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UA / OTHER / PY / What is Extinction?

What is Extinction?

What is Extinction?

Description

Learning and Memory: 


What is Extinction?



• Learning:​ Experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner • Two main approaches to learning

1. Classical conditioning

2. Operant conditioning

 Other approaches:

- Observational learning

-Learning outside of awareness (implicit learning)

Classical conditioning

• When a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response; Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)

• Second-order conditioning:​ When a US is a stimulus that acquired its ability to produce learning from an earlier procedure in which it was used as a CS If you want to learn more check out world religions study guide

• Extinction: ​Gradual elimination of a learned response when the US is no longer presented • Spontaneous recovery: ​Tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period

• Generalization:​ When the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition


What is Discrimination?



• Discrimination: ​Ability to distinguish between similar but different stimuli • Adaptive behaviors help us survive

• Taste aversions ​are learned:

• Rapidly in few trials

• Over long conditioning periods

• More often with uncommon foods

• Biological preparedness: ​Propensity for learning certain associations easier than others • Operant Conditioning:​ The consequences of someone’s behavior (reward or punishment) determine whether it will be repeated in the future

• Law of effect:​ Pleasant outcomes increase the behavior; unpleasant outcomes decrease the behavior

• Operant behavior:​ A behavior that impacts the environment; coined by B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)

• Reinforcer: ​Anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior

• More effective than punishment in promoting learning

• Punisher: ​Any thing or event that decreases the likelihood of the behavior that led to it • Primary reinforcers satisfy biological needs (food, shelter, comfort, warmth) • Secondary reinforcers are associated with primary reinforcers through classical conditioning (money, verbal approval, trophies, etc.)


What is Operant Conditioning?



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• Overjustification effect:​ When external rewards undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behavior We also discuss several other topics like cmu soc
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• Shaping: ​Learning through the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behavior • Superstitions:​ Rare or odd behaviors may be repeated if they are accidentally reinforced, which may lead to mistaken beliefs

• Observational Learning:​ Learning by watching the actions

of others

• Implicit learning: ​Learning that takes place largely without awareness

• Habituation:​ Repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in weaker responses to it • Changes may not last long

• Some learning begins explicitly but becomes implicit over time (e.g., driving) • Cramming:​ Neglecting to study and then studying intensively just before an exam • Research indicates that between 25% to 50% of college students rely on cramming • Distributed practice:​ Spreading out study activities with more time between repetition of the to-be-learned information

Memory:​ Ability to store and retrieve information over time

The three key functions of memory:

1. Encoding: Transforming what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory 2. Storage: Maintaining information in memory over time

3. Retrieval: Bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored Encoding:

- Memories are made by combining information we already have with new information coming in Don't forget about the age old question of kevin kenworthy uf

- Memories are constructed, not “recorded” like through a camera

1. Semantic encoding: Actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory 2.Visual imagery encoding: Storing new information by converting it into mental pictures

3.Organizational encoding: Categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items

• Storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less

•Iconic memory: ​Fast-decaying store of visual information (~1 second)

•Echoic memory:​ Fast-decaying store of auditory information (~5 seconds) • Storage that holds non-sensory information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute; can hold about 7 items We also discuss several other topics like eco 301

• Rehearsal:​ Keeping information in STM by mentally repeating it

• Chunking: ​Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters

• Working memory: ​Active maintenance of information in STM

•Long Term Memory: ​Storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years; no known capacity

- In contrast to both sensory and short-term memory, long-term memory has no known capacity limits

-The hippocampus is critical as an ‘index’ for long-term memory storage  Anterograde amnesia:​ Inability to create new memories

 Retrograde amnesia:​ Inability to retrieve old memories (usually from before the date of an injury or operation)

Consolidation: ​How memories become stable in the brain Gets a boost from good sleep  Reconsolidation:​ Memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, requiring them to become consolidated again

-Memories strengthen the connections (synapses) between neurons, specifically in the hippocampus

Long-term potentiation (LTP):​ Communication across the synapse strengthens the connection, making further communication easier

Retrieval: ​Recalling Memories

-Information is sometimes available in memory but not

accessible

 Retrieval cues:​ External information that helps you remember stuff

 Encoding specificity principle: ​A retrieval cue is even better when it recreates the specific way in which information was initially encoded (learned)

 State dependent retrieval:​ Info is better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding (learning) and retrieval (remembering)

-The act of retrieval can strengthen a retrieved memory (especially long-term), however it can also cause forgetting

Retrieval-induced forgetting: ​Process by which retrieving an item from long-term memory impairs subsequent recall of related items

Explicit memory:​ Consciously retrieving past experiences

Implicit memory:​ Influence of past experiences on later behavior, even without an effort to remember them

 Procedural memory: ​Gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice, or “knowing how” to do things

 Explicit Memory subdivisions:

Semantic memory: ​Network of associated facts that make up our general knowledge of the world

Episodic memory:​ Collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place

Collaborative memory:​ How people share in groups

Transactive memory: ​each member of a group remembers certain kinds of information that they share with others

Transience: ​forgetting that occurs with the passage of time Memory fades more quickly at first, then slowly over time

-Involves a switch from specific to more gradual memories Retroactive interference: When information learned later

impairs memory for information acquired earlier

 Proactive interference:​ When information learned earlier impairs memory for information acquired later

Absentmindedness: ​Lapse in attention that results in memory failure

 Prospective memory:​ Remembering to do things in the future

Blocking: ​Failure to retrieve information that is available in

memory even though you are almost have it Also known as tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon Memory misattribution:​ Assigning a memory or an idea to the wrong source  Source memory:​ Recall of when, where, and how information was acquired  False recognition:​ Feeling of familiarity about something that hasn’t been encountered before Déjà vu

Suggestibility: ​incorporating misleading information from external sources into personal memories

 -People can develop false memories in response to suggestions

Bias: ​the distorting influences of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on memories  Consistency bias: ​Reconstructing the past to fit the present

 Change bias​: Exaggerating differences between what we feel

now and what we felt in the past

 Egocentric bias:​ Exaggerating the change between present and past in order to make ourselves look good

Persistence: ​Intrusive memories that we wish we could forget

-Often occurs after disturbing or traumatic events

-Emotional experiences better remembered than unemotional

ones

 Flashbulb memories:​ Detailed memories of when and where we heard about shocking events Persistence:​ Intrusive memories that we wish we could forget

-Often occurs after disturbing or traumatic events

-Emotional experiences better remembered than unemotional ones

 Flashbulb memories:​ Detailed memories of when and where we heard about shocking events

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