control the provenience/provenance of the find.

ii. Used everywhere, even underwater excavations (shipwrecks)

iii. Proveinence is important because the context in which a find is made is more important than the find, for the most part. Association is key!

iv. Extensively take notes, if you miss important information you miss it, you can't re excavate a site.

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