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KSU - PSYC 4410 - 4410 EXAM TWO GUIDE - Study Guide

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KSU - PSYC 4410 - 4410 EXAM TWO GUIDE - Study Guide

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background image PSYC 4410 EXAM TWO GUIDE CHAPTER FOUR—GENETICS, EVOLUTION, DEVLEOPMENT, AND PLASTICITY
LEARNING OUTCOMES
- Distinguish between genetic and epigenetic influences on development— o Genetics: inheritance occurs through discrete units of heredity, called genes; plays a large role 
in when and how learning, growing, and development occurs.
o Epigenetics: field concerned with changes in gene expression without the modification of  the DNA sequence; genes only active at certain points; has the ability to alter gene 
expression over time
- Describe the types of evidence researchers use to infer heritability. o Heritability evidence found in almost every behavioral study o Almost ALL behaviors have a genetic and environmental component - Give examples of evolutionary explanations in psychology. o How species evolved based upon inferences drawn between fossils and living species o Offspring resemble their parents o Mutations, recombination, and microduplications intro new heritable variations o Certain individuals successfully reproduce more than others - Discuss the formation of new neurons in a mature brain. o New neurons are produced via stem cells o Stem cells work to generate “daughter” cells that can transform into glia and neurons→  differentiate into new neurons in the adult hippocampus and facilitate learning - Describe the evidence showing that axons seek specific targets. o AXON PATHFINDING o Axons travel great distances to form the correct connections o Axons reach their target area by following a gradient of chemicals (attracted to 
others/repelled by others)
- Define apoptosis, and explain how neurotrophins prevent it. o Apoptosis: programmed mechanism of cell death  o Axons not exposed to neurotrophins (chemicals that promote survival/activity) die  - Cite examples of how experiences alter brain anatomy and function. o Traits with strong hereditary influence can be modified with environmental  intervention (+/-) o Behavior has BOTH a hereditary and enviro influence o Examined via studies of twins - Evaluate possible explanations of risky behavior in adolescents. o Adolescents impulsive and prone to seek immediate pleasure o Impulsiveness → risky behavior o Weaker prefrontal cortex responsible for inhibiting behaviors (low control) o Riskiest behaviors stem from childhood and extend into adulthood o Brain’s response to rewards incr. during teen years - List several possible mechanisms of recovery after brain damage. o Short term—assoc. w tumors, infections, toxic/radiation exposure, degenerative diseases, closed head injuries o Severe injuries require longer recovery o Stimulants—stimulate activity in healthy brain regions o Axon regrowth/reorganization o Collateral sprouts—new branches formed by non-damaged axons which attach to vacant 
receptors
o Learned adjustments - Explain how remodeling in the cerebral cortex produces the phantom limb experience. o Phantom limb: continuation of sensation of amputated body part o Cortex reorganized itself post-amputation by becoming responsive to other parts of the body o Caused when axons of other body parts take over vacated synapses KEY CONCEPTS - altruistic behavior: individuals help those who will return the favor
background image - artificial selection: Choosing individuals with desired traits and making them parents of the next  generation - autosomal genes: all other genes except for sex-linked (X/Y) - cerebrovascular accident: stroke; temporary loss of blood blow to the brain - deafferented: remove/disable the sensory nerves from a body part - denervation supersensitivity: heightened sensitivity to a NT after the destruction of an incoming 
axon
- diaschisis: decr. activity of surviving neurons after damage to other neurons - differentiation:  forming of the axon and dendrites that gives the neuron its distinctive shape - dominant: show a strong effect in either the homozygous or heterozygous condition - edema: accumulation of fluid in the brain resulting in increased pressure on the brain and increasing  the probability of further strokes; triggers release of glutamate - fitness: the spreading of genes; number of copies of one’s genes that endure in later generations - focal hand dystonia: “musician cramps;” condition where the reorganization of the brain goes too 
far
- hemorrhage: less frequent type of stroke; resulting from a ruptured artery where neurons are flooded with excess blood, calcium, oxygen and other chemicals - ischemia: most common type of stroke; resulting from a blood clot or obstruction of an artery where 
neurons lose their oxygen and glucose supply
- Lamarckian evolution: the use or disuse of some structure or behavior causes an increase or decrease  in that behavior; MYTH - nerve growth factor(NGF): type of protein released by muscles that promotes survival and growth 
of axons
- phenylketonuria (PKU): a genetic inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine - proliferation: production of new cells - recessive: shows effect only in the homozygous condition - sex-limited genes: genes presented in both sexes, but mainly have an effect in one sex - sex-linked genes: genes located on the sex (X or Y) chromosomes  - tissue plasminogen activator (tPA):   drug that breaks up blood clots  CHAPTER FIVE—VISION
LEARNING OUTCOMES
- Remember that we see because light strikes the retina, sending a message to the brain. o Light enters the eye through the pupil (opening in the center of the iris)→ light focused by the  lens/cornea onto the retina (rear surface of the eye) - List the properties of cones and rods. o Cones: most abundant in and around the fovea; essential for color vision; approx. 6 million 
cones converge onto the optic nerve; provide 90% of brains input
o Rods: most abundance in the periphery; responds to faint light; 120 million rods converge  onto the optic nerve o Ratio rods:cones higher in species more active at dim light  - Explain the main features of color vision. o Visible light falls on the electromagnetic spectrum o Perception of color→ dependent upon wavelength of light o Visible wavelengths→ dependent upon species receptors o Humans perceive wavelengths between 400-700 nm o Specificity depends upon specific receptors within the eye  - Trichromatic theory: ratio across three types of cones (short wl, medium wl, and long wl) 
determines the color
- Opponent-process theory: we perceive color in terms of paired opposites - Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex. o Bipolar cells located near the center of the eye receive messages from visual receptors near  the retina → sends messages to ganglion cells→ optic nerve is formed→ sends messages to the  brain/cerebral cortex

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School: Kennesaw State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Physiological Psychology
Professor: Corrine McNamara
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Genetics, evolution, development, Plasticity, Vision, sensory, Systems, smell, taste, and hearing
Name: 4410 EXAM TWO GUIDE
Description: This guide covers each of the three chapters on exam two-- chapters 4, 5, and 6. Content includes main concepts as well as learning outcomes for each of the three chapters.
Uploaded: 10/04/2018
5 Pages 108 Views 86 Unlocks
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