The Transfer of a high energy phosphate group from a phosphorylated organic molecule to ADP is referred to as.....
What are some examples of autotrophs?
Algae and bacteria
The process by which eukaryotic cells harvest energy from organic compounds is termed
What are the four steps to glycolysis
Glucose is converted to a six carbon diphosphate sugar requiring two ATP molecules
A six carbon sugar is split twoyearold to molecules of G3P
G3P is oxidized and phosphorylated, forming in A.D. H & BPG
Phosphates are transferred from BPG to ATP and pyruvates are produced
What molecule is considered to be the energy currency of the cell and is used to do work?
During glycolysis, one molecule of _______ is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate, driving the synthesis of ATP.
What products are created by the passage of glucose through glycolysis and the krebs cycle?
ATP, CO2, NADH
In terms of obtaining energy, plants are ________________ and animals are __________
True or False: Both autotrophs and
heterotrophs extract energy from organic compounds
What are the two reactions involved in a redox reaction?
Oxidation and reduction
When an atom accepts an electron it is said to be....
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In the process of aerobic respiration, what molecule is entirely consumed?
When electrons reach the end of the electron transport chain in mitochondria, the final electron acceptor is....
What are three of the products of 1 turn of the krebs cycle?
1 ATP, 1 FADH2, 3 NADH
A cell oxidizes an organic molecule producing 3 NADH molecules and 3 FADH2 molecules. How many ATPs total can be synthesized in the ETC from this molecule?
Aerobic respiration occurs when _______ is the final electron acceptor
How does the actual yield of ATP compare to the theoretical yield of ATP during aerobic respiration in mitochondria?
It is lower
The events of the formation of ATP ATP synthase in the order that they occur beginning with the first event at the top
1) protons move across the membrane down their concentration gradient
2) The rotor and stalk structures rotate
3) mechanical energy changes from the confirmation of ATP synthase
4) ATP formation is catalyzed
During aerobic respiration, NADH delivers electrons to ______ and then ______ captures electrons at the end and joins with hydrogen to form water
Electron transport chain, oxygen
This molecule, produced via substrate level phosphorylation in the Krebs Cycle, is used to make ATP during the sixth reaction of the krebs cycle
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One way the cell regenerates NAD+ for glycolysis to continue is by donating the electrons taken from G3P to which molecules in the mitochondria during aerobic
metabolism, resulting in the production of ATP and water?
The flow of highly energetic electrons through the electron transport chain changes the ______ of the pump proteins, which causes them to transport protons across the membrane.
These molecules are produced during the second half of glycolysis
ATP and pyruvate
Two mechanisms used by eukaryotes and aerobic prokaryotes to synthesize most of their ATP are ______ level phosphorylation and ________ phosphorylation
substratelevel phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation
Cells harvest useful energy from the catabolism of glucose by using a portion of the energy to drive the production of ______
The final step of the Krebs cycle is the regeneration of oxaloacetate which is produced when NAD+ is reduced to______
What is produced by one round of the Krebs Cycle?
2 molecules of CO2 and 3 molecules of NADH
Energy is extracted from food molecules using enzymecatalyzed ______ reactions that convert the energy to ATP
When NAD+ is reduced, it accepts ____ electrons and ___ protons
How many ATP molecules are consumed during the priming reactions of glycolysis for one molecule of glucose?
What molecules in food can be used as energy sources by living organisms?
Fats, proteins, carbohydrates
During ______, glucose is oxidized to generate ATP and an organic molecule acts as the final electron acceptor
The formation of organic molecules from
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carbon dioxide is called......
The first two stages of photosynthesis require light and are commonly known as the light _________ reactions
What are the four stages of Thylakoid Reaction?
1. Primary Photoevent
2. Charge Separation
3. Electron Transports
When light strikes a pigment, some
wavelengths are absorbed and some are reflected. For instance, a leaf that appears green to the eye ________ green
wavelengths of light
Why is the calvin cycle also known as C3 photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide is captured in a cycle of reactions known as the Calvin cycle or the Calvin-Benson cycle after its discoverers. It is also known as just the C3 cycle. ... In C3plants the photosynthesis, carbon fixation and Calvin cycleall occur in a single chloroplast.
During the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis, an excited electron is transferred from chlorophyll in the reaction center to an acceptor molecule; this stage in the thylakoid reactions is also known as charge ________
What are the four parts of the chloroplast?
Stroma, inner membrane, thylakoids, grana
What is the fourth stage of the thylakoid reaction called?
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In van Niel’s generalized equation of photosynthesis, what is the donor of electrons?
In a photosystem, the ______ complex captures light energy and passes it to the _______ center where electrons are transferred out of the photosynthesis
antenna , reaction
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photosynthetic pigments in the chloroplast are organized into distinct clusters known as
The energy used by most living cells comes ultimately from the ______ and is captured through the process of ______
True or false: the mechanism of ATP synthesis in the ATP synthase of chloroplasts is fundamentally different from the one used in the ATP synthase of mitochondria
the oxygen produced in photosynthesis comes from the splitting of ____ molecules
What are the three stages of photosynthesis in plants?
(1) absorption of light, (2) electron transport leading to the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH, (3) generation of ATP, and (4) conversion of CO2 into carbohydrates (carbon fixation).
Protons are pumped across the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the ________ _______ stage of the thylakoid reactions
4 steps of light energy into chemical energy in the reaction center (RC).
1.) A chlorophyll molecule in the RC absorbs light energy
2.) An electron in the chlorophyll molecule is excited to a higher energy level 3.) A high energy electron is transferred to a primary electron acceptor
4.) The oxidized chlorophyll molecule restores its electron by oxidizing a weak electron donor
What are the three chloroplast membranes
Thylakoid, inner, outer
how many different types of photosystems are found in chloroplasts
in _______________ glucose is produced via the reduction of co2
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