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Virginia Tech - GEOS 1034 - Fall 2018 - Study guide for Exam 2 - Study

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Virginia Tech - GEOS 1034 - Fall 2018 - Study guide for Exam 2 - Study

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background image What processes associated with subduction zone earthquakes causes a tsunami to be  generated Opening of trench a. Seismic shaking b. Underwater volcano c. Elastic rebound d. What will happen to a boat in the middle of the ocean if a tsunami wave goes  underneath Rise in seconds to low height a. Rise over many minutes to a low height b. Rise in seconds to high height c. Rise in minutes to high height d. 1. Which will result in a tsunami large enough to damage the east coast? Underwater landslide a. Volcano b. Earthquake c. asteroid d. 2. Which would be the most likely to cause a tsunami that would destroy the NWest  coast? Asteroid a. Volcano b. Earthquake c. Underwater landslide d. 3. How many people have died due to tsunamis? Hundreds of thousands a. Millions b. Hundreds c. none d. 4. Why does the coast level drop before a wave reaches the shore? Gravitational attraction of wave  a. Earthquakes cause the seafloor to drop b. Tsunami causes coast to tilt c. Wave troph arrives before the wave crest d. 5. What is the reason for the high death toll in 2004 Indonesia earthquake? People ignored warning sirens a. Buildings not built to withstand b. No warning systems c. People had never been in a tsunami d. 6. How long do you have after you feel shaking? Couple of minutes a. Couple of seconds b. 10s of minutes c. Fraction of a second d. 7. Why do people wait to go to the beach after a tsunami hits? Several waves a. Water makes everything slippery b. Likely to be debris c. 8. How does DART work? People on shore that should there's a tsunami a. Instruments in ocean that detect wave heights and wave speed b. Seismometer that detects underwater earthquake c. 9. What caused the largest tsunami in 100 years? Asteroid a. Earthquake b. Landslide c. Volcano d. 10. Where is the majority of lava extruded? At divergent plate boundaries (like mid-oceanic ridges) a. At subduction zones b. At convergent plate boundaries c. 11. Which of the following is FALSE about magma? Some magma comes from rocks melted through decompression. a. Adding volatiles, such as water, decreases a rocks melting point and makes  it easier to melt. b. Some magma comes from the melting mantle material that rose from the  core/mantle boundary c. Tectonic plates move around over a deep ocean of magma. d. 12. Which of these is false? Magma moves up towards the Earth's surface a. Magma moves more quickly as it cools and becomes less vicious b. Because it's less dense than the surrounding rock c. Because the weight of overlying rock creates pressure that squeezes it up d. 13. Mauna Loa is an example of what type of volcano? Shield volcano a. Stratovolcano b. Hawaiian volcano c. 14. What does Amy Barnes get wrong in this scene? Earthquakes can cause volcanic eruptions a. volcanism can heat bodies of water fairly fast b. Tectonic plates float on an ocean of molten rock c. All of the above d. 15. True or False: You can have an explosive eruption and a lava flow at the same  time. True a. false b. 16. What promotes melting of rock? Increase in pressure a. Increase in temperature b. Water c. A and b d. 17. What percent of the crust is magma? Less than 1% a. About 10% b. 100% c. 50% d. 18. In which of the following settings are volcanoes typically not found? Midocean ridges a. Subduction zones b. Continental collisions c. Above hot spots d. 19. How does subducting and oceanic plate lead to melting of descending plate? Subducting plate a. Lead to melting of rocks and produce volcanoes b. Water goes into crust and lowers melting point c. 20. True or false: GPS instruments are used to measure surface displacements in  many directions True a. false b. 21. Which factors influence whether or not a volcano will explode? Quantity of magma a. Viscosity of magma b. Quantity of dissolved gas in magma c. All of the above d. 22. If a volcano erupts with a fountain of lava but no explosion what type of volcano  would it be? Hawaiian a. Stratovolcano b. Cindercone c. Shield volcano d. 23. How do we measure how big an explosive volcanic eruption is relative to others? Volume of lava a. Volume of ash and other rock b. Size of explosive crater c. Number of fatalities d. 24. Which will not promote melting of hot rocks? Increase in pressure a. Increase in temperature b. Increase in water  c. All of above d. 25. In which of the following settings are volcanoes typically not found? Hot spots a. Above subduction zones b. Continental collisions c. Midoceanic ridges d. 26. How does subducting and ocean plate lead to melting of rock and volcanism? Heating of mantle above descending slab a. Adding water to mantle above descending slab b. Heating of descending slab c. All of the above d. 27. How can you melt rock? Add water a. Raise temperature b. Decrease temperature c. All of the above d. 28. How does a stratovolcano form? Repeated lava flows a. Alternating layers of lava and pyroclastic flows b. Collapse of caldera c. Repeated explosive eruptions d. 29. What are cindercones made from? Lava flows a. Pyroclastic flows b. Piles of tephra c. Ash fallout d. 30. Which factor (s) influence if a volcano will explode? Viscosity of magma a. Amount of magma b. Gas content in the magma c. All of the above d. 31. If a volcano erupts with explosion so powerful it sends ash 10,000 m into the  atmosphere it's what volcano? Plinian a. Stratovolcano b. Hawaiian c. cindercone d. 32. Which is most damaging far from volcano Pyroclastic flow a. Lava flow b. Ash fall c. 33. Which statement is true of volcanic ash? Abrasive a. Fluffy b. Large grains like sand c. 34. Why is the destruction of Pompeii historically significant? Killed more people than any eruption in history a. Preserved forms of those that died b. 35. Why can't this be what Mt. Vesuvius looked like in the days leading up to the 79  AD explosive eruption? Volcanoes only have craters after they erupt a. The lava outpouring is releasing pressure, so no pressure is building up b. The crater is too deep for lava to reach the surface c. The fire should be blue because of the intense heat of the lava d. 36. How do we know Yellowstone is not a hotspot volcano? From the size of its past eruptions a. Because it's located above an ancient subducted slab and not a hot spot b. Because it lies at the end of a trail of extinct volcanoes c. All of the above d. 37. Where does decompression melting occur? Midoceanic ridges a. Hotspots b. Rifting c. All of the above d. 38. 1. Answers:  D 1. B 2. A 3. C 4. A 5. D 6. C 7. C 8. A 9. B 10. C 11. A 12. D 13. B 14. A 15. C 16. A 17. D 18. A 19. C 20. C 21. A 22. D 23. A 24. B 25. A 26. C 27. D 28. D 29. B 30. C 31. D 32. A 33. C 34. A 35. B 36. B 37. B 38. D 39. Questions:
When will waves break when moving towards shore?
2. Which will be the most likely to cause DC to be destroyed by a tsunami 3. Why is it not enough to be a sufficient swimmer in an earthquake? 4. How do we know the Washington and Oregon coast have had large tsunamis? 5. What is the difference btw magma and lava? 6. Why are so many volcanoes found on the Ring of Fire around the margin of the Pacific  Ocean? 7. What is tephra? 8. Which type of volcano involves layers of pyroclastic debris and lava flows? 9. What  is the difference between a crater and a caldera? 10. How does decompression melting occur? 11. What is the source of volcanoes far from plate boundaries? 12. How does a stratovolcano form? 13. What are cindercone volcanoes made from? 14. In which ways does a tsunami not differ from ? 15. What process associated with with earthquakes causes a tsunami to generate? 16. What will happen to a boat in the middle of the ocean if a tsunami wave passes  underneath it? 17. When will a wave at shore break? 18. What causes a tsunami? 19. Which is the most likely to cause a tsunami large enough to destroy DC? 20. Which would be the most likely to cause a tsunami large enough to destroy East Coast? 21. What are tsunami stones? 22. At the shore, why does the sealevel drop dramatically before tsunami arrives? 23. What is one reason for the extremely high death toll of Indonesian tsunami? 24. If you feel significant shaking before tsunami, how many minutes do you have before  it hits? 25. What is the depth range of the transition zone? (upper mantle to lower mantle) 26. What caused the largest runup in the last 100 years because of a tsunami? 27. How do we know Yellowstone is not a hot spot volcano? 28. What is the tectonic process that happens around ring of fire? 29. Which volcanic hazard is least damaging for people close to a volcano? 30. Which is most damaging for people close to a volcano? 31. Who was Pliny the younger? 32. Compare and contrast the different types of volcanoes. 33. Question Answers:
When the water depth is equal to wave height
1. An asteroid 2. Because of the debris 3. Because of tsunami sands- you can dig trenches to find them. They are sedimentary  evidence of ancient tsunamis 4. Magma is found below Earth's surface, lava is found on Earth's surface 5. Many subduction zones occur there 6. Tephra: Volcanic rock and lava blasted into the air during a volcanic eruption forming  pyroclastic debris 7. Volcanic rock and lava blasted into the air during a volcanic eruption forming pyroclastic  debris 8. Craters: formed by ejecting material during volcanic explosions,  Calderas: formed  from the inward collapse of volcano tops during explosive eruptions. 9. Rising hot asthenosphere melts as it gets close to earth's surface, lowering the pressure  usually lowers the melting point of rocks, if a process exists that raises a rock closer to 
earth's surface, yet allows the rock to stay relatively hot, the pressure drop can cause 
the rocks to melt Forms magma a. 10. underneath mid -ocean ridges (and at hotspots like Hawaii), the mantle is upwelling,  causing decompression melting to occur. 11. Hot spots- can produce volcanoes if in middle of plate 12. Alternative layers of lava and pyroclastic flows 13. Tephra thrown out of a volcanic vent 14. Wave height 15. Elastic rebound theory 16. It rises a little 17. When wave height is equal to water depth 18. A tsunami is caused by a sudden large displacement of water 19. Asteroid 20. Landslide 21. Warning of past tsunamis, where water reached certain point 22. Wave trough arrives before wave crest: troph is the lowest point of a wave, crest is the  highest 23. No warning system 24. Tens of minutes 25. 410-660 km 26. Landslide 27. Because there is a subduction slab beneath Yellowstone 28. Subduction zones 29. Lava flow 30. Pyroclastic flows 31. Eyewitness to Pompeii that wrote down what he saw 32. Types of Volcanoes: Stratovolcano- midsized volcanoes that form due to alternating layers of  pyroclastic and lava flows a. Cindercone- built when tephra (cooled lava fragments) are thrown out of a  volcanic vent b. Shield volcano- formed from lower viscosity, tend to be very short and broad c. 33. Key points: The san Andreas fault does NOT have the ability to generate a large tsunami Tsunamis: Reduced wavelength at shore, Increase in wave height at shore Water levels cannot rise more than 50 feet Tsunami Sand: a sedimentary unit deposited as the result of a tsunami Tsunami waves: usually 1st one is least damaging, followed by 2 or 3  really damaging ones Landslides can happen underwater or from mountains Underwater landslides cause most of the tsunamis around Hawaii- also  called submarine tsunamis Volcanoes: Magma Chamber: where magma accumulates within the earth's crust  beneath the volcano in large pools Volcanic conduit (vent): channel through which magma travels to the  surface, connects the magma chamber to the surface Crater: semi-circular depression at the top of many volcanoes Eruption cloud and column: a cloud of super-heated ash and tephra  suspended in gases Volcanic materials from a column may rise many km into the air  above the vent of the volcano Pyroclastic flow: fast moving current of hot gas and volcanic matter  (collectively known as tephra) Lahar: avalanches of ash, soil, rock, and water that can occur days or even  months after an eruption 3 processes that can cause rock to melt: Increased material, Decreased  pressure as the rock rises, Addition of water (decreased melting 
temperature)
3 types of volcanism: subduction zone, hot-spot, mid-oceanic ridge Flood basalts: very large outpouring of lava due to hot spots Volatiles: chemical compounds that evaporate easily and exist in a gaseous  state at Earth's surface Types of Eruptions: Hawaiian eruption: calmest type due to fluid lavas with low  dissolved gas content Strombolian eruption: driven by the bursting of large gas bubbles  that form from the collection of many small ones Vulcanian eruption: large enough to generate shock waves, short,  violent, relatively small explosion of viscous magma, results from 
the fragmentation and explosion of a plug of
lava in a volcanic  conduit, or from the rupture of a lava dome Plinian eruption- largest eruption and most violent, sending  columns of pulverized rock and ash miles up into the atmosphere □ Low volume (coke) +low pressure (mentos) = Hawaiian
□ Low volume (coke) + High pressure (3 mentos) = Strombolian
□ High volume (large coke) + low pressure (3 mentos here) = 
Volcanian □ High volume (large coke) + High pressure (6 mentos) =  Plinian Volcanic ash: smaller than sand grains, Hard, abrasive, corrosive,  electrical conducting and do not dissolve in water Fissures: elongated cracks Effusive eruptions: eruption of volatile-poor basaltic magma, passive  outpouring of low-viscosity lave on Earth's surface Vog: volcanic smog, made of deadly concentrations of CO2 Precursors:  Earthquake frequency increases Harmonic tremors: continuous readings of seismic activity,  typically associated with underground movement of magma Gas release (sulfur or CO2) Rapid ground deformation (uplift or tilt) Surface temperature increase ○ Seismic tomography: x-ray of Earth's interior Study Guide for Exam 2 Wednesday, October 3, 2018 10:35 PM
background image What processes associated with subduction zone earthquakes causes a tsunami to be  generated Opening of trench a. Seismic shaking b. Underwater volcano c. Elastic rebound d. What will happen to a boat in the middle of the ocean if a tsunami wave goes  underneath Rise in seconds to low height a. Rise over many minutes to a low height b. Rise in seconds to high height c. Rise in minutes to high height d. 1. Which will result in a tsunami large enough to damage the east coast? Underwater landslide a. Volcano b. Earthquake c. asteroid d. 2. Which would be the most likely to cause a tsunami that would destroy the NWest  coast? Asteroid a. Volcano b. Earthquake c. Underwater landslide d. 3. How many people have died due to tsunamis? Hundreds of thousands a. Millions b. Hundreds c. none d. 4. Why does the coast level drop before a wave reaches the shore? Gravitational attraction of wave  a. Earthquakes cause the seafloor to drop b. Tsunami causes coast to tilt c. Wave troph arrives before the wave crest d. 5. What is the reason for the high death toll in 2004 Indonesia earthquake? People ignored warning sirens a. Buildings not built to withstand b. No warning systems c. People had never been in a tsunami d. 6. How long do you have after you feel shaking? Couple of minutes a. Couple of seconds b. 10s of minutes c. Fraction of a second d. 7. Why do people wait to go to the beach after a tsunami hits? Several waves a. Water makes everything slippery b. Likely to be debris c. 8. How does DART work? People on shore that should there's a tsunami a. Instruments in ocean that detect wave heights and wave speed b. Seismometer that detects underwater earthquake c. 9. What caused the largest tsunami in 100 years? Asteroid a. Earthquake b. Landslide c. Volcano d. 10. Where is the majority of lava extruded? At divergent plate boundaries (like mid-oceanic ridges) a. At subduction zones b. At convergent plate boundaries c. 11. Which of the following is FALSE about magma? Some magma comes from rocks melted through decompression. a. Adding volatiles, such as water, decreases a rocks melting point and makes  it easier to melt. b. Some magma comes from the melting mantle material that rose from the  core/mantle boundary c. Tectonic plates move around over a deep ocean of magma. d. 12. Which of these is false? Magma moves up towards the Earth's surface a. Magma moves more quickly as it cools and becomes less vicious b. Because it's less dense than the surrounding rock c. Because the weight of overlying rock creates pressure that squeezes it up d. 13. Mauna Loa is an example of what type of volcano? Shield volcano a. Stratovolcano b. Hawaiian volcano c. 14. What does Amy Barnes get wrong in this scene? Earthquakes can cause volcanic eruptions a. volcanism can heat bodies of water fairly fast b. Tectonic plates float on an ocean of molten rock c. All of the above d. 15. True or False: You can have an explosive eruption and a lava flow at the same  time. True a. false b. 16. What promotes melting of rock? Increase in pressure a. Increase in temperature b. Water c. A and b d. 17. What percent of the crust is magma? Less than 1% a. About 10% b. 100% c. 50% d. 18. In which of the following settings are volcanoes typically not found? Midocean ridges a. Subduction zones b. Continental collisions c. Above hot spots d. 19. How does subducting and oceanic plate lead to melting of descending plate? Subducting plate a. Lead to melting of rocks and produce volcanoes b. Water goes into crust and lowers melting point c. 20. True or false: GPS instruments are used to measure surface displacements in  many directions True a. false b. 21. Which factors influence whether or not a volcano will explode? Quantity of magma a. Viscosity of magma b. Quantity of dissolved gas in magma c. All of the above d. 22. If a volcano erupts with a fountain of lava but no explosion what type of volcano  would it be? Hawaiian a. Stratovolcano b. Cindercone c. Shield volcano d. 23. How do we measure how big an explosive volcanic eruption is relative to others? Volume of lava a. Volume of ash and other rock b. Size of explosive crater c. Number of fatalities d. 24. Which will not promote melting of hot rocks? Increase in pressure a. Increase in temperature b. Increase in water  c. All of above d. 25. In which of the following settings are volcanoes typically not found? Hot spots a. Above subduction zones b. Continental collisions c. Midoceanic ridges d. 26. How does subducting and ocean plate lead to melting of rock and volcanism? Heating of mantle above descending slab a. Adding water to mantle above descending slab b. Heating of descending slab c. All of the above d. 27. How can you melt rock? Add water a. Raise temperature b. Decrease temperature c. All of the above d. 28. How does a stratovolcano form? Repeated lava flows a. Alternating layers of lava and pyroclastic flows b. Collapse of caldera c. Repeated explosive eruptions d. 29. What are cindercones made from? Lava flows a. Pyroclastic flows b. Piles of tephra c. Ash fallout d. 30. Which factor (s) influence if a volcano will explode? Viscosity of magma a. Amount of magma b. Gas content in the magma c. All of the above d. 31. If a volcano erupts with explosion so powerful it sends ash 10,000 m into the  atmosphere it's what volcano? Plinian a. Stratovolcano b. Hawaiian c. cindercone d. 32. Which is most damaging far from volcano Pyroclastic flow a. Lava flow b. Ash fall c. 33. Which statement is true of volcanic ash? Abrasive a. Fluffy b. Large grains like sand c. 34. Why is the destruction of Pompeii historically significant? Killed more people than any eruption in history a. Preserved forms of those that died b. 35. Why can't this be what Mt. Vesuvius looked like in the days leading up to the 79  AD explosive eruption? Volcanoes only have craters after they erupt a. The lava outpouring is releasing pressure, so no pressure is building up b. The crater is too deep for lava to reach the surface c. The fire should be blue because of the intense heat of the lava d. 36. How do we know Yellowstone is not a hotspot volcano? From the size of its past eruptions a. Because it's located above an ancient subducted slab and not a hot spot b. Because it lies at the end of a trail of extinct volcanoes c. All of the above d. 37. Where does decompression melting occur? Midoceanic ridges a. Hotspots b. Rifting c. All of the above d. 38. 1. Answers:  D 1. B 2. A 3. C 4. A 5. D 6. C 7. C 8. A 9. B 10. C 11. A 12. D 13. B 14. A 15. C 16. A 17. D 18. A 19. C 20. C 21. A 22. D 23. A 24. B 25. A 26. C 27. D 28. D 29. B 30. C 31. D 32. A 33. C 34. A 35. B 36. B 37. B 38. D 39. Questions:
When will waves break when moving towards shore?
2. Which will be the most likely to cause DC to be destroyed by a tsunami 3. Why is it not enough to be a sufficient swimmer in an earthquake? 4. How do we know the Washington and Oregon coast have had large tsunamis? 5. What is the difference btw magma and lava? 6. Why are so many volcanoes found on the Ring of Fire around the margin of the Pacific  Ocean? 7. What is tephra? 8. Which type of volcano involves layers of pyroclastic debris and lava flows? 9. What  is the difference between a crater and a caldera? 10. How does decompression melting occur? 11. What is the source of volcanoes far from plate boundaries? 12. How does a stratovolcano form? 13. What are cindercone volcanoes made from? 14. In which ways does a tsunami not differ from ? 15. What process associated with with earthquakes causes a tsunami to generate? 16. What will happen to a boat in the middle of the ocean if a tsunami wave passes  underneath it? 17. When will a wave at shore break? 18. What causes a tsunami? 19. Which is the most likely to cause a tsunami large enough to destroy DC? 20. Which would be the most likely to cause a tsunami large enough to destroy East Coast? 21. What are tsunami stones? 22. At the shore, why does the sealevel drop dramatically before tsunami arrives? 23. What is one reason for the extremely high death toll of Indonesian tsunami? 24. If you feel significant shaking before tsunami, how many minutes do you have before  it hits? 25. What is the depth range of the transition zone? (upper mantle to lower mantle) 26. What caused the largest runup in the last 100 years because of a tsunami? 27. How do we know Yellowstone is not a hot spot volcano? 28. What is the tectonic process that happens around ring of fire? 29. Which volcanic hazard is least damaging for people close to a volcano? 30. Which is most damaging for people close to a volcano? 31. Who was Pliny the younger? 32. Compare and contrast the different types of volcanoes. 33. Question Answers:
When the water depth is equal to wave height
1. An asteroid 2. Because of the debris 3. Because of tsunami sands- you can dig trenches to find them. They are sedimentary  evidence of ancient tsunamis 4. Magma is found below Earth's surface, lava is found on Earth's surface 5. Many subduction zones occur there 6. Tephra: Volcanic rock and lava blasted into the air during a volcanic eruption forming  pyroclastic debris 7. Volcanic rock and lava blasted into the air during a volcanic eruption forming pyroclastic  debris 8. Craters: formed by ejecting material during volcanic explosions,  Calderas: formed  from the inward collapse of volcano tops during explosive eruptions. 9. Rising hot asthenosphere melts as it gets close to earth's surface, lowering the pressure  usually lowers the melting point of rocks, if a process exists that raises a rock closer to 
earth's surface, yet allows the rock to stay relatively hot, the pressure drop can cause 
the rocks to melt Forms magma a. 10. underneath mid -ocean ridges (and at hotspots like Hawaii), the mantle is upwelling,  causing decompression melting to occur. 11. Hot spots- can produce volcanoes if in middle of plate 12. Alternative layers of lava and pyroclastic flows 13. Tephra thrown out of a volcanic vent 14. Wave height 15. Elastic rebound theory 16. It rises a little 17. When wave height is equal to water depth 18. A tsunami is caused by a sudden large displacement of water 19. Asteroid 20. Landslide 21. Warning of past tsunamis, where water reached certain point 22. Wave trough arrives before wave crest: troph is the lowest point of a wave, crest is the  highest 23. No warning system 24. Tens of minutes 25. 410-660 km 26. Landslide 27. Because there is a subduction slab beneath Yellowstone 28. Subduction zones 29. Lava flow 30. Pyroclastic flows 31. Eyewitness to Pompeii that wrote down what he saw 32. Types of Volcanoes: Stratovolcano- midsized volcanoes that form due to alternating layers of  pyroclastic and lava flows a. Cindercone- built when tephra (cooled lava fragments) are thrown out of a  volcanic vent b. Shield volcano- formed from lower viscosity, tend to be very short and broad c. 33. Key points: The san Andreas fault does NOT have the ability to generate a large tsunami Tsunamis: Reduced wavelength at shore, Increase in wave height at shore Water levels cannot rise more than 50 feet Tsunami Sand: a sedimentary unit deposited as the result of a tsunami Tsunami waves: usually 1st one is least damaging, followed by 2 or 3  really damaging ones Landslides can happen underwater or from mountains Underwater landslides cause most of the tsunamis around Hawaii- also  called submarine tsunamis Volcanoes: Magma Chamber: where magma accumulates within the earth's crust  beneath the volcano in large pools Volcanic conduit (vent): channel through which magma travels to the  surface, connects the magma chamber to the surface Crater: semi-circular depression at the top of many volcanoes Eruption cloud and column: a cloud of super-heated ash and tephra  suspended in gases Volcanic materials from a column may rise many km into the air  above the vent of the volcano Pyroclastic flow: fast moving current of hot gas and volcanic matter  (collectively known as tephra) Lahar: avalanches of ash, soil, rock, and water that can occur days or even  months after an eruption 3 processes that can cause rock to melt: Increased material, Decreased  pressure as the rock rises, Addition of water (decreased melting 
temperature)
3 types of volcanism: subduction zone, hot-spot, mid-oceanic ridge Flood basalts: very large outpouring of lava due to hot spots Volatiles: chemical compounds that evaporate easily and exist in a gaseous  state at Earth's surface Types of Eruptions: Hawaiian eruption: calmest type due to fluid lavas with low  dissolved gas content Strombolian eruption: driven by the bursting of large gas bubbles  that form from the collection of many small ones Vulcanian eruption: large enough to generate shock waves, short,  violent, relatively small explosion of viscous magma, results from 
the fragmentation and explosion of a plug of
lava in a volcanic  conduit, or from the rupture of a lava dome Plinian eruption- largest eruption and most violent, sending  columns of pulverized rock and ash miles up into the atmosphere □ Low volume (coke) +low pressure (mentos) = Hawaiian
□ Low volume (coke) + High pressure (3 mentos) = Strombolian
□ High volume (large coke) + low pressure (3 mentos here) = 
Volcanian □ High volume (large coke) + High pressure (6 mentos) =  Plinian Volcanic ash: smaller than sand grains, Hard, abrasive, corrosive,  electrical conducting and do not dissolve in water Fissures: elongated cracks Effusive eruptions: eruption of volatile-poor basaltic magma, passive  outpouring of low-viscosity lave on Earth's surface Vog: volcanic smog, made of deadly concentrations of CO2 Precursors:  Earthquake frequency increases Harmonic tremors: continuous readings of seismic activity,  typically associated with underground movement of magma Gas release (sulfur or CO2) Rapid ground deformation (uplift or tilt) Surface temperature increase ○ Seismic tomography: x-ray of Earth's interior Study Guide for Exam 2 Wednesday, October 3, 2018 10:35 PM
background image What processes associated with subduction zone earthquakes causes a tsunami to be  generated Opening of trench a. Seismic shaking b. Underwater volcano c. Elastic rebound d. What will happen to a boat in the middle of the ocean if a tsunami wave goes  underneath Rise in seconds to low height a. Rise over many minutes to a low height b. Rise in seconds to high height c. Rise in minutes to high height d. 1. Which will result in a tsunami large enough to damage the east coast? Underwater landslide a. Volcano b. Earthquake c. asteroid d. 2. Which would be the most likely to cause a tsunami that would destroy the NWest  coast? Asteroid a. Volcano b. Earthquake c. Underwater landslide d. 3. How many people have died due to tsunamis? Hundreds of thousands a. Millions b. Hundreds c. none d. 4. Why does the coast level drop before a wave reaches the shore? Gravitational attraction of wave  a. Earthquakes cause the seafloor to drop b. Tsunami causes coast to tilt c. Wave troph arrives before the wave crest d. 5. What is the reason for the high death toll in 2004 Indonesia earthquake? People ignored warning sirens a. Buildings not built to withstand b. No warning systems c. People had never been in a tsunami d. 6. How long do you have after you feel shaking? Couple of minutes a. Couple of seconds b. 10s of minutes c. Fraction of a second d. 7. Why do people wait to go to the beach after a tsunami hits? Several waves a. Water makes everything slippery b. Likely to be debris c. 8. How does DART work? People on shore that should there's a tsunami a. Instruments in ocean that detect wave heights and wave speed b. Seismometer that detects underwater earthquake c. 9. What caused the largest tsunami in 100 years? Asteroid a. Earthquake b. Landslide c. Volcano d. 10. Where is the majority of lava extruded? At divergent plate boundaries (like mid-oceanic ridges) a. At subduction zones b. At convergent plate boundaries c. 11. Which of the following is FALSE about magma? Some magma comes from rocks melted through decompression. a. Adding volatiles, such as water, decreases a rocks melting point and makes  it easier to melt. b. Some magma comes from the melting mantle material that rose from the  core/mantle boundary c. Tectonic plates move around over a deep ocean of magma. d. 12. Which of these is false? Magma moves up towards the Earth's surface a. Magma moves more quickly as it cools and becomes less vicious b. Because it's less dense than the surrounding rock c. Because the weight of overlying rock creates pressure that squeezes it up d. 13. Mauna Loa is an example of what type of volcano? Shield volcano a. Stratovolcano b. Hawaiian volcano c. 14. What does Amy Barnes get wrong in this scene? Earthquakes can cause volcanic eruptions a. volcanism can heat bodies of water fairly fast b. Tectonic plates float on an ocean of molten rock c. All of the above d. 15. True or False: You can have an explosive eruption and a lava flow at the same  time. True a. false b. 16. What promotes melting of rock? Increase in pressure a. Increase in temperature b. Water c. A and b d. 17. What percent of the crust is magma? Less than 1% a. About 10% b. 100% c. 50% d. 18. In which of the following settings are volcanoes typically not found? Midocean ridges a. Subduction zones b. Continental collisions c. Above hot spots d. 19. How does subducting and oceanic plate lead to melting of descending plate? Subducting plate a. Lead to melting of rocks and produce volcanoes b. Water goes into crust and lowers melting point c. 20. True or false: GPS instruments are used to measure surface displacements in  many directions True a. false b. 21. Which factors influence whether or not a volcano will explode? Quantity of magma a. Viscosity of magma b. Quantity of dissolved gas in magma c. All of the above d. 22. If a volcano erupts with a fountain of lava but no explosion what type of volcano  would it be? Hawaiian a. Stratovolcano b. Cindercone c. Shield volcano d. 23. How do we measure how big an explosive volcanic eruption is relative to others? Volume of lava a. Volume of ash and other rock b. Size of explosive crater c. Number of fatalities d. 24. Which will not promote melting of hot rocks? Increase in pressure a. Increase in temperature b. Increase in water  c. All of above d. 25. In which of the following settings are volcanoes typically not found? Hot spots a. Above subduction zones b. Continental collisions c. Midoceanic ridges d. 26. How does subducting and ocean plate lead to melting of rock and volcanism? Heating of mantle above descending slab a. Adding water to mantle above descending slab b. Heating of descending slab c. All of the above d. 27. How can you melt rock? Add water a. Raise temperature b. Decrease temperature c. All of the above d. 28. How does a stratovolcano form? Repeated lava flows a. Alternating layers of lava and pyroclastic flows b. Collapse of caldera c. Repeated explosive eruptions d. 29. What are cindercones made from? Lava flows a. Pyroclastic flows b. Piles of tephra c. Ash fallout d. 30. Which factor (s) influence if a volcano will explode? Viscosity of magma a. Amount of magma b. Gas content in the magma c. All of the above d. 31. If a volcano erupts with explosion so powerful it sends ash 10,000 m into the  atmosphere it's what volcano? Plinian a. Stratovolcano b. Hawaiian c. cindercone d. 32. Which is most damaging far from volcano Pyroclastic flow a. Lava flow b. Ash fall c. 33. Which statement is true of volcanic ash? Abrasive a. Fluffy b. Large grains like sand c. 34. Why is the destruction of Pompeii historically significant? Killed more people than any eruption in history a. Preserved forms of those that died b. 35. Why can't this be what Mt. Vesuvius looked like in the days leading up to the 79  AD explosive eruption? Volcanoes only have craters after they erupt a. The lava outpouring is releasing pressure, so no pressure is building up b. The crater is too deep for lava to reach the surface c. The fire should be blue because of the intense heat of the lava d. 36. How do we know Yellowstone is not a hotspot volcano? From the size of its past eruptions a. Because it's located above an ancient subducted slab and not a hot spot b. Because it lies at the end of a trail of extinct volcanoes c. All of the above d. 37. Where does decompression melting occur? Midoceanic ridges a. Hotspots b. Rifting c. All of the above d. 38. 1. Answers:  D 1. B 2. A 3. C 4. A 5. D 6. C 7. C 8. A 9. B 10. C 11. A 12. D 13. B 14. A 15. C 16. A 17. D 18. A 19. C 20. C 21. A 22. D 23. A 24. B 25. A 26. C 27. D 28. D 29. B 30. C 31. D 32. A 33. C 34. A 35. B 36. B 37. B 38. D 39. Questions:
When will waves break when moving towards shore?
2. Which will be the most likely to cause DC to be destroyed by a tsunami 3. Why is it not enough to be a sufficient swimmer in an earthquake? 4. How do we know the Washington and Oregon coast have had large tsunamis? 5. What is the difference btw magma and lava? 6. Why are so many volcanoes found on the Ring of Fire around the margin of the Pacific  Ocean? 7. What is tephra? 8. Which type of volcano involves layers of pyroclastic debris and lava flows? 9. What  is the difference between a crater and a caldera? 10. How does decompression melting occur? 11. What is the source of volcanoes far from plate boundaries? 12. How does a stratovolcano form? 13. What are cindercone volcanoes made from? 14. In which ways does a tsunami not differ from ? 15. What process associated with with earthquakes causes a tsunami to generate? 16. What will happen to a boat in the middle of the ocean if a tsunami wave passes  underneath it? 17. When will a wave at shore break? 18. What causes a tsunami? 19. Which is the most likely to cause a tsunami large enough to destroy DC? 20. Which would be the most likely to cause a tsunami large enough to destroy East Coast? 21. What are tsunami stones? 22. At the shore, why does the sealevel drop dramatically before tsunami arrives? 23. What is one reason for the extremely high death toll of Indonesian tsunami? 24. If you feel significant shaking before tsunami, how many minutes do you have before  it hits? 25. What is the depth range of the transition zone? (upper mantle to lower mantle) 26. What caused the largest runup in the last 100 years because of a tsunami? 27. How do we know Yellowstone is not a hot spot volcano? 28. What is the tectonic process that happens around ring of fire? 29. Which volcanic hazard is least damaging for people close to a volcano? 30. Which is most damaging for people close to a volcano? 31. Who was Pliny the younger? 32. Compare and contrast the different types of volcanoes. 33. Question Answers:
When the water depth is equal to wave height
1. An asteroid 2. Because of the debris 3. Because of tsunami sands- you can dig trenches to find them. They are sedimentary  evidence of ancient tsunamis 4. Magma is found below Earth's surface, lava is found on Earth's surface 5. Many subduction zones occur there 6. Tephra: Volcanic rock and lava blasted into the air during a volcanic eruption forming  pyroclastic debris 7. Volcanic rock and lava blasted into the air during a volcanic eruption forming pyroclastic  debris 8. Craters: formed by ejecting material during volcanic explosions,  Calderas: formed  from the inward collapse of volcano tops during explosive eruptions. 9. Rising hot asthenosphere melts as it gets close to earth's surface, lowering the pressure  usually lowers the melting point of rocks, if a process exists that raises a rock closer to 
earth's surface, yet allows the rock to stay relatively hot, the pressure drop can cause 
the rocks to melt Forms magma a. 10. underneath mid -ocean ridges (and at hotspots like Hawaii), the mantle is upwelling,  causing decompression melting to occur. 11. Hot spots- can produce volcanoes if in middle of plate 12. Alternative layers of lava and pyroclastic flows 13. Tephra thrown out of a volcanic vent 14. Wave height 15. Elastic rebound theory 16. It rises a little 17. When wave height is equal to water depth 18. A tsunami is caused by a sudden large displacement of water 19. Asteroid 20. Landslide 21. Warning of past tsunamis, where water reached certain point 22. Wave trough arrives before wave crest: troph is the lowest point of a wave, crest is the  highest 23. No warning system 24. Tens of minutes 25. 410-660 km 26. Landslide 27. Because there is a subduction slab beneath Yellowstone 28. Subduction zones 29. Lava flow 30. Pyroclastic flows 31. Eyewitness to Pompeii that wrote down what he saw 32. Types of Volcanoes: Stratovolcano- midsized volcanoes that form due to alternating layers of  pyroclastic and lava flows a. Cindercone- built when tephra (cooled lava fragments) are thrown out of a  volcanic vent b. Shield volcano- formed from lower viscosity, tend to be very short and broad c. 33. Key points: The san Andreas fault does NOT have the ability to generate a large tsunami Tsunamis: Reduced wavelength at shore, Increase in wave height at shore Water levels cannot rise more than 50 feet Tsunami Sand: a sedimentary unit deposited as the result of a tsunami Tsunami waves: usually 1st one is least damaging, followed by 2 or 3  really damaging ones Landslides can happen underwater or from mountains Underwater landslides cause most of the tsunamis around Hawaii- also  called submarine tsunamis Volcanoes: Magma Chamber: where magma accumulates within the earth's crust  beneath the volcano in large pools Volcanic conduit (vent): channel through which magma travels to the  surface, connects the magma chamber to the surface Crater: semi-circular depression at the top of many volcanoes Eruption cloud and column: a cloud of super-heated ash and tephra  suspended in gases Volcanic materials from a column may rise many km into the air  above the vent of the volcano Pyroclastic flow: fast moving current of hot gas and volcanic matter  (collectively known as tephra) Lahar: avalanches of ash, soil, rock, and water that can occur days or even  months after an eruption 3 processes that can cause rock to melt: Increased material, Decreased  pressure as the rock rises, Addition of water (decreased melting 
temperature)
3 types of volcanism: subduction zone, hot-spot, mid-oceanic ridge Flood basalts: very large outpouring of lava due to hot spots Volatiles: chemical compounds that evaporate easily and exist in a gaseous  state at Earth's surface Types of Eruptions: Hawaiian eruption: calmest type due to fluid lavas with low  dissolved gas content Strombolian eruption: driven by the bursting of large gas bubbles  that form from the collection of many small ones Vulcanian eruption: large enough to generate shock waves, short,  violent, relatively small explosion of viscous magma, results from 
the fragmentation and explosion of a plug of
lava in a volcanic  conduit, or from the rupture of a lava dome Plinian eruption- largest eruption and most violent, sending  columns of pulverized rock and ash miles up into the atmosphere □ Low volume (coke) +low pressure (mentos) = Hawaiian
□ Low volume (coke) + High pressure (3 mentos) = Strombolian
□ High volume (large coke) + low pressure (3 mentos here) = 
Volcanian □ High volume (large coke) + High pressure (6 mentos) =  Plinian Volcanic ash: smaller than sand grains, Hard, abrasive, corrosive,  electrical conducting and do not dissolve in water Fissures: elongated cracks Effusive eruptions: eruption of volatile-poor basaltic magma, passive  outpouring of low-viscosity lave on Earth's surface Vog: volcanic smog, made of deadly concentrations of CO2 Precursors:  Earthquake frequency increases Harmonic tremors: continuous readings of seismic activity,  typically associated with underground movement of magma Gas release (sulfur or CO2) Rapid ground deformation (uplift or tilt) Surface temperature increase ○ Seismic tomography: x-ray of Earth's interior Study Guide for Exam 2 Wednesday, October 3, 2018 10:35 PM
background image What processes associated with subduction zone earthquakes causes a tsunami to be  generated Opening of trench a. Seismic shaking b. Underwater volcano c. Elastic rebound d. What will happen to a boat in the middle of the ocean if a tsunami wave goes  underneath Rise in seconds to low height a. Rise over many minutes to a low height b. Rise in seconds to high height c. Rise in minutes to high height d. 1. Which will result in a tsunami large enough to damage the east coast? Underwater landslide a. Volcano b. Earthquake c. asteroid d. 2. Which would be the most likely to cause a tsunami that would destroy the NWest  coast? Asteroid a. Volcano b. Earthquake c. Underwater landslide d. 3. How many people have died due to tsunamis? Hundreds of thousands a. Millions b. Hundreds c. none d. 4. Why does the coast level drop before a wave reaches the shore? Gravitational attraction of wave  a. Earthquakes cause the seafloor to drop b. Tsunami causes coast to tilt c. Wave troph arrives before the wave crest d. 5. What is the reason for the high death toll in 2004 Indonesia earthquake? People ignored warning sirens a. Buildings not built to withstand b. No warning systems c. People had never been in a tsunami d. 6. How long do you have after you feel shaking? Couple of minutes a. Couple of seconds b. 10s of minutes c. Fraction of a second d. 7. Why do people wait to go to the beach after a tsunami hits? Several waves a. Water makes everything slippery b. Likely to be debris c. 8. How does DART work? People on shore that should there's a tsunami a. Instruments in ocean that detect wave heights and wave speed b. Seismometer that detects underwater earthquake c. 9. What caused the largest tsunami in 100 years? Asteroid a. Earthquake b. Landslide c. Volcano d. 10. Where is the majority of lava extruded? At divergent plate boundaries (like mid-oceanic ridges) a. At subduction zones b. At convergent plate boundaries c. 11. Which of the following is FALSE about magma? Some magma comes from rocks melted through decompression. a. Adding volatiles, such as water, decreases a rocks melting point and makes  it easier to melt. b. Some magma comes from the melting mantle material that rose from the  core/mantle boundary c. Tectonic plates move around over a deep ocean of magma. d. 12. Which of these is false? Magma moves up towards the Earth's surface a. Magma moves more quickly as it cools and becomes less vicious b. Because it's less dense than the surrounding rock c. Because the weight of overlying rock creates pressure that squeezes it up d. 13. Mauna Loa is an example of what type of volcano? Shield volcano a. Stratovolcano b. Hawaiian volcano c. 14. What does Amy Barnes get wrong in this scene? Earthquakes can cause volcanic eruptions a. volcanism can heat bodies of water fairly fast b. Tectonic plates float on an ocean of molten rock c. All of the above d. 15. True or False: You can have an explosive eruption and a lava flow at the same  time. True a. false b. 16. What promotes melting of rock? Increase in pressure a. Increase in temperature b. Water c. A and b d. 17. What percent of the crust is magma? Less than 1% a. About 10% b. 100% c. 50% d. 18. In which of the following settings are volcanoes typically not found? Midocean ridges a. Subduction zones b. Continental collisions c. Above hot spots d. 19. How does subducting and oceanic plate lead to melting of descending plate? Subducting plate a. Lead to melting of rocks and produce volcanoes b. Water goes into crust and lowers melting point c. 20. True or false: GPS instruments are used to measure surface displacements in  many directions True a. false b. 21. Which factors influence whether or not a volcano will explode? Quantity of magma a. Viscosity of magma b. Quantity of dissolved gas in magma c. All of the above d. 22. If a volcano erupts with a fountain of lava but no explosion what type of volcano  would it be? Hawaiian a. Stratovolcano b. Cindercone c. Shield volcano d. 23. How do we measure how big an explosive volcanic eruption is relative to others? Volume of lava a. Volume of ash and other rock b. Size of explosive crater c. Number of fatalities d. 24. Which will not promote melting of hot rocks? Increase in pressure a. Increase in temperature b. Increase in water  c. All of above d. 25. In which of the following settings are volcanoes typically not found? Hot spots a. Above subduction zones b. Continental collisions c. Midoceanic ridges d. 26. How does subducting and ocean plate lead to melting of rock and volcanism? Heating of mantle above descending slab a. Adding water to mantle above descending slab b. Heating of descending slab c. All of the above d. 27. How can you melt rock? Add water a. Raise temperature b. Decrease temperature c. All of the above d. 28. How does a stratovolcano form? Repeated lava flows a. Alternating layers of lava and pyroclastic flows b. Collapse of caldera c. Repeated explosive eruptions d. 29. What are cindercones made from? Lava flows a. Pyroclastic flows b. Piles of tephra c. Ash fallout d. 30. Which factor (s) influence if a volcano will explode? Viscosity of magma a. Amount of magma b. Gas content in the magma c. All of the above d. 31. If a volcano erupts with explosion so powerful it sends ash 10,000 m into the  atmosphere it's what volcano? Plinian a. Stratovolcano b. Hawaiian c. cindercone d. 32. Which is most damaging far from volcano Pyroclastic flow a. Lava flow b. Ash fall c. 33. Which statement is true of volcanic ash? Abrasive a. Fluffy b. Large grains like sand c. 34. Why is the destruction of Pompeii historically significant? Killed more people than any eruption in history a. Preserved forms of those that died b. 35. Why can't this be what Mt. Vesuvius looked like in the days leading up to the 79  AD explosive eruption? Volcanoes only have craters after they erupt a. The lava outpouring is releasing pressure, so no pressure is building up b. The crater is too deep for lava to reach the surface c. The fire should be blue because of the intense heat of the lava d. 36. How do we know Yellowstone is not a hotspot volcano? From the size of its past eruptions a. Because it's located above an ancient subducted slab and not a hot spot b. Because it lies at the end of a trail of extinct volcanoes c. All of the above d. 37. Where does decompression melting occur? Midoceanic ridges a. Hotspots b. Rifting c. All of the above d. 38. 1. Answers:  D 1. B 2. A 3. C 4. A 5. D 6. C 7. C 8. A 9. B 10. C 11. A 12. D 13. B 14. A 15. C 16. A 17. D 18. A 19. C 20. C 21. A 22. D 23. A 24. B 25. A 26. C 27. D 28. D 29. B 30. C 31. D 32. A 33. C 34. A 35. B 36. B 37. B 38. D 39. Questions:
When will waves break when moving towards shore?
2. Which will be the most likely to cause DC to be destroyed by a tsunami 3. Why is it not enough to be a sufficient swimmer in an earthquake? 4. How do we know the Washington and Oregon coast have had large tsunamis? 5. What is the difference btw magma and lava? 6. Why are so many volcanoes found on the Ring of Fire around the margin of the Pacific  Ocean? 7. What is tephra? 8. Which type of volcano involves layers of pyroclastic debris and lava flows? 9. What  is the difference between a crater and a caldera? 10. How does decompression melting occur? 11. What is the source of volcanoes far from plate boundaries? 12. How does a stratovolcano form? 13. What are cindercone volcanoes made from? 14. In which ways does a tsunami not differ from ? 15. What process associated with with earthquakes causes a tsunami to generate? 16. What will happen to a boat in the middle of the ocean if a tsunami wave passes  underneath it? 17. When will a wave at shore break? 18. What causes a tsunami? 19. Which is the most likely to cause a tsunami large enough to destroy DC? 20. Which would be the most likely to cause a tsunami large enough to destroy East Coast? 21. What are tsunami stones? 22. At the shore, why does the sealevel drop dramatically before tsunami arrives? 23. What is one reason for the extremely high death toll of Indonesian tsunami? 24. If you feel significant shaking before tsunami, how many minutes do you have before  it hits? 25. What is the depth range of the transition zone? (upper mantle to lower mantle) 26. What caused the largest runup in the last 100 years because of a tsunami? 27. How do we know Yellowstone is not a hot spot volcano? 28. What is the tectonic process that happens around ring of fire? 29. Which volcanic hazard is least damaging for people close to a volcano? 30. Which is most damaging for people close to a volcano? 31. Who was Pliny the younger? 32. Compare and contrast the different types of volcanoes. 33. Question Answers:
When the water depth is equal to wave height
1. An asteroid 2. Because of the debris 3. Because of tsunami sands- you can dig trenches to find them. They are sedimentary  evidence of ancient tsunamis 4. Magma is found below Earth's surface, lava is found on Earth's surface 5. Many subduction zones occur there 6. Tephra: Volcanic rock and lava blasted into the air during a volcanic eruption forming  pyroclastic debris 7. Volcanic rock and lava blasted into the air during a volcanic eruption forming pyroclastic  debris 8. Craters: formed by ejecting material during volcanic explosions,  Calderas: formed  from the inward collapse of volcano tops during explosive eruptions. 9. Rising hot asthenosphere melts as it gets close to earth's surface, lowering the pressure  usually lowers the melting point of rocks, if a process exists that raises a rock closer to 
earth's surface, yet allows the rock to stay relatively hot, the pressure drop can cause 
the rocks to melt Forms magma a. 10. underneath mid -ocean ridges (and at hotspots like Hawaii), the mantle is upwelling,  causing decompression melting to occur. 11. Hot spots- can produce volcanoes if in middle of plate 12. Alternative layers of lava and pyroclastic flows 13. Tephra thrown out of a volcanic vent 14. Wave height 15. Elastic rebound theory 16. It rises a little 17. When wave height is equal to water depth 18. A tsunami is caused by a sudden large displacement of water 19. Asteroid 20. Landslide 21. Warning of past tsunamis, where water reached certain point 22. Wave trough arrives before wave crest: troph is the lowest point of a wave, crest is the  highest 23. No warning system 24. Tens of minutes 25. 410-660 km 26. Landslide 27. Because there is a subduction slab beneath Yellowstone 28. Subduction zones 29. Lava flow 30. Pyroclastic flows 31. Eyewitness to Pompeii that wrote down what he saw 32. Types of Volcanoes: Stratovolcano- midsized volcanoes that form due to alternating layers of  pyroclastic and lava flows a. Cindercone- built when tephra (cooled lava fragments) are thrown out of a  volcanic vent b. Shield volcano- formed from lower viscosity, tend to be very short and broad c. 33. Key points: The san Andreas fault does NOT have the ability to generate a large tsunami Tsunamis: Reduced wavelength at shore, Increase in wave height at shore Water levels cannot rise more than 50 feet Tsunami Sand: a sedimentary unit deposited as the result of a tsunami Tsunami waves: usually 1st one is least damaging, followed by 2 or 3  really damaging ones Landslides can happen underwater or from mountains Underwater landslides cause most of the tsunamis around Hawaii- also  called submarine tsunamis Volcanoes: Magma Chamber: where magma accumulates within the earth's crust  beneath the volcano in large pools Volcanic conduit (vent): channel through which magma travels to the  surface, connects the magma chamber to the surface Crater: semi-circular depression at the top of many volcanoes Eruption cloud and column: a cloud of super-heated ash and tephra  suspended in gases Volcanic materials from a column may rise many km into the air  above the vent of the volcano Pyroclastic flow: fast moving current of hot gas and volcanic matter  (collectively known as tephra) Lahar: avalanches of ash, soil, rock, and water that can occur days or even  months after an eruption 3 processes that can cause rock to melt: Increased material, Decreased  pressure as the rock rises, Addition of water (decreased melting 
temperature)
3 types of volcanism: subduction zone, hot-spot, mid-oceanic ridge Flood basalts: very large outpouring of lava due to hot spots Volatiles: chemical compounds that evaporate easily and exist in a gaseous  state at Earth's surface Types of Eruptions: Hawaiian eruption: calmest type due to fluid lavas with low  dissolved gas content Strombolian eruption: driven by the bursting of large gas bubbles  that form from the collection of many small ones Vulcanian eruption: large enough to generate shock waves, short,  violent, relatively small explosion of viscous magma, results from 
the fragmentation and explosion of a plug of
lava in a volcanic  conduit, or from the rupture of a lava dome Plinian eruption- largest eruption and most violent, sending  columns of pulverized rock and ash miles up into the atmosphere □ Low volume (coke) +low pressure (mentos) = Hawaiian
□ Low volume (coke) + High pressure (3 mentos) = Strombolian
□ High volume (large coke) + low pressure (3 mentos here) = 
Volcanian □ High volume (large coke) + High pressure (6 mentos) =  Plinian Volcanic ash: smaller than sand grains, Hard, abrasive, corrosive,  electrical conducting and do not dissolve in water Fissures: elongated cracks Effusive eruptions: eruption of volatile-poor basaltic magma, passive  outpouring of low-viscosity lave on Earth's surface Vog: volcanic smog, made of deadly concentrations of CO2 Precursors:  Earthquake frequency increases Harmonic tremors: continuous readings of seismic activity,  typically associated with underground movement of magma Gas release (sulfur or CO2) Rapid ground deformation (uplift or tilt) Surface temperature increase ○ Seismic tomography: x-ray of Earth's interior Study Guide for Exam 2 Wednesday, October 3, 2018 10:35 PM

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School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: Geoscience
Course: Geoscience
Professor: Ying Zhou
Term: Fall 2018
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Name: Study guide for Exam 2
Description: This study guide covers tsunamis and volcanoes
Uploaded: 10/05/2018
20 Pages 214 Views 171 Unlocks
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